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FOSTER'S COMPLETE 

HOYLE 

AN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GAMES 



3^ebi%eti anb Cnlargeb to 
0ttohtx, X9X4 



INCLUDING ALL INDOOR GAMES PLAYED TO-DAY. WITH 
SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD PLAY, ILLUSTRATIVE HANDS 

AND 

• ALL OFFICIAL LAWS TO DATE 
t ,r^BY 

m F. FOSTER 

u 
Author of "Royal Auction Bridge with Nullos" ^ 
"Cooncan" and many other books 
on card games 



ILLUSTRATED WITH NUMEROUS DIAGRAMS 
AND ENGRAVINGS 



NEW YORK 

FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY 

PUBLISHERS 



.fl7 



\a\-^ 



Copyright, 1914, by 
Frederick A. Stokes Company 

Copyright, 1909, by 
Frederick A. Stokes Company 

Copyright, 1897, by 
Frederick A. Stokes Company 



All Rights Reserved 




OCT 30 1914 T^ 
\ 

©aA388l71 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

A LIST OF TERMS 674 

Ace in the Pot, dice 617 

All Fours Family 324 

All Fives 329 

Auction Pitch 330 

BHnd All Fours 325 

California Jack 330 

Cinch 334 

Commercial Pitch 330 

Dom Pedro 334 

Double Pedro 334 

High Five 334 

Old Sledge 32S 

Pedro 333 

Pedro Sancho 333 

Sell-out 330 

Seven-up 325 

Shasta Sam 330 

Smudge 333 

Snoozer 334 

Ambigu 259 

American Billiard Laws... 627 
American Laws of Bridge. 48 
American Pyramid Pool.. 631 

American Skat 434 

Auction Binocle 407 

Auction Bridge xxv 

Cards Played in Error.xxxi 

Declarer's Play 22 

Discarding 21 

Ducking 25 

Dummy xxx 

Eleven Rule 13 

Encouraging Discards. 22 

Exposed Cards xxxi 

Finessing 24 

Fourth-hand Play 21 



PAGB 

Auction Bridge Continued. 
Illustrative Auction 

Hands 27 

Irregularities in De- 
claring xxix 

Irregularities in the 

Deal xxvii 

Leading High Cards.. 6 
Leading Out of Turn. xxxi 
Leading Second Round 9 
Leading Short Suits., 8 
Leading Small Cards. . 9 

Leading Trumps il 

Making the Trump.. xxvii 

No-trump Leads ir 

NuUo 26 

Scoring 26 

Suggestions for Bid- 
ding 26 

Suggestions for the 

Play 26 

Opening Leads 5 

Penalties i 

Playing against Dum- 
my 14 

Playing to the Score. 21 

Pone's Lead 11 

Rank of the Bids. . .xxviii 

Returning Suits 14 

Revoke xxx 

Scoring xxxii 

Second-hand Play 17 

Selecting the Suit to 

Lead 6 

Suggestions for Good 

Play 3 

Third-hand Play.... 12, 19 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Auction Cinch. 340 

Auction Euchre 279 

Auction Hearts 354 

Auction Pitch 330 

Authors 500 

Baccara 521 

Baccara Chemin de Fer 526 

Backgammon S90 

Opening Throws 595 

English Game 598 

American Game 599 

The Laws 601 

Russian Backgammon. 602 

Banking Games 516 

Bank-shot Billiards 626 

Base-ball with dice 617 

Baulk-line Billiards 625 

Bergen Game, dominoes.. 609 

Bezique Family 374 

Bezique 375 

Chinese Bezique 394 

Chouette Bezique 394 

Penchant 384 

Rubicon Bezique 386 

Cinq-Cents 383 

Four-handed 382 

Polish Bezique 382 

Three-handed 382 

Bid Euchre 287 

Bid Whist 687 

Bierspiel 319 

Billiards and Pool 620 

American Game .'. 624 

Amer. Pyramid Pool. 631 
Baulk-line Billiards ... 625 

Black Pool 642 

Books on Billiards 650 

Bottle Pool 649 

Chicago Pool 633 

Colour-ball Ppol 639 

Continuous Pool 632 

Cow-boy Pool 634 

Cushion Caroms 626 

English Billiards 643 

English Pool 639 

English Pyramid Pool 632 
English Billiard Laws. 644 



PACK 

Billiards and Pool Cont'd. 

Fifteen-ball Pool 629 

Forty-one Pool 633 

High-low-jack Game.. 633 
Laws of Billiards, 

American 627 

Little Corporal 648 

Pin Pool 647 

Shell Out Pool 632 

Snooker Pool 636 

Spanish Game of Bil- 
liards 649 

Binochle 395 

Melds 398 

Auction Binochle 407 

Gaigel 406 

Three-handed 405 

Four-handed 407 

Black Jack or Lady 356 

Black Pool, English 642 

Blind All Fours 325 

Blind Cinch 340 

Blind Euchre 278 

Blind Hookey 527 

Block Game, dominoes. .. . 600 

Bluff, poker 245 

Boodle 507 

Books on Billiards 650 

Boston 165 

Payments 171 

French Boston 179 

Russian Boston 183 

Boston de Fontaineble^u. . 174 

Bottle Pool 649 

Bouillotte 254 

Bowling Alley Laws 662 

Brag, poker 250 

Brelan 254 

Bridge xxv, 28 

Bridge Laws 41 

Bridge Tactics 28 

Doubling 32 

Illustrative Hand 34 

Making the Trump.. 28, 31 

Opening Leads 33 

Text Books 59 

Bridge, Varieties of 35 

Auction B ridge xxv 



CONTENTS. 



Vll 



PAGE 

Bridge, Varieties of, Cont'd. 

Bridge for Three 36 

Bridge for Two...... 36 

Double Dummy Bridge 39 

Draw Bridge 40 

Duplicate Auction 35 

Duplicate Bridge 38 

King's Bridge 40 

Misery Bridge 27 

Pivot Bridge 27 

Progressive Bridge... 38 

Reversi Bridge 40 

Short Bridge 40 

Six-hand Bridge 39 

Three-hand Auction.. 35 

Calabrasella 489 

California Jack 330 

Call-ace Euchre 287 

Canfield 693 

Cartomancie 513 

Cassino 478 

Spade Cassino 485 

21 Point Cassino 484 

Royal Cassino. 485 

Draw Cassino 485 

Catch the Ten 159 

Cayenne 138 

Centennial, dice 618 

Chance, and its Laws 651 

Concurrent Events. . . . 654 

Conflicting Events 654 

Dice Probabilities 655 

Distribution of Suits. 656 
Distribution of Trumps 656 

Doubling up Bets 657 

Luck 651 

Martingales 657 

Maturity of the 

Chances 652 

Playing Progression.. 658 
Poker Probabilities... 655 

Successive Events 652 

Whist Probabilities... 656 

Checkers 577 

The Openings 580 

The Four Positions.. 582 



PAGE 

Checkers Continued. 

Theory of the Move.. 584 
Illustrative Games .... 586 
Devil and Tailors..,. 587 

Checker Laws 588 

Losing Game 587 

Polish Draughts 587 

Chemin de f er 526 

Chess 546 

The Openings 557 

The Endings 567 

Games at Odds 565 

Knights' Tour 570 

American Laws 571 

Chicago Pool 633 

Chinese Bezique 394 

Chinese Fan Tan 528 

Chinese Whist 184 

Chouette Bezique 394 

Chuck Luck 540 

Cinch 334 

Auction Cinch 340 

Blind Cinch 340 

Progressive Cinch 340 

Sixty-three 340 

Widow Cinch 341 

Illustrative Hands 342 

Cinch Laws 344 

Razzle-Dazzle . . . . 340 

Cinq-Cents 383 

Colour-ball Pool 639 

Commerce 252 

Commercial Pitch 330 

Commit 503 

Compass Whist 113 

Continuou s Pool 632 

Conquian 486 

Cow-boy Pool 634 

Cushion Carroms 626 

Craps, dice 614 

Cribbage 442 

Five-card Cribbage . . 460 

Six-card Cribbage 444 

Seven-card Cribbage. . .462 

Solitaire Cribbage 700 

Three-hand Cribbage. 461 

Four-hand Cribbage.. 461 

Cut-throat Euchre 277 



vm 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Dice Games 6ii 

Ace in the Pot 617 

Base-Ball 616 

Centennial 618 

Chuck-Luck 540 

Crap Shooting 614 

Going to Boston 617 

Help Your Neighbour 619 

Law of Chances 613 

Multiplication 618 

Passe Dix 619 

Poker Dice 615 

Probabilities 655 

Raffles 613 

Round the Spot 618 

Sweat 540 

Ten Pins.... 616 

Throwing Dice 612 

Under and Over Seven 543 

Vingt-et-un 618 

Discard Hearts 356 

Distribution of Suits, 

Whist 657 

Distribution of Trumps, 

Whist 657 

Division Loo 319 

Doctrine of Chances 651 

Domino Hearts 357 

Dominoes 605 

All Fives 609 

All Threes 610 

Bergen Game 609 

Block Game 606 

Draw Game 608 

Domino Pool 609 

Matadore 608 

Muggins 609 

Sebastopol 609 

Dom Pedro 334 

Double Dummy Bridge 39 

Double Dummy Whist 130 

Double Pedro 334 

Doubling-up Bets 657 

Draughts 577 

Draw Bridge 47 

Draw Cassino 485 

Draw Game, dominoes... 608 
Draw Poker 208 



FAGB 

Drive Whist 687 

Dummy 127 

Duplicate Bridge 45 

Duplicate Whist 100 

Apparatus Necessary. , 102 
Club against Club.... 103 

Compass Whist 113 

Foster's Pair System. 115 
Gilman's Team System 109 
Howell Pair System.. 114 
Individual against In- 
dividual 114 

Laws of Duplicate 

Whist 119 

Married Couples Sys- 
tem 118 

Memory Duplicate.... no 

Pair against Pair no 

Safford's Systems 116 

Team against Team.. 105 
Dutch Bank 527 

Earl of Coventry 502 

Ecarte 293 

Jeu de regie 299 

Pool Ecarte 306 

Enfle 370 

English Billiards 643 

English Billiard Laws 644 

English Following Pool .... 639 

English Pyramid Pool 632 

English Whist Laws 196 

Euchre Family of Games. 263 

Euchre 264 

Auction Euchre 279 

Bid Euchre, or 500... 287 

Blind Euchre 278 

Call-ace Euchre 287 

Cut-Throat 277 

Five-handed 286 

French Euchre 279 

Jambone 283 

Jamboree 283 

Laps 283 

Laws of Euchre 288 

Military Euchre 281 

Penalty Euchre 279 

Progressive Euchr^... 280 



CONTENTS. 



IX 



PAGE 

Euchre Continued. 

Railroad Euchre 282 

Set-Back Euchre 278 

Seven-handed Euchre. 284 
Slams 283 

Fan Tan 528 

Fan Tan with Cards 509 

Farmer, or Ferme 520 

Faro 529 

Favourite Whist 99 

Fifteen-ball Pool 629 

Five-card Cribbage 460 

Five-card Loo 323 

Five-handed Euchre 286 

Five Hundred 287 

Five and Ten 316 

Five or Nine S09 

Flat Poker 229 

Following Pool 639 

Fortune Telling Si3 

Forty-five 316 

Forty-one Pool 633 

Four-ball Billiards 626 

Four-handed Cribbage 461 

" " Bezique 382 

" " Binocle 407 

" Sixty-six ... 413 

Four Jacks 369 

Freeze-out, poker 228 

French Boston 179 

French Carrom Game 624 

French Dummy 133 

French Euchre 279 

French Games : — 

Ambigu 259 

Baccara 521 

Bouillotte 254 

Cinq-Cents 383 

Ferme 520 

Humbug Whist 132 

Imperial 476 

Macao 520 

Mort 133 

Nain Jaune.._ 505 

Rouge et Noir 534 

Roulette 536 

Trente et Quarante.. 534 



PAGE 

French Games Continued. 

Vingt-et-un 517 

Frog 441 

Gaigel 406 

General Laws, Card Games 671 
German Games : — 

Binocle 395 

Kreutz Mariage 413 

Schwellen 370 

Sixty-six 408 

Skat 415 

Solo 493 

Go-bang 604 

Going to Boston, dice 617 

Halma 604 

Hazard, dice 540, 614 

Hearts: — 349 

Auction Hearts 354 

Black Jack 356 

Black Lady 356 

Discard Hearts 356 

Domino Hearts 357 

Heartsette 357 

Howell's Hearts 352 

Illustrative Hands 366 

Joker Hearts 355 

Laws of Hearts 371 

Progressive Hearts... 356 

Spot Hearts 355 

Sweepstake Hearts 352 

Three-handed Hearts. 354 

Two-handed 354 

Heart Solo 498 

Heartsette 357 

Help Your Neighbour, dice 619 

High Five 334 

High -low-jack 325 

" , " Pool 633 

Howell Pairs, Whist 114 

Howell's Hearts 352 

Humbug Whist 132 

I Doubt It 695 

Imperial 476 

Irish Loo 323 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Jack Pots, poker 223 

Jambone, euchre 283 

Jamboree, euchre 283 

Jass 696 

Two-hand Jass 697 

Jeu de Regie, e carte 299 

Jink Game, spoil five 315 

Joker Hearts 355 

Keno, or Lotto 539 

King's Bridge 40 

Klondike 512 

Kreutz Mariage 413 

Lansquenet 543 

Laps, euchre 283 

Law of Chances 651 

Laws of all Games 671 

Laws, Official Codes for: — 

Backgammon 601 

Billiards, American... 627 

Billiards, English 644 

Bowling, or Ten Pins. 662 

Bridge 41 

Chess 571 

Checkers 588 

Cinch 344 

Euchre 288 

Hearts 371 

Poker 238 

Skat 435 

Ten Pins, or Bowling 662 

Whist, American 186 

Whist, Duplicate 119 

Whist, English 196 

Laws of Probabilities 651 

Lift Smoke 502 

Little Corporal 648 

Loo, or Division Loo 319 

Five-card Loo 323 

Irish Loo 323 

Losing Game, draughts... 587 

Lotto 539 

Luck 651 

Macao 520 

Man-of-war Billiards 644 

Martingales 657 

Matadore, dominoes 608 



PAGB 

Matrimony 504 

Maturity of the Chances.. 652 

Memory Duplicate no 

Military Euchre 281 

Misery Bridge ^y 

Mistigris, poker 216 

Monte Bank 542 

Monte Carlo Betting Limit 658 

Morelles 604 

Mort ^ 133 

Muggins, dominoes 609 

Multiplication, dice 618 

My Bird Sings 253 

My Ship Sails 253 

Nain Jaune 505 

Napoleon 307 

National Games: — 414 

America, Cassino 478 

England, Cribbage 442 

Germany, Skat 415 

France, Piquet 463 

Italy, Calabrasella 489 

Mexico, Conquian 486 

Newmarket 507 

Nine Men's Morris 604 

Norwegian Whist 688 

Odd Games 497 

Old Maid 501 

Old Sledge 325 

Patience Games 510 

Patience Poker 698 

Pedro 333 

Peep Nap 312 

Penalty Euchre 279 

Penchant 384 

Pinochle 395 

Pin Pool 632 

Piquet 463 

Piquet Normand 473 

Piquet Voleur 473 

Piquet a Ecrire 474 

Rubicon Piquet 475 

Pitch 325 

Pivot Bridge 27 

Playing Progression 658 



CONTENTS. 



XI 



PAGE 

Pochen 508 

Poker Family of Games.. 207 

Poker 207 

Bluff 245 

Bluffing 237 

Cheating 229 

Draw Poker 208 

Eccentric Hands 215 

Flat Poker 229 

Freeze Out 228 

Going In 232 

Good Play 231 

How to Win 236 

Jack Pots 223 

Joker Poker 216 

Mistigris 216 

Odds against Hands.. 216 

Patience Poker 698 

Poker Gin 692 

Poker Rum 691 

Poker Laws 238 

Probabilities. .217, 233, 655 
Progressive Poker.... 248 

Rank of Hands 213 

Schnautz 248 

Show-down Poker.... 229 

Straight Poker 245 

Stud Poker 246 

Table Stakes 227 

Text-books 262 

Thirty-one 248 

Whiskey Poker 247 

Poker Dice 615 

Polignac 369 

Polish Bezique 382 

Polish Draughts 587 

Pool Games : — 

Amer. Pyramid Pool. 631 
Black Pool, English.. 642 

Bottle Pool 649 

Chicago Pool '.. 633 

Colour-ball Pool 639 

Continuous Pool 632 

Cow-boy Pool 634 

English Pyramid Pool 632 
Eng. Following Pool . . 639 

Fifteen-ball Pool 629 

Following Pool 639 



PAGE 

Pool Games Continued. 

Forty-one Pool 633 

High-low-jack Pool... 633 

Little Corporal 648 

Pin Pool 647 

Shell Out 632 

Spanish Pool 649 

Pool with Dominoes 609 

Pool Ecarte 306 

Pope Joan 505 

Preference 496 

Probabilities 651 

Progressive Bridge 38 

Progressive Cinch 340 

Progressive Euchre 280 

Progressive Hearts 356 

Progressive Poker 248 

Progressive Whist 119 

Prussian Whist 98 

Purchase Nap 311 

Pyramid Pool 031 

QuATRE Valets 369 

Quinze 521 

Raffles, dice 613 

Railroad Euchre 282 

Rams 317 

Ranter Go Round 508 

Razzle-Dazzle 340 

Reversi 603 

Reversi Bridge 40 

Rondeau 54i 

Rouge et Noir 534 

Roulette 536 

Rounce 319 

Round the Spot, dice 618 

Royal Cassino 485 

Rubicon Bezique 386 

Rubicon Piquet 475 

Rum 689 

Double-pack Rum 692 

Single-pack Rum 689 

Poker Gin 692 

Poker Rum 691 

Russian Backgammon 602 

Russian Boston 183 



Xll 



CONTENTS. 



Sancho Pedro 333 

Saratoga 507 

Scat, see Skat 41S 

Schnautz 248 

Schwellen 370 

Scotch Whist 159 

Sebastopol, dominoes 609 

Sell Out 330 

Set-back Euchre 278 

Seven-handed Euchre 284 

Seven-card Cribbage 462 

Seven-up 325 

Shasta Sam 330 

Shell-out Pool 632 

Shooting Craps 614 

Short Bridge 47 

Show-down Poker 229 

Shuffle Board 619 

Six-card Cribbage 444 

Six-hand Bridge 39 

Sixty-four Card Binocle . . 375 

Sixty-three, cinch 340 

Sixty-six 408 

Four-handed 413 

Kreutz Mariage 413 

Three-handed 413 

Skat 41S, 434 

Game Values 421 

Scoring^ 427 

Illustrative Hands 432 

Skat Laws 435 

Slams, euchre 283 

Slobberhannes 368 

Smudge 333 

Snip-snap-snorem 502 

Snooker Pool 649 

Snoozer 334 

Solitaires 510, 693, 698, 700 

Solo 498 

Three-handed Solo . . . 499 

Solo Whist. 144 

Spade Cassino 485 

Spanish Monte 542 

Spanish Pool 649 

Speculation 501 

Spin _. 507 

Spoil Five 312 

Spot Hearts 355 



Stops 507 

Straight Poker 245 

Stud Poker 246 

Sweat, dice 540 

Sweepstake Hearts 352 

Table Games 544 

Table Stakes, poker 227 

Technical Terms 674 

Telling Fortunes 5^3 

Ten Pins, or Bowling 660 

American Ten Pins.., 662 

Battle Game 665 

Cocked Hat 664 

Cocked Hat & Feather 665 

"Don'ts" for Players. 669 

Duck Pin Game 669 

Five Back 668 

Four Back 667 

Head Pin; four back. 666 

Head Pin Out 667 

Kinsley Candle Pin... 669 

Newport Game 668 

Nine Up and Nine 

Down 666 

Ten Pins with Dice 616 

Three-card Monte 542 

Thirty-one, poker 248 

Three-cushion Carroms... 626 

Three-handed Auction 35 

" " Bezique . . . 382 

" " Bridge 36 

" " Cribbage .. 461 

Hearts .... 354 

" " Binocle 405 

" _ " Sixty-six . . 413 

Throwing Dice 612 

Trente et Quarante 534 

Tric-trac 590 

Twenty-one Point Cassino 484 

Two-handed Bridge 36 

Hearts 354 

Under and over Seven . . . 543 

Varieties of Bridge 42 

Vingt-et-un 517 

Vingt-et-un with Dice 518 

Vint 493 



CONTENTS. 



Xlll 



PAGE 

Whiskey Poker 247 

Whist Family of Games, xvii 

Whist 60 

American Laws 186 

Auction Bridge xxv 

Bridge xxv, 28 

Bid Whist 687 

Cayenne Whist 138 

Chinese Whist 184 

Double Dummy 130 

Dummy 127 

Dummy Laws 206 

Drive Whist,. 687 

Duplicate Whist 100 

English Laws 196 

Favourite Whist 99 

French Whist 164 

German Whist 183 

Humbug Whist 131 

Memory Duplicate..,, no 

Mort 133 

Norwegian Whist 688 

Probabilities 656 

Progressive Whist 119 

Prussian Whist 98 

Scotch Whist 159 

Solo Whist 144 

Text Books 99 

Thirteen and the Odd 132 
Whist Family Laws.. 186 

Whist Tactics 70 

Albany Lead 86 

American Game 94 

American Laws 186 

American Leads 88 

Conventional Plays ... 70 
Deschapelles Coups... 91 

Discarding 80 

Discard Signals 90 

Echo in Plain Suits.. 90 

Echo in Trumps 86 

Eleven Rule 79 

False Cards 92 

Finessing 92 



PAGE 

Whist Tactics Continued. 

Forcing 80 

Four-signal 86 

Fourth-hand Play 84 

General Directions 60 

General Principles 68 

High-card Leads 72 

How to Study 70 

Illustrative Hands.... 97 

Inferences 93 

Inviting a Ruff 88 

Leader's Partner 78 

Leading Plain Suits.. 72 

Leading Short Suits.. 91 

Leading Trumps 71 

Low Card Leads 74 

Low's Signal 90 

Methods of Cheating. 67 

Method of Playing... 61 

Minneapolis Lead 89 

Partner's Duties 78 

Placing the Lead 92 

Plain-suit Echo 90 

Playing to the Score. 92 

Return'g Partn's Suits 80 

Scoring 64 

Second-hand Play 81 

Short-suit Game 91-94 

Short-suit Leads 74-61 

Signal Game 85 

Stacking Tricks 63 

Suggestions for Good 

Play 67 

Tenace Positions 91 

Third Hand Play.... 78 

Trump Signals 85 

Unblocking 90 

Underplay 91 

Using the Markers... 66 

Works on Whist 99 

Widow Binocle 408 

Widow Cinch 341 

Yerlash, see Vint 493 



INTRODUCTION. 



The word "Hoyle" has gradually come to stand as an abbrevia- 
tion for an "Encyclopedia of Indoor Games." The common 
expression, "played according to Hoyle," usually means "cor- 
rectly played," or "played according to the standard authorities." 
The original Edmund Hoyle wrote on very few games, but his 
work was the first attempt to put together the rules for the 
most popular indoor games in one volume. Although Hoyle died 
more than a hundred years ago, his work has been constantly 
added to as new games came into vogue, which has led many 
to believe that he is the authority for games that he never heard 
of, such as pinochle and poker. 

Persons who have never given the subject much attention 
may be surprised to learn how little authority there is for the 
rules governing the majority of our popular games. If we 
except the table games, such as chess, checkers, billiards, back- 
gammon and ten pins, and such card games as whist, bridge, 
auction, and skat, all of which are regulated by well-defined 
codes of laws, agreed upon by associations of prominent clubs, 
to govern championship contests, etc., we have very few games 
left which are not played in different ways in various localities. 

This is undoubtedly because such games are learnt at the card 
table and not from books. A person who is shown a new game 
cannot remember all its details, some of which may not have 
been explained to him even. If he tries to teach it to others 
while his knowledge is in this imperfect state, he will naturally 
invent rules of his own to cover the points he has forgotten, 
or has never learnt, usually borrowing ideas from games with 
which he is more familiar. 

The pupils of such a teacher pass on to others the game 
thus imperfectly learnt, and in a short time we have a number 
of corruptions creeping in, and the astonishing part of it is the 



xvi INTRODUCTION. 

insistence with which some persons will maintain that they 
alone have the right idea of the rules, just because so-and-so 
showed them the game, or because they and their immediate 
friends have "always played it that way." 

This does not alter the fact that the fundamental principles 
of every game are known and can be readily found if one knows 
where to look for them. The author is in possession of several 
hundred works in various languages — English, French, German 
and Italian — on nothing but indoor games, comprising probably 
everything ever printed on the subject that is worth preserving. 

By tracing the history of a game and its development through 
the various books in which it is described, the game will always 
be found to belong to some distinct family, which has certain 
well-defined traits which must be preserved, no matter how much 
they may be altered in minor details. All games follow certain 
general principles, and the surest mark of error in the local 
rules of any game is inconsistency. 

Pinochle is a striking example of this. In many places the 
players will not allow the same cards to be counted twice in 
the trump sequence, so as to meld 190; but they will count 
them twice in four kings and queens. They insist on the rule 
of at least one fresh card from the hand for each additional 
meld in one case, but totally disregard it in another, as when 
they meld 240 for the round trip, instead of only 220. 

These local errors have crept into many of the Hoyles now 
upon the market, the works having probably been compiled from 
the individual knowledge of the author, limited by his experi- 
ence in a certain locality. Many of these works devote much 
space to a certain game, which is evidently the compiler's pet, 
and which is accurately described; while other and equally im- 
portant games are full of errors and omissions, betraying a 
lamentable want of care in consulting the literature of the 
subject. 

While the author of this work does not believe it possible 
to compile a work that shall be universally accepted as the 
authority on all games, as a dictionary would be on spelling, he 
deems it at least possible to select what seems the most common 
usage, or the best rule, preserving the true spirit of the game, 
and to describe it accurately and bring the whole up to date. 



THE WHIST FAMILY, 



The most popular card games of the present day undoubtedly 
belong to the whist family, which embraces all those played with 
a full, pack of fifty-two cards, ranking from the ace to the deuce, 
one suit being trumps, and the score being counted by tricks and 
honours, or by tricks alone. 

The oldest and most important of the group is whist itself 
The game appears to be of English origin, its immediate parent 
being " ruff and honours." This was an old English game in 
which twelve cards only were dealt to each player, the uppermost 
of the remaining four being turned up for the trump suit. Who- 
ever held the ace of trumps could " ruff " or take in these four 
cards, discarding in their place any four he chose. As the game 
developed into whisk, or whist, this ruffing feature disappeared. 
There was no stock, the four deuces being discarded from the 
pack instead. Twelve cards were dealt to each player, and the 
last was turned up for the trump. 

About 1680 a variation of the game known as "swabbers'* 
came into vogue. The swabbers were the heart ace, club jack, 
and the ace and deuce of trumps. The players to whom these 
cards were dealt were entitled to a certain share of the stakes or 
payments, independent of the play for tricks and honours. This 
variety of the game did not long remain in favor, but gave way to 
make room for one of the most important changes, the restoration 
of the deuces to the pack, which introduced the feature of the 



xviii THE WHIST FAMILY. 

odd trick. This took place early in the last century, and seems to 
have so much improved the game that attention was soon drawn 
to its possibilities for scientific treatment. 

About this time whist was taken up by a set of gentlemen who 
met at the Crown Coffee House in Bedford Row, London ; chief 
among whom was Sir Jacob de Bouverie, Viscount Folkestone. 
After considerable experiment and practice this little whist school 
laid down the principles of the game as being ; " to play from the 
strong suit ; to study the partner's hand ; never to force partner 
unnecessarily, and to attend to the score." It is generally be- 
lieved that Edmond Hoyle was familiar with the proceedings of 
this set, and on their experiences based his celebrated " Short 
Treatise on the Game of Whist," which was entered at Stationers' 
Hall in London Nov. 17, 1742. 

The only works previous to Hoyle touching upon whist were the 
" Compleat Gamester '' of Cotton, which first appeared in 1674, and 
the " Court Gamester," of Richard Seymour, 1719. One of Hoyle's 
great points was his calculation of the probabilities at various 
stages of the rubber. This seems to have been looked upon as 
most important in guiding persons in their play, for we find that 
Abraham de Moivre, a famous mathematician, used to frequent 
the coffee houses, and for a small fee give decisions on questions 
of the odds at whist. 

Bath seems to have been the great rallying-point for the whist- 
players of the last century ; but the passion for the game soon 
spread all over Europe. In 1767 Benjamin Franklin went to 
Paris, and it is generally believed that he introduced the American 
variety of the game known as Boston, which became the rage in 
Paris some time after the war of independence. 

So popular did whist become in Italy that we find the boxes at 
the opera in Florence provided with card tables in 1790. The 
music of the opera was considered of value chiefly as, " increasing 
the joy of good fortune, and soothing the affliction of bad." 

A code of laws was drawn up about 1760 by the frequenters of 
White's and Saunders' in London. These seem to have remained 
the standard until " Caslebs " published, in 185 1, the code in use 
at the Portland Club. In 1863 John Loraine Baldwin got 
together a committee at the Arlington, now the Turf Club, and 



THE WHIST FAMILY. xix 

they drew up the code which is still in use all over the world for 
English whist. In the United States, laws better suited to the 
American style of play were drawn up by the American "Whist 
League in 1891, and after several revisions were finally adopted, 
in 1893, as the official code for League clubs. 

The literature of whist saw its palmiest days at the beginning 
of this century. 7,000 copies of Bob Short's " Short Rules for 
Whist " were sold in less than a year. Mathews', or Matthews', 
" Advice to the Young Whist-Player," went through eighteen 
editions between 1804 and 1828. After these writers came 
Admiral Burney, who published his "Treatise" in 1821 ; Major 
A. [Charles Barwell Coles,] gave us his " Short Whist" in 1835. 
Deschapelles published his " Trait6 du Whiste " in 1839, but it 
gave little but discussions on the laws. " Whist, its History and 
Practice" by Amateur, appeared in 1843. General de Vautr6's 
"Genie du Whiste," in 1847. " Cselebs " [Edward Augustus 
Carlyon] wrote his " Laws and Practice "in 1851. Then in rapid 
succession came "Cavendish" in 1863, James Clay in 1864, Pole 
and " Cam " in 1865. Campbell- Walker's ' Correct Card " in 
1876 ; Drayson's " Art of Practical Whist," with its new theories 
of trumps ; Fisher Ames, " Modern Whist," in 1879 ; " Whist, or 
Bumblepuppy ? '' by " Pembridge" [John Petch Hewby], in 1880 ; 
G. W. P. [Pettes], in 1881 ; Proctor's " How to Play Whist," in 
1885 ; and the " Handbook of Whist," by " Major Tenace," 1885. 
Then began the long list of American authors (Pettes has already 
been mentioned) : " Foster's Whist Manual," by R. F. Foster, ap- 
peared in 1890 ; " Practical Guide to Whist," by Fisher Ames, in 
1891 ; Hamilton's " Modern Scientific Whist," in 1894, and in the 
same year. Coffin's " Gist of Whist," and " Foster's Whist 
Strategy." In 1895, Milton C. Work's "Whist of To-day," and 
*' Foster's Whist Tactics," giving the play in the first match by 
correspondence; and in 1896, Val Starnes' "Short-suit Whist," 
and Howell's " Whist Openings." In 1897, Mitchell's " Duplicate 
Whist." In 1898, Foster's " Common Sense in Whist," and in 
1900, Fisher Ames' " Standard Whist." Since then whist Utera- 
ture has given place to bridge. 

In periodical literature we find whist taken up in the pages of 
the " Sporting Magazine " in 1793. The London " Field " has had 



XX TEE WHIST FAMILY. 

a card column since December 6, 1862. Proctor's work first ap- 
peared in " Knowledge." The " Westminster Papers " devoted a 
great deal of space to whist games and " jottings " every month 
for eleven years, beginning in April, 1868. " Whist," a monthly 
journal devoted exclusively to the game, began publication in Mil- 
waukee in 1 891 ; but gave it up when bridge supplanted whist in 
popular favor. 

Whist rapidly became a "newspaper game." The New York 
Sunday Sun devoted two columns every Sunday to the discussion 
and illustration of moot points in whist tactics, and the analysis of 
hands played in important matches. In a series of articles begun 
February 23, 1896, this paper gave to the world the first systematic 
statement of the theory and practice of the short suit game. In 
1898 there were at least forty whist columns published in the United 
States. Two magazines devoted to whist and bridge are now pub- 
lished, one in Boston and the other in New York. 

While the parent game has been pursuing this prosperous 
course, many variations have been introduced. One of the most 
radical changes in the game itself has been cutting down the 
points from ten to five, which occurred about 18 10. Mathews 
mentions it in 1813 as having occurred since the publication of his 
first edition in 1804, and Lord Peterborough, the unlucky gambler, 
for whose benefit the change was introduced, died in 1814. 
Another great change took place in America, where they played 
for the tricks alone, the honours not being counted at all. Turning 
the trump from the still pack was first tried by a Welsh baronet, 
and is mentioned by Southey in his " Letters of Espriella." This 
custom was revived for a time by the Milwaukee Whist Club, and 
is still sometimes seen in Europe under the name of " Prussian 
Whist." 

Altogether we can trace nineteen games which are clearly 
derived from whist. Duplicate, Drive, and Progressive whist are 
simply changes in the arrangement of the players and in the 
methods of scoring. Prussian whist introduces the cutting of the 
trump from the still pack. Dummy and Double-dummy are simply 
whist with a limited number of players, necessitating the exposure 
of one or more hands upon the table. The French game of Mort 
is dummy with a better system of scoring introduced. Favourite 



THE WHIST FAMILY. xxi 

Whist simply changes the value of the tricks in scoring, according 
to the trump suit. Cayenne and Bridge introduce the first changes 
of importance. In Cayenne, the dealer and his partner have the 
privilege of changing the trump from the suit turned up ; in 
Bridge they name the trump suit without any turn-up, and play 
the hands as at dummy. In Boston, and Boston de Fontainebleau, 
in addition to making the trump suit instead of turning it up, 
further departures are introduced by naming the number of tricks 
to be played for, allowing the player to take all or none without 
any trump suit, and by ' spreading ' certain hands, without allow- 
ing the adversaries to call the exposed cards. French and 
Russian Boston are simply varieties of Boston. Solo Whist is an 
attempt to simplify Boston by reducing the number of proposals 
and the complications of payments, and eliminating the feature of 
' spreads.' Scotch Whist introduces a special object in addition 
to winning tricks — catching the ten of trumps ; that card and the 
honours having particular values attached to them. This variety of 
whist may be played by any number of persons from two to eight; 
and its peculiarity is that when a small number play, each has 
several distinct hands, which must be played in regular order, as 
if held by different players. Humbug Whist is a variety of double- 
dummy, in which the players may exchange their hands for those 
dealt to the dummies, and the dealer may sometimes make the 
^rump to suit himself. German Whist is played by two persons, 
;nd introduces the element of replenishing the hand after each 
irick by drawing cards from the remainder of the pack until the 
stock is exhausted. Chinese Whist is double-dummy for two, 
three, or four persons, only half of each player's cards being 
exposed, the others being turned up as the exposed cards are got 
rid of in the course of play. 

All these varieties have been entirely supplanted and over- 
shadowed by bridge. When they play whist at all, the English 
think there is nothing better than the original whist, counting 
honours, and playing to the score. The Americans think Duplicate 
superior to all other forms, especially when two tables are en- 
gaged, and four players are opposed by four others for a specified 
number of deals. We are inclined to agree with Clay that the 
French game of Mort is " charming and highly scientific." He 
says English dummy is a " very slow game." 



xxu THE WHIST FAMILY. 

Whether it is because the game has been found ' slow,' or 
because its more attractive forms are little known, it is certainly 
true that writers on whist pay little or no attention to dummy. 
The English authors mention it only in connection with laws and 
decisions. No American text-bonk makes any allusion to the 
game, and there is no reference to it in the American Whist 
League's code of laws. 

In the first edition of this work, written in 1895, the author 
ventured to prophesy that the day was not far distant when dummy 
would supersede all other varieties of whist among the most exjiert 
players ; either in the form of the charming Mort or the fascinating 
Bridge. Very few persons who have played either of these games 
sufficiently to appreciate their beauties care to return to the platitudes 
of straight whist. 

At that time, bridge was unknown in America except to the 
members of The Whist Club of New York and their friends. In 
the short space of ten years it has become the card game of the 
world ; but in spite of its present popularity it has its defects, and 
it would not be surprising to see its place usurped by another 
game, not a member of the whist family, which has been steadily 
gaining ground among those who have the intellectual capacity for 
card games of the highest class, and that is skat. 

The first text-book on bridge was a little leaflet printed in Eng- 
land in 1886, which gave the rules for "Biritch, or Russian Whist." 
" Boax " came out with a little " Pocket Guide " in 1894, followed 
by " The Laws of Bridge " in 1895. The Whist Club of N. Y. 
published the American laws of bridge in 1897, and " Badsworth " 
came out with the English laws in 1898. In the following year, 
1899, Archibald Dunn, Jr., gave us "Bridge and How to Play It," 
and John Doe published " Bridge Conventions," A. G. Hulme- 
Beaman's " Bridge for Beginners " appearing in the same year. 
In 1900, " Foster's Bridge Manual" appeared in America, reprinted 
in England under the title of " Foster on Bridge." 

In the years following, text-books on bridge came from the press 
by the dozen, the most notable authors being Dalton and " Helles- 
pont" in 1901 ; Elwell and Robertson in 1902; Street and Lister 
in 1903. Many of the writers already mentioned published later 
and more complete works, embodying the results of time and 



THE WHIST FA3fIL Y. xxiii 

experience. Foster's Self-playing Bridge Cards were bi ought out 
in 1903. Elwell's "Advanced Bridge'' appeared in 1904 and 
Foster's " Complete Bridge " in 1905. 

While bridge has never been such a popular " newspaper game " 
as whist was in America, it has been much more so in England. 
Articles on bridge, for beginners chiefly, were published in 1905 
and 1906 by the San Francisco Call, Pittsburgh Post Despatch, 
Cincinnati Commercial Tribune, Chicago Journal, St. Paul De- 
spatch, Milwaukee Journal, Baltimore American, Houston Post, 
IndianapoHs Star, and the N. Y. Globe. These were all edited 
by R. F. Foster. 

Bridge Tournaments, offering prizes for the best play of certain 
hands were run by the N. Y. Evening Telegram, the N. Y. Globe, 
the N. Y. Evening Mail, and the Chicago Journal. A number of 
the weekly magazines offer similar competitions in England, but as 
a rule the problems in that country are of very poor quality. 

About 1910 it became the fashion not to play spades, it being 
considered a waste of time to play a hand for such a small amount 
as 2 points a trick, so the dealer was allowed to score 2 for the odd 
and 4 for honours, regardless of how the cards were distributed, 
the hand being abandoned. The objection to this practice was 
that many hands were worth much more than 2 points, and in 
some cases the spade make would have gone game at the score. 
This led to the practice of playing "royal spades," which were 
played at 10 and then at 9 a trick, sometimes with a penalty of 20 
if the declarer failed to make the* odd. 

Shortly after this, later in 1910, there developed a decided re- 
bellion against the dealer's monopoly of the make, and in order 
to allow any player at the table who held good cards to get the 
benefit of them, whether he was the dealer or not, bidding for the 
privilege of making the trump came into vogue. This was the 
starting point of auction, its chief difference from the older 
game being that only the side that made the highest bid for the 
declaration could score toward game. The full number of tricks 
bid had to be made, and if they were not made, the adversaries 
scored in the honour column for penalties, the penalty being al- 
ways the same, regardless of the trump suit. 

The great disparity in the values of the suits as then played 



xxiv THE WHIST FAMILY. 

practically confined the bidding to the hearts and royal spades. 
This soon brought about another change, which was to 
raise the valuej of all the suits except spades and to cut down 
the no-trumper. This was done in 1912, and made it possible 
for any suit to go game on the hand. All the well known writers 
on whist and bridge came out with text-books on auction, and 
the newspapers took up the subject in weekly articles. 

Although to many the game now seemed perfect, there were 
those that felt the helplessness of weak hands to offer any 
defence in the bidding against a run of no-trumpers or hearts 
and royals. To remedy this, F. C. Thwaites of the Milwaukee 
Whist Club suggested the introduction of the nuUo. This was 
a bid to lose tricks, at no trump only, and its value was to be 
minus 10, that is, it was to be outranked only by a no-trumper 
to win. At first, this bid was largely used simply as an addi- 
tional game-going declaration, and was strongly objected to by 
many leading players. But as its true place as a defensive bid 
became better understood it soon came into favour. In the nullo 
there are no honours, and the declarer scores the tricks over the 
book made by his opponents, which he forces them to take. 
Many interesting card problems have been built upon the nullo. 

Toward the end of 1913 still another change seems to have 
suggested itself to some of the English players who were familiar 
with the Russian game of vint, and that is to play auction just 
as it is played up to the point of the lead to the first trick, but 
that no dummy is exposed, the four players holding up their 
cards and following suit just as they would at whist. Whether 
or not this game will ever become as popular as the combination 
of dealer and dummy, it is difficult to say, but appearances are 
against it. 

There seems to be a growing tendency in America to adopt 
the English rule of cutting out the spade suit at 2 a trick, and 
making it always a royal spade, worth 9. The dealer is allowed 
to pass without making a bid, the lowest call being one club. 
If all pass, the deal goes to the left. 



BRIDGE. 



There are two principal varieties of this game ; straight bridge, 
in which the dealer or his partner must make the trump, their 
opponents having nothing to say about it except to double the 
value of the tricks. The dealer's partner is always the dummy, 
and either side may score toward game by making the odd trick 
or more. Auction bridge, in which the privilege of making the 
trump is bid for, the highest bidder playing the hand with his 
partner as dummy, regardless of the position of the deal, and 
his side being the only one that can score toward game, the 
adversaries scoring nothing but penalties in the honour column 
if they defeat the contract. 

As this is the more popular form of bridge at the present 
time, it will be given first. Since the adoption of the higher 
value for the spade suit under the name of royal spades, and 
the change in the value of the suits, the game gradually came to 
be known as royal auction, but as that change is now universal, 
the name has slipped back to its original title. 



AUCTION BRIDGE. 

OR AUCTION. 

CARDS. Auction is played with a full pack of fifty-two 
cards, ranking A K Q J lo 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2, the Ace being the 
highest in play, but ranking below the deuce in cutting. Two 
packs should be used, the one being shuffled while the other is 
dealt. 



xxvi (Bridge.) POSITION OF PLAYERS. 

MARKERS suitable for scoring the various points made at 
Bridge have not yet been invented. Some persons use the bezique 
marker ; but it is not a success. The score is usually kept on a 
sheet of paper, and it should be put down by each side, for pur- 
poses of verification. 

PLAYERS. Auction is plaj'ed by four persons, and the table 
is complete with that number. When there are more than four 
candidates for play, the selection of the four is made by cutting. 
These cut again for partners, and the choice of seats and cards. 

CUTTING, The usual method of cutting for partners, etc., 
at auction, is to shuffle the cards thoroughly, and "spread" them 
face downwards on the table ; each candidate drawing a card, and 
turning it face upwards in front of him. The four cutting the 
lowest cards playing the first game, or rubber. 




SPREADING THE PACK. 



The four having been selected, the cards are again shuffled and 
spread, and partners are cut for ; the two lowest pairing against 
the two highest; the lowest of the four is the dealer, and has the 
choice of cards and seats. 

TIES. As between cards of equal value in cutting, the heart 
is the lowest, diamonds next, then clubs and then spades. 

POSITION OF THE PLAYERS. The four players at 
the bridge table are indicated by letters; A and B are partners 
against Y and Z ; Z always represents the dealer, who always 
makes the first bid, A being the second bidder, Y the *hird and B 
the fourth. 




MAKING TUB TRUMP. (Bridge.) xxvii 

DEALING. The cards having been properly shuffled the 
dealer, Z, presents them to the pone, B, to be cut. At least four 
cards must be left in each packet. Beginning at his left, the dealer 
distributes the cards one at a time in rotation until the pack is 
exhausted. When two packs are used, the dealer's partner shuf- 
fles one while the other is dealt, and the deal passes in regular 
rotation to the left until the rubber is finished. 



IBBEG ULABITIES IW THE DEAL. If any card is 

found faced in the pack, or if the pack is incorrect or imperfect, 
the dealer must deal again. If any card is found faced in the 
pack, or is exposed in any manner ; or if more than thirteen cards 
are dealt to any player, or if the last card does not come in its 
regular order to the dealer, or if the' pack has not been cut, there 
must be a new deal. Attention must be called to a deal out of 
turn, or with the wrong cards, before the last card is dealt, or 
the deal stands. 

There are no misdeals in auction. That is to say, whatever 
happens the same dealer deals again. Minor irregularities will be 
found provided for in the laws. 

The cards being dealt, each player sorts his hand to see that he 
has the correct number, thirteen ; and the player or players keep- 
ing the score should announce it at the beginning of each hand. 

STAKES. In auction, the stake is a unit, so much a point. 
The number of points won or lost on the rubber may be only two 
or three, or they may run into the hundreds. The average value 
of a rubber at auction is about 400 points. Any much larger 
figure shows bad bidding. In straight bridge the average is 
about 180. In settling at the end of the rubber, it is usual for 
each losing player to pay his right-hand adversary. 

MAKING THE TRU3IP. In auction, the dealer begins 
by naming any one of the four suits, or no trumps, for any num- 
ber of tricks he pleases. Each player in turn to the left then has 
the privilege of passing, bidding higher, or doubling. When three 
players pass a bid, it is the highest made and is known as the 
Winning Declaration or Contract. 

In order to understand the principles that govern the players 
in their declarations, one should be thoroughly familiar with the 
values attached to the tricks when certain suits are trumps. The 
first six tricks taken by the side that has made the winning 
declaration do not count. This is the "book," but all over the 
book count toward making good on the contract, according to 
the following table: 



xxviii (Bridge.) BANK OP BIDS. 

When Spades are trumps, each trick counts 2 points. 

" Clubs " " " " " 6 

" Diamonds " " " " " 7 " 

" Hearts " " " " " 8 " 

" Royal Spades " " " " " 9 " 

" there are no trumps, " " " 10 " 

The game is 30 points, which must be made by tricks alone, so 
that three over the book, called three "by cards," will go game 
from love at no trump, or four by cards at hearts or royals. 
These are called the Major or tVinning Suits. As it takes 
five by cards to go game in clubs or diamonds, and on account 
of the difficulty of such an undertaking, these are called the 
Minor or Losing Suits. An original bid of one spade can 
be made only by the dealer, and it simply means, "I pass." That 
is, the dealer has nothing to declare on the first round of the bid- 
ding. [See note at foot of page 58.] 

MANK OF THE BIDS. In order to overcall a pre- 
vious bid, whether of the partner or the opponent, the bidder must 
undertake to win the same number of tricks in a suit of higher 
value, or a greater number of tricks having the same aggregate 
value as the preceding bid. Players should restrict themselves to 
the same form of expression throughout, and all bids, ev.n pass- 
ing, must be made orally and not by gesture. 

Let us suppose this to be the bidding : The dealer, Z, 
begins with "One spade," second player. A, says, "I pass," or 
simply, "No." Third bidder, Y, says, "One club," fourth player, 
B, "No trump." The dealer, starting on the second round, 
says, "Two clubs," supporting his partner's declaration. Next 
player. A, who passed the first time, says, "Two royals." Both 
Y and B pass, but the dealer, Z, says, "Three clubs." Observe that 
while three clubs is worth no more than two royals, 18, the club 
bid offers to win more tricks than the royals and therefore ranks 
as a higher bid. A doubles three clubs. Y passes and B says, 
"Two no trumps." As will be explained presently, doubling does 
not affect the value of the declaration in bidding, so two no 
trumps, worth 20, overcalls three clubs. Z, A and Y all pass, so 
two no trumps becomes the winning declaration and B is the 
declarer, A being the dummy, with Z to lead for the first trick. 

In this example, had the bid been left at three clubs, doubled 
or not, that would have been the winning declaration, and the 
partner who first named that suit, Y, would be the declarer, Z 
being the dummy, although Z actually made the highest bid. It 
is only when the two players that have both named the winning 
suit are not partners that the higher bidder becomes the declarer. 



IRREGULARITIES. (Bridge.) xxix 

DOUBZ/INO. No player may double his partner, but he 
may redouble an opponent who has doubled. All doubling must 
be strictly in turn, like any other bid. Doubling does not affect 
the value of the bids, but simply doubles the value of the tricks 
or penalties when thev are scored at the end of the hand. Sup- 
pose A bids two royals and Y doubles. B can take A out with 
three clubs, because, so far as the bidding goes, two royals are 
still worth only i8. 

Any overcall annuls the double, or redouble. Suppose A says 
two hearts, Y doubles, B redoubles, and Z says two royals. The 
doubling is all knocked out, and if A were to go three hearts 
and get the contract, hearts would be worth only 8 a trick in the 
scoring unless Y doubled all over again. A double reopens the 
bidding, just the same as any other declaration, allowing the 
player's partner, or the player himself in his turn, to take him- 
self out of the double by bidding something else. 

IBBEGJILABITIES IN DECLARING. If any 

player declares out of turn, either in bidding a suit or in doubling, 
either opponent may demand a new deal, or may allow the decla- 
ration so made to stand, in which case the next player to the 
left must bid, just as if the declaration had been in turn. If a 
player pass out of turn there is no penalty, and the player 
whose turn it was must declare himself. The player who 
has passed out of his proper turn may reenter the bidding if the 
declaration he passed has been overcalled or doubled. 

If a player makes an insufficient or impossible declaration, 
either adversary may call attention to it. Suppose the last bid 
is three royals, and the next player says four clubs. This is not 
enough, as three royals is worth 27 and four clubs only 24. Un- 
less the player in error correct himself at once, and make it five 
clubs, either adversary may demand that it be five clubs, and 
the partner of the corrected player cannot bid unless this five-club 
bid is overcalled or doubled. A player correcting himself must 
stick to the suit named, not being allowed to say four diamonds 
when he sees that four clubs is not enough. 

If an insufficient declaration is passed or overcalled by the 
player on the left, it is too late to demand any penalty, and the 
insufficient bid stands as regular. Suppose A bids three royals 
and Y says four clubs, B and Z passing. A can repeat his bid 
of three royals if he likes, as that is enough to overcall four 
clubs. 

If a player makes an impossible declaration, such as calling six 
diamonds over five no trumps, when it is clearly impossible to 
make any diamond declaration worth 50, either adversary may 
demand a new deal, or may insist that the last bid made by his 
own side, five no trumps, shall be the winning declaration, or he 



XXX (Bridge.) DUMMY. 

may force the player in error to declare a grand slam in diamonds 
and play it, his partner beinj? forbidden to take him out. 

METHOD OF PLATING. The winning declaration 
settled, whether doubled or not, the player on the left of the de- 
clarer leads for the first trick, and dummy's cards go down, the 
declarer playing the combined hands. The declarer gathers the 
tricks for his side, but either adversary may gather for the other. 
The first six tricks taken by the declarer make a book, and all over 
the book count toward his contract. The adversaries have a 
book as soon as they reach the limit of the tricks they may 
win without "setting" the contract. If the contract is four hearts, 
the declarer must win ten tricks, so that his opponents have a 
book when they get home three tricks. AH tricks should be laid 
so that they may be readily counted by any player at the table. 

DUMMY. Until a card is led by the proper player, the de- 
clarer's partner has all the rights of any other player, but as soon 
as the player to the left of the declarer leads and dummy's cards 
are laid on the table, dummy's duties and rights are restricted to 
the following: 

He may call attention to few cards played to a trick; correct 
an improper claim of either adversary; call attention to a trick 
taken by the wrong side; ask his partner if he have none of a 
suit to which he renounces; correct an erroneous score; consult 
with the declarer as to which penalty to exact for a revoke; 
and, if he has not intentionally overlooked the hand of another 
player, he may call his partner's attention to an established 
revoke made by the adversaries, or to a card exposed by them 
or a lead out of turn made by them. 

The ItevoJce. Should a player fail to follow suit when able 
to do so, it is a revoke, and the revoke is established when the 
trick in which it occurs is turned down and quitted by the side 
that won it, or when the revoking player, or his partner, in his 
right turn or otherwise, has led or played to the following 
trick. If a player ask his partner if he has none of the suit led, 
before the trick is turned down, the revoke may be corrected, 
unless the player in error replies in the negative, or has led or 
played to the next trick. 

Dummy cannot revoke under any circumstances. 

The penalty for the revoke depends on the side in error. 
If the declarer revokes he cannot score anything but honours as 
actually held, while the adversaries take lOO points penalty in the 
honour column, in addition to any they may be entitled to for de- 
feating the declaration. If an adversary revokes, they score 
honours only, and the declarer may either take the loo points, or 



OBJECT OF TEE GAME. (Bridge.) xxxl 

he may take three actual tricks and add them to his own. If 
he takes the tricks, they may aid him in fulfilling his contract, as 
the score is then made up as the tricks lie, but the declarer will 
not be entitled to any bonus in case he was doubled. 

Suppose Z is the declarer, and is playing three hearts doubled. 
He wins the odd trick only, but detects a revoke, for which he 
takes three tricks. This gives him four by cards, doubled, worth 
64 points toward game, but he does not get any bonus for making 
his contract after being doubled, or for the extra tricks, be- 
cause they were taken in penalty and not in play. 

Exposed Cards. After the deal but before the winning 
declaration is settled, if any player exposes a card his partner 
is barred from bidding or doubling, and the card is subject to 
call. Should the partner of the offending player prove to be the 
leader to the first trick, the declarer may prohibit the initial lead 
of the exposed suit. 

All cards exposed by the declarer's adversaries after the orig- 
inal lead are liable to be called and must be left on the table, 
face upward. Exposed cards are those played two at a time, 
dropped on the table face up, or so held that the partner might 
see them, or cards mentioned as being in the hand of the player 
or his partner. The declarer is not liable to any penalty for 
exposed cards. 

lieading Out of Turn. If either adversary leads out of 
turn, the declarer may call the card exposed, or call a suit when 
it is the turn of either adversary to lead. If the declarer leads out 
of turn, from his own hand or dummy's, there is no penalty, but 
he may not correct the error unless directed to do so by an ad- 
versary. If the second hand plays to the false lead, it must stand. 
If the declarer plays from his own hand or from dummy to a 
false lead, the trick stands. In case the dealer calls a suit and 
the player has none, the penalty is paid. 

Cards Flayed in Error. If any player but dummy 
omits to play to a trick, and does not correct the error until he 
has played to the next trick, the other side may claim a new deal. 
If the deal stands, the surplus card at the end is supposed to 
belong to the short trick, but is not a revoke. 

OBJECT OF THE GAME. The object in auction is 
for the declarer to fulfil his contract, and for the adversaries to 
defeat it. The highest card played to the trick, if of the suit led, 
wins the trick, and trumps win all other suits. At the end of the 
hand the declarer counts up the tricks he has won over the book 



xxxii (Bridge.) 



SCORING. 



and if he has made good on his contract he scores the value of 
those tricks toward game. As soon as either side reaches 30, it is 
a game, but the hands are played out, and all the tricks counted. 

HUBBEItS. Three games, 30 points or more each, make 
a rubber, but if the first two are won by the same partners the 
third game is not played. The side that first wins two games adds 
250 rubber points to its score. 

SCOHING. Apart from the game score, which is made 
entirely by tricks won on successful declarations, there are 
several additional scores that have no influence in winning or 
losing the game, although they may materially affect the ultimate 
value of the rubber. These are all entered under the head of 
"honour scores," or "above the line." 

Honours are the five highest cards in the trump suit, A K Q J 
10; when there is no trump, they are the four Aces. The partners 
holding three, four or five honours between them, or four honours 
in one hand, or four in one hand and the fifth in the partner's, 
or all five in one hand, are entitled to claim and score them, 
according to the following table. It will be seen that their value 
varies according to the trump suit; and it must be remembered 
that this value cannot be increased by doubling. 



TABLE OF HONOUR VALUES, 

Royal spades are indicated by "R." 



Declaration 



Each Trick Above 6 



4» 


* 





^ 


R 


•So 
trump 


2 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


4 


12 


14 


16 


18 


30 


8 


24 


28 


32 


.36 


40 


16 


48 


56 


64 


72 


100 


10 


.30 


.IS 


40 


45 




18 


SA 


6.3 


72 


81 




20 


60 


70 


80 


90 





[/) r 3 Honours. 



e^ I 4 Honours 

"^ I 4 Honours (All in I hand) 



5 Honours. 

5 Honours (4 in i hand) . . 
. 5 Honours (AH in i hand) 

Eubber 250, Grand Slam 40, Little Slam 20. 



When one side has nothing but the odd honour, three out of the 
five, it is called simple honours. The value of simple hon- 
ours is always the same as two tricks. 

Slatns, Little Slam is made by taking twelve of the thirteen 
tricks; it counts 20 points. Grand Slam is made by taking the 



KEEPINa SCORE. (bridge.) 1 

thirteen tricks, and it counts 40. Either score must be exclusive 
of revoke penalties. 

PENALTIES. If the declarer succeeds in making his con- 
tract, he scores below the line for tricks and above the line for 
honours according to the table of values already given, and he 
scores for as many tricks as he wins, regardless of the smaller 
number he may have bid. 

But if the declarer fails to make good on his contract he 
scores nothing but honours as actually held, while his adversaries 
score 50 points penalty in the honour column for every trick by 
which the declaration falls short, no matter what the declaration 
was, but they never score anything toward game, no matter 
how many tricks they win, because they are not the declarers. 
They may, however, score slams. 

If we suppose the winning declaration to be three hearts, and 
the declarer makes the odd trick only, holding simple honours, he 
scores 16 above the line, while the other side scores 100 points 
above the line for defeating the contract by two tricks, worth 
50 each. 

If the dealer is left in with one spade, he cannot lose more 
than 100 points, even if he is doubled, provided neither he nor 
his partner redouble. If the adversaries set the contract for one 
tricic, the declarer loses 50 only, and even if he is set for six 
tricks, he can lose only the 100. 

If any other declaration is doubled and fails, the adversaries 
score 100 points, instead of 50, for every trick by which they 
defeat the contract. If it is redoubled, they score 200. But if 
the declarer succeeds after being doubled, he not only scores 
double value for the tricks toward game, but he gets 50 points 
for fulfilling a doubled contract and So more for any tricks 
over his contract if he makes them. These figures are 100 in 
each case if he redoubles. 

Suppose the declaration is three no trumps, doubled, and the 
declarer makes five by cards. He scores 5 times 20 toward game, 
aces as held, and then 150 in penalties, 50 of which is for 
fulfilling his contract and twice 50 for the two tricks over his 
contract. 

KEEPING SCORE. _ Two styles of score-pad are now in 
general use. In one the tricks and honours are entered in the 
same vertical column, one above the other, and are all added in 
one sum at the end. In the other style of pad the tricks are in 
one column and the honours and penalties in another, so that four 
additions are required to find the value of the rubber, which is 
always the difference between the total scores after giving the 



2 (Bridge.) 



CHEATING. 



winners of two games 250 points, 
will show both styles of pad: 



The following illustration 



WE 


THEY 




Z^ 




30 


18 


100 


16 





8 


40 




2>e 




250 


42 


492 

42 




450 



WE 
8 16 
18 


THEY 

100 
40 30 




1 


36 1 36 


8 


34 
8 


76 


166 
76 




42 






492 

42 




450 



The scoring on which this rubber is won and lost was as 
follows : WE started with a contract to win one heart and made 
it, wifh simple honours, scoring 8 toward game and 16 above 
for honours. Then THEY set a contract for two tricks, getting 
100 in penalties, against simple honours in royals, scored as 18 
above for WE and 100 for THEY. Then THEY made four 
odd at no trump and 30 aces, winning the first game, under which 
a line is drawn. 

On the next deal THEY made four odd in royals, with four 
honours, Z6 each way, winning the second game and also the 
rubber, for which they add 250 points. Both scores are now added 
up and the lower deducted from the higher, showing that THEY 
win 450 points on the balance. 

CUTTING OUT. At the conclusion of the rubber, if 
there are more than four candidates for play, the selection of 
the new table is made by cutting; those who have just played 
having an equal chance with the new-comers. The reason for 
this is that a Bridge table is complete with four, and that a rub- 
ber is usually too long, with its preliminaries of making the trump, 
and its finalities of settling the score, for players to wait their 
turn. A rubber at Short Whist is often over in two hands ; but a 
carefully played rubber at Bridge sometimes occupies an hour. 

CHEATING. Most of the cheating done at the bridge 
table is of such a character that it cannot be challenged without 
difficulty, although there is enough of it to be most annoying. 



GOOD PLAY. (Bridge.) 3 

Some players will place an ace about four cards from the top 
when they shuffle the cards, so that when the pack is spread for 
the cut they can draw it and get the first deal. Second dealing is 
a common trick, especially on ocean steamers, marking the aces 
and slipping them back if they would fall to an adversary dealing 
them to the partner instead, who can go no trumps and score a 
hundred aces several times in an evening. Women are great 
offenders in trifling matters, such as asking the dealer if she 
passed it, when nothing has been said; looking over the adver- 
saries' hands as dummy, and then pushing dummy's cards for- 
ward, as if arranging them, but in reality indicating which one to 
play. A great deal of petty cheating is done in putting down the 
score, and also in balancing it by cancellation. In large charity 
games, some women are so eager to win a prize that they will 
stoop to all manner of private signals, and some go so far as to 
make up a table and agree to double everything, so that some one 
of the four shall have a big score. Another common trick in so- 
called social games is to have a stool pigeon to overlook the hand 
of another rand signal it up to the confederate who is playing. 

There may be some remedy for this sort of thing, but so far 
no one seems to have found it ; or at least they lack the courage 
to put it in practice and expose the offenders. ^ 

SUGGESTION'S FOR GOOD PLAY, The great 
secret of success in auction lies in sound bidding, so that no bid 
shall have a double meaning and the partner may be able to rely 
absolutely on the information which the bid should convey. The 
complications of the situation are so numerous, owing to the var- 
iations introduced by each succeeding bid as the players overcall 
one another, that it would be impossible to cover them in a work 
of this kind, and the student would do well to consult some such 
work as "Whitehead's Conventions," which covers every situa- 
tion that" could possibly arise in the bidding. 

A few general hints may be of assistance in showing the 
principles that govern the more common situations. 

The Dealer's Dids may be divided into four parts; a 
spade, a losing suit, a winning suit, and no trumps. The one- 
spade bid simply means, "I pass," but it does not signify that 
he will not be willing to bid on the second round. It has nothing 
whatever to do with the spade suit. 

The dealer should never call any suit on the first round of 
bids unless he has two sure tricks in it. If it is a losing suit, 
he may have just those two tricks and nothing else, and the 
shorter the suit the better, but the tricks must be A K, or K Q J, 



4 (Bridge.) GOOD PLAT. 

or A Q J. If it is a winning suit he must have at least five cards 
of it and a trick or two in some other suit to back it up. 

If the dealer bids two spades, he shows two sure tricks in a 
short spade suit and a sure trick outside. If he bids three spades 
he shows five or more spades and strength enough outside for 
royals, but denies two sure tricks in the spade suit itself. The 
dealer should bid no trumps when he has not length enough to 
bid hearts or royals, but has a hand as good as three aces, well 
protected in three suits. 

The Second XTand should declare just as if he were the 
dealer when the dealer starts with one spade. He may even go 
no trump on a lighter hand. When the dealer bids a suit, 
second hand should overcall only when he can make his con- 
tract or wishes to indicate a lead in case third hand should go to 
no trumps. Second hand should never take the dealer out of a 
losing suit with a winning suit unless he has seven tricks in his 
own hand. If the dealer bids no trump, second hand should pass, 
unless he is prepared to overcall any further bid for three tricks. 

Third Hand is not obliged to take the dealer out of a 
spade, and should not do so unless he is a trick or two stronger 
than he would have to be to declare as dealer. But the dealer 
must never be left in with a two or three spade bid. If third 
hand cannot do any better, he should declare a royal. When 
the dealer bids no trump, third hand should take him out with any 
weak five card suit and nothing else, simply to warn him that 
there are no winning cards in the hand. Always take him out 
with five cards in a winning suit, no matter how strong the 
rest of the hand. 

Take the dealer out of one suit with another suit only to deny 
his suit. Take him out of a winning suit with no trump, only to 
deny his suit and show strength in each of the three other suits. 
If the dealer bids no trump and second hand calls a suit, double 
if you can stop the suit twice, otherwise show any good suit of 
your own, but do not go two no-trumps unless you can do it all 
yourself. Leave that to your partner. Do not assist your part- 
ner's suit bids with less than three tricks if second hand over- 
calls. 

Fourth Sand bids on the bidding much more than on 
his cards. He should never take the dealer out of a spade that 
both second and third hand have passed unless he can go game. 
If the dealer bids a losing suit, second and third hands passing, 
leave him in unless you can go game and are not afraid of a shift. 
If the dealer bids a winning suit, second and third hands passing, 
make any sound declaration. If the dealer starts with no trumps, 



OPENING LEADS. (Bridge.) 5 

show any suit that might save the game if led at once by your 
partner. 

Subsequent JBids. Any suit bid on the second round but not on 
the first, shows length without the tops. When a winning suit is 
taken out by the partner, a losing suit bid on the second round 
shows tops in it. Any suit rebid on the second round, without 
waiting for the partner's assistance, shows six or seven sure 
tricks in hand. 

Never bid a hand twice, unless its strength is greater than 
indicated by the first bid. Having bid a club on ace king alone, 
that is the end of it. If you have an outside ace, which the club 
bid did not show, you can assist your partner once on that 
trick, but no more. Having assisted your partner's suit bid with 
three tricks, do not bid again unless you have a fourth trick 
in hand, but if he rebids his suit without waiting for you, you may 
assist on one trick, especially a high honour in trumps. 

Do not double unless you have a certainty and are not afraid 
of a shift. Do not give up a fair chance for going game yourself 
just to double an adversary, unless you are sure of 200 in 
penalties at least, and do not give up the rubber game for less 
than 300. Always remember that a double may enable an adver- 
sary to go game, and will often show the declarer which hand 
to finesse against. 

Free Doubles are opportunities to double when the declarer 
will go game anyhow if he makes his contract, but they should 
never be made if there is any chance that he may shift. 

Free JBids are anything better than a spade by the dealer, 
or anything that overcalls a previous bid, because no one is 
forced to bid on the first round. A Shout is a bid that is a 
trick more than necessary to overcall the previous bid. It shows a 
solid suit, or five or six sure tricks in hand. In a losing suit it is 
a loud call for the partner to go no trumps if he can. A free bid 
in a losing suit shows the high cards ; in a winning suit it shows 
the tricks in hand. 

JL Forced Bid is one that is necessary to overcall, such as 
two diamonds over a heart. This does not mean that the 
caller would have bid two diamonds originally. A player who 
must indicate a lead against a no-trumper makes a forced bid. 

The Original Lead. The first card must be played before 
dummy's hand is exposed. 

OPENING LEADS. The position which we have first 
to consider is that of the eldest hand, usually designated by the 
letter "A," who sits on the declarer's left. 



6 (Bridge.) 



OPENING LEADS. 
Pone 



Dummy 




Leader 



Declarer 



Selecting the Suit to Lead. If your partner has de- 
clared a suit, lead the best card you hold of it, regardless of 
number, unless you have an ace-king suit of your own, in which 
case lead the king first and have a look at dummy. If partner has 
not declared anything, lead your own suit. With high cards not 
in sequence, such as ace-queen, king-jack, or even queen-ten, in 
every suit but trumps, lead the trump. 

There is a great difference between playing against a trump 
declaration and against no-trumpers ; because in the first case the 
leader is opposed to unusual trump strength and his object must 
be to make what he can of his winning cards, before the declarer 
gets into the lead and discards his weak suits, so as to be ready 
to trump them. But in the second case, there being no trumps, 
the leader's object should be to get a suit established against the 
dealer, if he can, and the longer the suit is, the better. The 
dealer's strength in a no-trumper is usually scattered, and he may 
often be found with a weak or missing suit, which is generally 
the suit in which the eldest hand or his partner is long. 

We shall first consider the leads against trump declarations, 
because they are more common and are also the more useful. If 
a player makes a trump-hand lead against a no-trump declaration, 
he will not do nearly so much harm as if he make a no-trump- 
hand lead against a trump declaration. For that reason, if a 
player cannot master both systems of leading, it is better for him 
to learn the leads against trumps than those against no-trumps. 

Mules for Leading High Cards. With such a suit as 
A K Q 2, no one need be told not to begin with the deuce. 
Whenever a player holds two or more of the best cards of a 
suit he should play one of them. If he holds both second and 
third best, playing one of them will force the best out of his 
way, leaving him with the commanding card. 

The cards which are recognised by bridge players as high, are 
the A K Q J ID, and if we separate the various combinations 
from which a player should lead each of them, a study of the 
groups so formed will greatly facilitate our recollection of them. 

In the first group are those containing two or more of the 
best cards. In this and all following notation, the exact size of 
any card below a Ten is immaterial. 



HIGH- CARD LEADS. 



(Bridge) 7 





JnO 




9 9 
9 <p 








4. ^ 
4. + 




4« 



So far as trick-taking is concerned, it is of no importance which 
of the winning cards is first led; but good players lead the King 
from all these combinations in order that the partner may be in- 
formed, by its winning, that the leader holds the Ace also. 

In the second group are those containing both the second and 
third best, but not the best. 




m 




99 




9 9 
9 

9 9 

9 

9 9 



s 






4. ^ 






4- 


B41 






4. Ji, 




* 


4- 



The King is the proper lead from these combinations. If it 
wins, the partner should have the Ace; if it loses, partner should 
know the leader holds at least the Queen. 

Both these groups, which contain all the King leads, may be 
easily remembered by observing that the King is always led if 
accompanied by the Ace or Queen, or both. Beginners should 
follow this rule for leading the King, regardless of the number of 
small cards in the suit. 

There is only one combination from which the Queen is led, 



m 




^17i^ 




4. jj. 




4. 


^ 

♦ 


^m^ 




^^ 




* * 




4. 


4- 



when it is accompanied by the Jack, and there is no higher card of 
the suit in the hand. Whether the ten follows the Jack ornot, does 
not matter. With any two high cards in sequence, the lead is a 
high card when playing against a declared trump. 

The tTacJc is never led except as a supporting card. It is always 
the top of the suit, and the suit is usually short. The object of 



8 (Bridge.) 



HIGH-CARD LEADS. 



making such an opening is to avoid leading suits headed by two 
honours which are not in sequence. These are good Jack leads : 



i 








9 ^ 

9 9? 










The Ten is led from one combination only : ■ 



1 


1 




i 




0^0 
0<^0 

o 










The Ace should not be led if it can be avoided ; but it is better 
to lead it from suits of more than four cards, so as to make it at 
once. If the Ace is accompanied by the King, the King is the card 
to lead, not the Ace. If the Ace is accompanied by other honours, 
s.uch as the Queen or Jack, it is better to avoid opening the suit, 
unless you have five or more cards of it. But if you do lead a suit 
headed by the Ace, without the King, be sure that you lead the 
Ace, when playing against a trump declaration, or you may never 
make it. 

All such combinations as the following should be avoided, if pos- 
sible, as more can be made out of them by letting them alone : — 




•?■ •!• •!• 4» 









4» <fkl A «k 

♦ ♦ ♦ * 



♦ ♦ 



» » 



O 
O 
O 



O 










i 


i 


* 4- 




+ * 

* * 




9 9? 
(J) qp 













OOOO 

o o 
oooo 




0^0 



^0^ 




O 



But with three honours, A Q J, the Ace should be led. 

Mules for Leading Short Suits. It will sometimes happen 
that the only four-card suit in the leader's hand will be trumps or a 
suit headed by honours not in sequence, which it is not desirable to 



LEADING SHORT SUITS. (Bridge.) 9 



lead. In such cases, if there is no high-card combination in any of 
the short suits, it is usual to lead the highest card, unless it is an 
Ace or King. Many good players will not lead the Queen from a 
three-card suit, unless it is accompanied by the Jack. All such 
leads are called forced, and are intended to assist the partner, by 
playing cards which may strengthen him, although of no use to the 
leader. The best card should be led from any such combinations 
as the following : — 




















O 




















* 4- 








* 4- 
4. + 
















9 (? 
9 <5> 







Small-card Leads. If the suit selected for the lead does 
not contain any combination of high cards from which it would be 
right to lead a high card, good players make it a rule to begin with 
the fourth-best, counting fi-om the top of the suit. This is called 
the "card of uniformity," because it indicates to the partner that 
there are remaining in the leader's hand exactly three cards higher 
than the one led. 

Should the player be forced to lead any of the undesirable com- 
binations shown on the last page, he would begin with the Ace if he 
held it; otherwise he would lead the fourth-best. In each of the 
hands shown this would be the four, and this card would be led, 
even if there were five or six cards in the suit. From this hand, 
for instance, the five is the proper lead : — 



^.0 







o 


























0% 














<> 






















JRules for Leading Second Round. If the leader wins the 
first trick, having the best of the suit in his hand, he should follow 
with the winning card ; but if he has several cards which are equally 
winning cards, he should lead the lowest of them. This is an in- 
dication to the partner that the card led is as good as the best ; 
therefore the leader must hold the intermediate cards. When a 



10 (Bridge.) LEADING SHORT SUITS. 



King wins, your partner knows you have the Ace, if he does not 
hold it. Then tell him what he does not know, that you have the 
Queen also. 

Suppose you have led the King from these combinations : — 



f^uMmI 




1 






Your partner knows you have the Ace, because your King wins. 
From the first, go on with the Jack, which is just as good as the 
Ace, but tells your partner you have not only the Ace but the 
Queen, still in your hand. From the second, go on with the Queen, 
the card your partner does not know, which tells him you still have 
the Ace, but not the JacTc. If you have not the Queen, you will 
have to go on with the Ace, and your leading the Ace will deny 
the Queen, 

If you have not the best, lead one of the second and third-best, 
if you hold both : — 







1 




g 




From the first of these, having led the King, if it wins, go on with 
the ten, whether you have any smaller cards or not. From the 
second, if the King wins, goon with the Jack, which denies the ten, 
but tells your partner you still have the Queen.. No mistake is 
more common among beginners than leading a low card on the 
second round, on the assumption that the partner must have the 
Ace. If you have led from King and Queen only, you must go on 
with the fourth-best ; because you have not both the second and 
third-best. This fourth-best is the card that was the fourth-best 
originally. Having led the King from this : — 





I 



<> 
0% 






<> 







o 



the card to follow the King is the six, if the King wins the first trick. 

The Fourth-best. From any combination of cards, if you 
have not the best, or both the second and third-best, in your 
hand for the second round, lead your original fourth-best. From 



LEADING TRUMPS. 



(Bridge.) 11 



all the following, the proper lead on the second round would be the 
fourth-best, in each case the four of the suit : 



— ^1 

3 p 






1 




4- 


4. 4. 

*** 





♦ ♦ 

♦ * 


♦ 
♦ 





















4.*4. 


4. 4. 
4, 4. 


4- 




1 


00 



Leading Trumps, A trump lead is sometimes adopted 
when all the plain suits are bad ones to lead away from, such 
as A Q, or A J, or K J in each and no length. If a player holds 
high cards which are not in sequence, such as the major tenace, 
ace and queen, it is very probable that the declarer holds the king. 
By refusing to lead such suits, and waiting for them to come 
up to the tenace, the declarer's high card may be caught and 
a valuable trick saved. When a good player opens his hand with 
a trump, right up to the declaration, his partner should lead his 
best supporting cards boldly up to dummy's weak suits. 

The Pone's Leads. When the pone gets into the lead, if 
he does not return his partner's suit, he should open his own 
suits according to the rules already given for all the high-card com- 
binations. If he has no high-card combination, it is usually better 
for him to lead some card that will beat Dummy than to lead his 
fourth-best. Suppose he wishes to lead a diamond, in which he 
holds Q 10843; Dummy having the 9 and 6 only. It is better 
to lead the ten of diamonds than the fourth-best, because if the 
declarer does not follow with an honour, your partner will not have 
to sacrifice an honour to keep Dummy from winning the trick with 
the 9. 

After the opening lead, when Dummy's cards are exposed, the 
knowledge of his cards may change the aspect of the game greatly; 
but the proper cards to lead to and through Dummy will be better 
understood in connection with the play against no-trumpers. 

No-trump Leads. The chief difference in the leads against 
no-trumpers is, that there is no hurry to make your aces and 
kings, the chief thing being to make some of the smaller cards 



12 (Bridge,) WITE A TRUMP. 

good for tricks. When you are long in a suit, if you lead out the 
winning cards first, your partner may have none to lead you later 
on, and if you cannot make every trick in the suit before you lose 
the lead, you may never make anything but your one or two high 
cards. 

The difference in the leads at no-trump is covered by a very 
simple rule ; if you have only two honours in sequence, do not lead 
either of them, but begin with the fourth-best, even if your honours 
are the Ace and King. But if you have three honours in the suit, 
two of them in sequence, always lead an honour against a no- 
trumper. 

The exception to this rule is, that when you are so long in the 
suit that you may catch some high cards with your high cards, you 
lead them first. With six or seven in suit to the A K, for in- 
stance, lead the King, on the chance of dropping the Queen. With 
seven in suit headed by the Ace, lead the Ace, but never with less 
than seven without the King. With six in suit, you may lead the 
King from K Q, without either Jack or lo; but with less than six 
in suit never lead the King from K Q unless you have the lo or 
the J also. 

THIBD HAND FLA F. The leader's partner must do his 
best to inform his partner as to the distribution of his suit. The 
method of doing this is entirely different when there is a trump 
from that which is adopted when there is no trump. In the first 
case, all your partner wants to know is, who is going to trump his 
suit if he goes on with it. In the second case, what he wants to 
know is his chance for getting his suit cleared or established. 

With a Trump. When third hand makes no attempt to win 
the trick, either because his partner's or Dummy's card is better 
than any he need play, he plays the higher of two cards only, the 
lowest of three or more. This is called playing down and out. 
Suppose third hand holds 7 and 2 only, and the lead is a King. 
The 7 is played. The leader goes on with the Ace, denying the 
Queen, and the third hand plays the deuce. If the Queen is not in 
the Dummy, the declarer must have it. In any case, the leader 
knows that if he goes on, his partner, the third hand, can trump 
that suit. 

With three cards, the lowest falling to the first round, followed 
by a higher card, will show the leader that the third hand still has 
another of that suit. 

It is not necessary to play down and out with an honour, because 
the leader can read the situation without it. Suppose third hand 
holds the J 5. He plays the 5 to the first round, because one of 
his two cards is an honour. The leader goes on with the Ace, and 



FOSTER'S ELEVEN RULE. (Bridge.) 13 

the Jack falls. Now the third hand must have the Queen or no 
more, and no matter which it is he can win the third round, with 
the Queen or with a trump. 

Against No-Trumpers. When there is no trump, the third 
hand uses what is called the Foster echo. This consists in 
playing always the second-best of the suit, when no attempt 
is made to win the trick. Suppose the leader begins with the 
King. Third hand holds lo 8 74, and plays the 8. This marks 
him with only one card higher than the 8, and is a great exposer 
of false cards played by the declarer. 

On the second round, the rule is, always to keep the lowest card 
of the suit until the last. If third hand held four originally, 10874, 
his play to the second round is the 7, keeping the 4. If he held 
10 8 7 only, his play to the second round would be the 10, keeping 
the 7. This makes it clear to the leader how many and what he 
holds. 

High Cards Third Hand. When the third hand tries to 
win his partner's lead, he does so as cheaply as possible. That is, 
holding both King and Queen, he plays the Queen, not the King. 
If his cards are not in sequence, he should always play the best he 
has. With Ace and Queen, for instance, he must play the Ace if 
the King is not in the Dummy. To play the Queen would be to 
throw it away if the declarer has the King. If the leader has the 
King, third hand gets out of his way by giving up the Ace. 

FOSTER'S FLEVEJV MULE. In trying to win tricks as 
cheaply as possible, third hand may often be guided by the Eleven 
Rule, which can be applied to any lead of a small card. 

By deducting from eleven the number of pips on any low card 
led by his partner, the pone may ascertain to a certainty how many 
cards there are higher than the one led, which are not in the 
leader's hand. This rule, which was invented by R. F. Foster in 
1 881, in connection with the ganie of whist, is now used by every- 
one with any pretensions to being a bridge player. The rule itself 
is this : — 

When the eldest hand leads any card which is not an honour, 
deduct the spots on it from eleven. From the remainder thus found, 
deduct the number of cards, higher than the one led, which are 
not in your own hand nor in Dummy's in that suit. This final re- 
mainder is the number of cards which are in the declarer's hand 
which are higher than the card led. The principal thing to remem- 
ber is, that it is only the cards higher than the one led that you 
need trouble about. To illustrate : — 



14 (Bridge.) PLAYING AGAINST DUMMY. 

Suppose you are third hand, and your partner leads the seven of 
clubs, Dummy lays down the Q 9 2, and you hold A J 3, thus : — 



4. 4> 



Leader 



Dummy 



Third hand. 



4- 






Deducting seven from eleven, you find it leaves four. These 
four cards, higher than the one lead, are all in sight, Q 9 in Dummy ; 
A J in your own hand, therefore the declarer cannot have any card 
higher than the seven. If he has, your partner's lead is not his 
fourth-best, as you will see if you lay out the cards. 

BETUIINING SUITS. When the third hand returns his 
partner's suit, he should lead the higher of two cards, and the low- 
est of three, unless he has a card which will beat anything Dummy 
may hold in the suit, in which case he should always heat 
Dummy. 

_ FLAYING AGAINST DUMMY. Some ofthe fine points 
in bridge arise in situations which require a careful consideration 
of the Dummy's cards. 

There are three great principles in playing against Dummy : — 

1st. Lead through the strong suits, and up to the weak. 

2nd. Do not lead through a fourchette. 

3rd. Do not lead up to a tenace. 

These rules must not be blindly followed in every instance. They 
are simply general principles, and some of the prettiest cow2>s arise 
from the exceptional cases. 

Leading Through Dummy. The eldest hand, when he does 
not deem it advisable to go on with his own suit, may be guided in 
his choice by the strength or weakness of certain suits in Dummy's 
hand. The play against Dummy is especially important at no trumps. 



LEADING THROUGH DUMMY. (Bridge.) 15 

Suits which it is good policy to lead through are Axxx, Kxxx, 
or any broken sequences of high cards. 

Suits in which Dummy is long, or holds any of the regular high- 
card combinations, should be avoided ; winning or high sequences 
being especially dangerous. To lead such suits through Dummy's 
strength is an invitation to partner to force you in the suit led. 

It is not necessary for you to be strong in a suit which you lead 
through Dummy ; and if you are both weak, is often advanta- 
geous ; especially if it avoids leading one of his strong suits. 

With A Q lo X ; Dummy having J x x x ; play the lo. If part- 
ner has the King you make every trick in the suit. 

With A Q ID X ; Dummy having K x x ; play the Q. If Dummy 
passes, you make two tricks ; if he covers, you have tenace over 
the Jack. 

With A lo 9 X ; Dummy having J x x x; play the lo. If part- 
ner has the K, your A 9 is tenace over the Q. 

With A J 10 x; Dummy having Q, x x x ; if the suit must be 
led, play the Jack ; but such positions should be avoided, except in 
the end game, or when you play for every trick. 

With A J 10 X ; Dummy having no honour in the suit ; if you 
must lead the suit, play the 10. 

In trumps, with K Q x x ; Dummy having A J x x ; play the 
Queen. If Dummy wins with A, play a small card for the second 
round, and he may refuse to put on the J. The declarer not having 
the 10, would make Dummy cover ; but nothing is lost if he does, 
an4 it marks the 10 with your partner. 

With King and others of a suit in which Dummy has not the 
Ace ; avoid leading the suit until the Ace has fallen. 

With King alone, play it if Dummy has the Ace; keep it if he 
has not. 

Trumps. If a player in this position is strong in trumps, he 
should keep quiet about it and let the maker of the trumps develop 
the suit. False-carding is perfectly legitimate in trumps, and will 
deceive the declarer more than your partner. 

End Gatnes. There are cases in which it is necessary to play 
as if partner was known to possess a certain card, for unless he has 
it the game is lost. For instance : You want one trick, and have 
Q 10 X X, Dummy having K x x, of an unplayed suit. The Queen 
is the best play ; for if partner has any honour you must get a trick ; 
otherwise it is impossible. 

You have K x in one suit, a losing card in another, and a winning 
card. You want all four tricks to save the game. Play the King, 
and then the small card ; for if your partner has not the Ace and 
another winning card you must lose the game. 

You have a losing trump, and Q x x of a suit in which Dummy 
has K 10 X. If you want one trick, play the losing trump, counting 
on partner for an honour in the plain suit. If you must have two 
tricks, lead the Queen, trusting your partner to hold Ace. 



16 (Bridge.) LEADING TO DUMMY. 

Leading up to Dummy. The best thing for the third hand, 
or pone, to do, when he does not return his partner's suit, and has 
no very strong suit of his own, is to lead up to Dummy's weak 
suits, and to lead a card that Dummy cannot beat, if possible. 

The general principle of leading up to weakness suggests that 
we should know what weakness is. Dummy may be considered 
weak in suits of which he holds three or four small cards, none 
higher than an 8 ; Ace and one or two small cards ; or King and 
one or two small cards. In leading up to such suits, your object 
should be to give your partner a finesse, if possible ; and in cal- 
culating the probabilities of success it must be remembered that 
there are only two unknown hands, so that it is an equal chance 
that he holds either of two unknown cards. It is 3 to i against 
his holding both, or against his holding neither. Of three un- 
known cards, it is 7 to i against his holding all three, or none 
of them ; or about an equal chance that he holds two of the 
three ; or one only. 

If Dummy holds any of the weak suits just given, you holding 
nothing higher than the Ten, you should lead it. Suppose you have 
1096; Dummy having A 3 2. The K Q J may be distributed in 
eight different ways, in any of which your partner will pass your Ten 
if second hand does not cover. In four cases, second hand would 
cover with the King, and in one with the Queen and Jack. In the 
remaining three your partner's hand would be benefited. 

If Dummy has King and one or two small cards, it is not so 
disadvantageous to lead up to the King as would at first appeaf ; 
because it is forced out of his hand on the first round, unless 
declarer plays Ace; and it is usually good policy to force out 
Dummy's cards of re-entry early in the hand. 

In leading from high-card combinations, the usual bridge leads 
should be followed; but exceptions must be made on the 
second round when certain cards are in Dummy's hand. For in- 
stance : With A K J and others, it is usual to stop after the first 
round, and wait for the finesse of the Jack. This is obviously 
useless if the Queen is not in Dummy's hand. So with K Q 10, 
unless Dummy has the Jack; or K Q 9, unless Dummy has the 
10. The lead from A Q J should be avoided if Dummy has the 
King. 

With A Q 10 and others, J in Dummy's hand, begin with the 
Queen. 

With A J 9 and others, 10 in Dummy's hand, lead the Jack. 

With A J 10, Dummy having K Q x, play the Jack, and do not 
lead the suit again. 

In trumps, with K Q and others, if Dummy has the J singly 
guarded, begin with the King as usual, but follow it with the 
Queen instead of the smallest ; for declarer may have passed in 
the hope of making a Bath coup with both Ace and Jack. la 



LEADING TO DUMMY. (Bridge.) 17' 

plain suits this is a dangerous lead, as declarer having Ace, and 
wishing to force Dummy, would hold his Ace as a matter of course. 

With short suits, such as K x, Q x ; or even with King or Queen 
alone, the honour is a good lead if Dummy has no court cards in 
the suit. The Queen is rather a better lead than the King, the 
only danger being that second hand holds fourchette. 

With Q J X, or J ID X, one of the high cards should be played. 
With Q lo X, Dummy having Ace or King, the Queen should be 
led. 

With K ID X, Dummy having Jack, the suit should not be led. 

With such combinations as K x x x, Dummy having Q x, the suit 
should not be led. 

When you have a suit which is both long and strong, such as 
A K X X X, and Dummy has no honour in the suit, it is a common ar- 
tifice to underplay, by beginning with the smallest, if playing against 
no-trumps and you have a card of re-entry. This should not 
be done unless you have the general strength to justify such a 
finesse. 

If you open a long suit. Dummy having only small cards, and 
your partner wins with Q, J, or lo, and does not return it, he has 
evidently a finesse in the suit and wants it led again. 

End Games, In the end game there are several variations 
which are made possible by the fact that the cards on your right 
are exposed. 

With A J X, Dummy having Q x x, the small card should be led. 
' With Q X, and an odd card, Dummy having K x x of the first 
suit ; it is better to play the odd card ; but if for any reason this 
should not be done, lead the Q, hoping to find A lo with your 
partner. 

The state of the score must be a constant guide in all end 
games. For instance : You hold Q lo x. Dummy having J 9 x. 
If you want only one trick, play the Queen ; but if you want two, 
play the small card. 

SECOND HAND PLAT. The easiest position to play as 
second hand, is, of course, with the Dummy on your left, because 
Dummy's cards will show what is best to be done. If a small 
card is led, you having King, put it on if Dummy has not the Ai.e; 
unless you want partner to get the lead. If Dummy has only two 
cards of the suit, neither of them the Ace, always play your King. 

When the declarer leads a suit it is often important to count how 
many he and your partner can possibly hold. For instance: You 
have four, K x x x ; Dummy has four, A J 10 x, and declarer leads 
the Queen. It is useless to play your King ; for either the Queen 
is a singleton, and the declarer cannot continue the suit, which will 
compel Dummy to lead it to you eventually ; or, the third round 



18 (Bridge.) SECOND-HAND PLAY. 

will be trumped, perhaps by your partner. If you have only two 
small cards with the King, put it on the Queen. You cannot save 
it, but you may establish your partner's 9. 

In the last three tricks, if you find yourself with a doubtful 
card, and the best and a small card of a suit which the declarer 
leads through you, win the trick and lead the doubtful card, for 
if the declarer held the best of that suit he would have led it 
first, to be sure of a trick. 

Dummy on the Right. "When Dummy leads through 
you, your skill in avoiding any traps the declarer may be setting 
for you will depend on your knowledge of how he manages his 
hand, and your ability to infer what he holds. 

As a general principle, it may be assumed that any high card 
led by Dummy forms part of a combination, the unseen part of 
which is in the declarer's hand. If Dummy leads a Queen from 
Q X X, you holding A J x, it is almost a certainty that the de- 
clarer holds the King. If you have A K x, the dealer must have 
J 10 and several others. If you have K x x, the declarer prob- 
ably holds Ace, or a long suit headed by J 10. 

When Dummy leads strengthening cards, they must be to give 
the declarer a finesse. If he leads a small card from small cards, 
some high-card combination must be in the declarer's hand. In 
such cases it is useless for you to finesse. If you have any 
sequence superior to the card led, cover with the lowest. There 
should be no false-carding in this, because your partner is the 
only one that can be deceived. 

With A K and others, play the King, whatever Dummy leads. 

With A Q and others. Dummy having nothing higher than the 
9, play the Ace. 

With K Q ID, play the Queen on a small card led, unless 
Dummy has the Jack. 

With A J 10 x, play Ace if Dummy has no honour in the suit. 
But if Dummy leads the 9, cover with the 10; if it loses, you lie 
tenace over the declarer. 

With A J X, play the Jack on a 9 led. This prevents the finesse 
of the 9, and retains command of the suit. If Dummy has both 
K and Q. play your Ace. It is useless to play the Bath coup, for 
the declarer knows your cards, and your partner only is deceived. 

With K X X, if Dummy has not the Ace, do not play the King, 
no matter what is led. 

With Q X X, unless Dummy has both A and K, do not play the 
Queen. If your partner has the Jack guarded, one of you must 
make a trick. If Dummy has A J, and leads J, put on the Queen; 
it may make the 9 or 10 good in your partner's hand. 

With A X X, Dummy leading Jack, play the Ace. 

With any fourchette, cover the card led. 



THIRD HAND PLAY. (Bridge.) 19 

If Dummy remains with one or two small cards of a suit that 
has been led, and you have the best, play it on the second round. 
Dummy's play is evidently for the ruff, and if the declarer has not 
the second best, your partner has. 

If you have King, and only one or two small cards, Dummy 
leading Queen from Q lo x x, play your King. You cannot save 
yourself; but you may make the 9 good in partner's hand. If 
you have three or more small cards, do not play the King, for 
either partner or the declarer must be short in the suit. So if 
Dummy leads Jack from J 10 and others, play the King with a 
short suit. If partner has Queen you establish it ; if not, you 
cannot make a trick in the suit. 

With short suits it is usually best to cover an honour with an 
honour; but with several small cards, such as K x x x. Dummy 
leading a singleton Queen, you should pass. 

With K 10 X, Dummy having J and others, play honour on 
honour ; small card on small card, whichever Dummy leads. 

It is often important for the second hand to cover with what is 
called an imperfect fourchefte. A true fourchette is the card 
immediately above and below the one led ; such as K J over the Q, 
or Q 10 over the J. An imperfect fourchette is the card above the 
one led, and another next but one below it; such as K 10 over a 
Q led, or Q 9 over a J led. Covering forces the opponents to play 
two honours to win one trick, and will often make an intermediate 
card good in your partner's hand. 

THIRD HAND PLAT. In addition to the methods of 
echoing on the partner's leads of high cards in the suit first 
opened, third hand must be ready to adapt himself and his play to 
any change of suit and will require constant practice in putting 
himself in his partner's place, asking himself what the object is in 
leading certain cards through Dummy's hand. The inferences 
from the conventional leads should be sufficiently familiar to need 
no further explanation ; but even good players occasionally over- 
look indications that partner holds certain cards. For instance : 
A leads a small card ; Y, Dummy, holds Q xx, and plays Q. You 
play the King and win the trick. This marks not only the Ace, 
but the Jack in partner's hand ; because the declarer would not 
play a twice guarded Queen from Dummy's hand if he had the 
Jack guarded himself. 

False cards should be avoided by the third hand as much as 
possible. The declarer will give your partner enough to puzzle over 
without your adding to the confusion. There are some exceptions 
in trumps. For instance : You have K Q x ; Dummy has A J x x, 
and your partner leads. Unless Dummy plays Ace, you should 
put on the King, and change the suit. 

If you hold Ace and others in a plain suit, partner leading Jack, 



20 (Bridge.) THIRD HAND PLAY. 

pass it if Dummy has no honour. Perhaps by winning the second 
round you can give the invited force. With any other honours 
than the Ace, pass a partner's Jack led. 

If partner leads you a suit of which he knows, or should know, 
you have not the Best, he must have a good finesse in the suit 
which he does not lead, and you should take the first opportunity 
to lead that suit to him. 

In returning partner's suits, some modification may be suggested 
by the condition of Dummy's hand. For instance : With K x x; 
Dummy having A Q J x ; if you win, third hand, on Dummy's 
finesse, you may be sure your partner's lead was a weak suit. If 
Dummy is weak in the two other plain suits, your partner may have 
a good finesse in one or both of them. 

When your partner wins the first round of an adverse suit, and 
immediately returns it, he is inviting a force. 

Dummy on the Left. When the player is third hand with 
Dummy on his left, his chief care will be to divine his part- 
ner's object in leading certain cards up to Dummy. 

The general principles of inference are the same as in the pre- 
ceding case, and cards may often be inferred in the same manner 
from the evident intention of partner, "^or instance : You hold K 
X x; partner leads J, declarer covering with Queen. A glance at 
Dummy's cards shows him to have lo x x; so your partner may 
be credited with A 9. You have x x; your partner leading Q, 
covered by declarer with K, and Dummy having J x x. You may 
credit your partner with A 10. You have x x ; your partner leads 
Q and declarer wins with Ace ; Dummy holding 10 x x. Your 
partner must have J 9 and others, and the declarer has the King. 

There are several cases in which you should not allow Dummy 
to win the trick. If you have only one card of a suit in which 
your partner leads Ace then Queen, and Dummy has the King 
twice guarded, trump at once, if you can to prevent Dummy from 
getting into the lead. Your partner leads Queen ; you holding 
A 10 X, and Dummy having K x x. Let the King make on the 
first round. 

If your partner leads a small card up to strength in Dummy's 
hand, he is either inviting a force, or trying to establish a long 
suit. Under such circumstances, if you have the Ace, play it, and 
lead a second round of the suit immediately, which will settle the 
question. 

If you have Q J ro of a suit in which partner leads King, play the 
Jack, so that he will count you for Q or no more, and will not go 
on with the Ace. 

IN GENERAL,. Both the adversaries of Dummy should 
adopt the usual tactics for unblocking, etc., especially in no-trump- 



FOUnTH BAMD, (Bridge.) 21 

ers, and in some cases Dummy's exposed cards will make the 
matter more simple. For instance: You hold A Q alone, of a 
suit which partner leads. If you are the pone, and Dummy has 
not the King, play Ace and return the Queen. 

FOURTH HAND. There is only one difference from the 
usual methods in playing fourth hand, and that is in indicating 
sequences by winning with the best and returning the lowest to 
show the intermediate cards. For instance : Fourth player, holding 
K Q J X, wins with King and returns the Jack. Or with A K Q, 
wins with Ace and returns the Queen. The reason for this is that 
the declarer gains nothing by the information, for he knows from 
the first what cards are out against him ; but the information may be 
valuable to your partner, the second hand. If it is not the inten- 
tion to return the suit at once, the lowest of the sequence should 
be played. 

PLAYING TO THE SCORE. This is a most important 
element, and there is no surer indication of a careless or weak 
player than his inattention to the score. 

One cannot be too early impressed with the importance of sav- 
ing the game before trying to win it; although great risks may be 
taken to win a game that cannot be lost that hand. 

Never risk a sure contract in the hope of making more ; unless 
the two will win the game, and the odd trick will not win it. 
Never risk a trick that will save the game in the hope of winning 
more, and always set a contract while you can. 

DISCARDING. This is one of the still unsettled questions 
of bridge tactics, some believing in discarding the weak suit 
always ; others the strong suit always, and others one or the other 
according to the declaration. Against a trump declaration almost 
every one agrees that it is best to discard the best suit, so that if 
your partner gets in before you do, he may have something to 
guide him as to what your best chance is for any more tricks. 

Against no-trumpers, the majority of players hug every possible 
trick in their long suit and discard their weak suits, on the ground 
that it is folly to throw away cards that might win tricks. While 
this is true, it is also true that in discarding their weak suit they 
too often enable the declarer to win tricks that they might have 
stopped. For this reason, many players discard the suit they 
are not afraid of ; that is, their best protected suit, and keep 
what protection they have in the weak suits, even if it is nothing 
but three to a Jack or ten. Unfortunately, no one has yet been 
able to advance any argument sufficiently convincing for either 
system to demonstrate that it is better than the other. Some of 
the best teachers of the game advocate the discard from strength 
against no-trumps ; others teach the weak discard. 



22 (Bridge.) DISCARDING. 

ENCOUBAGING DISC AMDS. In order to distin- 
guish between discards from weakness and those from strength, 
many players use what is called an encouraging card. This is 
anything higher than a six, if they have protection in the suit, 
or want it led. A player with an established suit, and A 8 2 of 
another suit, for instance, would discard the 8, to encourage his 
partner to lead that suit and put him in. In case there is no card 
higher than the six, the reverse discard is used. With A 4 2, 
the play would be the 4 and then the 2. Some use this reverse 
or encouraging card to induce the partner to continue the suit he 
is leading, but the practice is confusing. 

THE DECLAMEM'S PLAT. The chief difference be- 
tween the play of the Dummy and partner, and that of their ad- 
versaries, is that there is no occasion for the former to play on 
the probability of partner's holding certain cards, because a 
glance will show whether he holds them or not. There is no 
hoping that he may have certain cards of re-entry, or strength 
in trumps, or that he will be able to stop an adverse suit, or any- 
thing of that sort, for the facts are exposed from the first. In- 
stead of adapting his play to the slowly ascertained conditions of 
partner's hand, the declarer should have it mapped out and de- 
termined upon before he plays a card. He may see two courses 
open to him ; to draw the trumps and make a long suit, or to 
secure such discards as will give him a good cross-ruff. A rapid 
estimate of the probable results of each line of play, a glance at 
the score, and his mind should be made up. Several examples 
of this foresight will be found in the example hands. 

Another point of difference is, that the declarer should play 
false cards whenever possible. He has not a partner who, if he 
plays the King, might jump to the conclusion that he can trump 
a suit, or has not the Queen. The more thproughly the adver- 
saries are confused, the greater the advantage to the declarer, 
especially in the end game. 

With a Trump. When the winning declarationis a suit for 
trumps, the declarer's first consideration upon getting into the 
lead must be whether or not to lead trumps. As a rule, the trumps 
should be led at once, so as to exhaust the adversaries ; but there 
are exceptional cases, the principal ones being: — 

Do not lead trumps from the strong trump hand if it would be to 
your advantage to put the other hand in the lead with a plain suit, 
so as to let the trump lead come from the weaker hand to the 
stronger, as when a finesse in trumps is desirable. 

Do not lead trumps if you have no good plain suit, and can 
make more tricks by playing for a cross-ruff. 

Do not lead trumps if the weaker hand can trump some of your 
losing cards first. It often happens that a losing trump can 
be used to wina trick before trumps are led. 



DUMMY'S PARTNER. (Bridge.) 23 

At No-truftip. The declarer's first care in a no-trumper must 
be to select the suit that he will play for. Four simple rules cover 
this choice : — 

1. Always lead from the weak hand to the strong if the suit is 

not already established. 

2. Play for the suit in which you have the greatest number of 
cards between the two hands, because it will probably yield the 

■ greatest number of tricks. 

3. If two suits are equal in number, play for the one in which 
you have the greatest number of cards massed in one hand. That 
is, if you have two suits of eight cards each, select the one that has 
six of those cards in one hand, in preference to the suit with four 
in each hand. 

4. Everything else being equal, play for the suit which is shown 
in the Dummy, so as to conceal from the adversaries as long as 
possible the strength in your own hand. 

A suit is said to be established when you can win every 
remaining trick in it, no matter who leads it. As it is very impor- 
tant that the hand which is longer in the suit should be able to 
lead it without interruption when it is established, good players 
make it a rule always to play the high cards from the shorter 
hand first, so as to get out of the way. With Q 10 and three 
others in one hand, K J and one other in the other hand, the play is 
the K and J from the short hand, keeping the Q 10 in the long hand. 

If there is any choice, that suit should be selected which con- 
tains the longest sequence, or the sequence with the fewest breaks. 
It should be noticed that the sequence need not be in one hand ; 
for it is almost as valuable if divided, and it is especially advanta- 
geous to have the higher cards concealed in the declarer's hand. 
Its continuity is the chief point. For instance : Declarer and 
Dummy hold between them one suit of K J 9 7 5 4 3, and an- 
other of Q J 10 9 8 7 5. The latter should be selected, because 
two leads must establish it. 

In establishing a long suit it is very important to note the fall 
of the missing cards in the sequences. In the first of the two 
combinations just given, the declarer should be as careful to 
watch for the fall of the 8 and 6 as for the A Q and 10. 

Leading. It is quite unnecessary to follow any system of 
leads, further than to distinguish between the combinations from 
which high or low cards are led. But it is important to remem- 
ber that although a high-card combination may be divided, it 
should be played as if in one hand. For instance : The declarer 
holds Q J X X X of a suit ; Dummy having A x x. By leading Q 
or J, Dummy is enabled to finesse, as if he held A Q J. The de- 
clarer holds K J x X X ; Dummy having Q x x. The play is to force 
the Ace, as if the combination of K Q J x x were in one hand. 

Many opportunities arise for leading the Ace first from a short 
suit, in order to secure a ruff on the second or third round. 



24 (Bridge.) SECOND HAND PLAY. 

Second Sand Flay. If any card is led by the adversaries 
which the fourth hand cannot win, the second hand should cover 
it if possible ; for unless he does so, his weakness will be exposed, 
and the suit will be continued. This is especially true of cases in 
which the second hand holds single honours, such as Jack and 
others, or Queen and others. Even the King should be played 
second hand in such cases, unless it is so well guarded that the 
Ace must fall before the King can be forced out. 

If the fourth hand can win the card led, it is seldom necessary 
to cover second hand. For instance : If the Jack of trumps is 
led, the dealer holding Q 9 7 4, and Dummy having A 6 3 2 ; there 
is no need to play the Queen. If the King is in third hand, 
such play would establish the Ten. If the King is with the leader, 
it or the Ten must make. If Dummy were second hand with the 
same cards, Jack being led, he should not play the Ace, for third 
hand must play the King to shut out the Queen. 

With A Q 9, partner having K and others, it is best to play A 
on J led. 

If the dealer has Ace and several others of a suit led, Dummy 
having only two small cards, a force may be certainly secured by 
passing the first round. If Dummy has the Ace, and passes 
second hand, the dealer failing to win the trick, the adversaries 
will of course see that the play is made in order to force the dealer 
on the third round. 

If Dummy is weak in trumps, and has only one card of a suit in 
which the dealer has Ace and others, the Ace should be played, 
and Dummy forced, unless there is a better game. 

It is a disadvantage to play in second hand from suits in which 
each has a guarded honour. If the dealer has Q x x, and Dummy 
has J X, they must make a trick in that suit if they play a small 
card second hand, and avoid leading the suit. The same is true 
of the adversaries ; but they must play on the chance that the 
partner has the honour, whereas the dealer knows it. 

Finessing. This is a very important part of the strategy of 
the game for the dealer. The adversaries of the dealer never 
finesse in bridge ; but the dealer himself reUes upon finessing for 
any extra tricks he may want. 

A finesse is any attempt to win a trick with a card which is not 
the best you hold, nor in sequence with it. Suppose you have 
Ace and Queen in the hand which is longer in the suit and 
lead from the shorter hand a small card. If you play the Queen, 
that is a finesse, because you hope to take a trick with it, although 
the King is against you. 

It is usually bad play to finesse when there are nine cards 
of the suit between the two hands, dealer's and Dummy's, because 
there is a good chance that the card you wish to finesse against 
may fall. 



DUCKING. (Bridge.) 25 

When it will be necessary to take two finesses in the same suit, 
the lead must come twice from the weaker hand. Suppose the 
dealer holds A Q J and others. If the first finesse of the Jack 
wins, he should put Dummy in again, so as to take a second finesse 
of the Queen. Suppose the dealer holds A J lo, and finesses the 
ten the first time. If it falls to the Queen, he should get Dummy 
in again, so as to take the second finesse with the Jack. The idea 
is to take advantage of the fact that the odds are against both King 
and Queen being in one hand. If they are both on the right, one 
of them will be played on the small caroled from Dummy, and then 
the dealer can win it with the Ace and force out the other high card 
with his Jack, which will have become one of the second and 
third-best of the suit. 

JRe-entri/ Cards. After a suit has been cleared, or estab- 
lished, it will be necessary to get into the lead with it. For this 
purpose the dealer must be careful to preserve a re-entry card in 
the hand which is longer in the suit. Suppose that Dummy's 
long suit is clubs, but that the Ace is against him, and that his 
only winning card outside is the Ace of diamonds. If diamonds 
are led, and the dealer has the Queen, he must let the lead come up 
to his hand so as to keep Dummy's Ace of diamonds for a re-entry 
to bring the clubs into play after the Ace has been forced out and 
the suit established. Many of the prettiest plays in bridge are in 
the management of re-entry cards. 

Underplay. When the dealer is afraid of a suit which is 
opened against him, and has only one winning card in it, such as 
the Ace, he should hold up that card until the third hand has no 
more of the suit to lead to his partner. The original leader will 
then have to get in himself, because his partner cannot help him ; 
but if the dealer gave up the Ace on the first trick, it would not 
matter which partner got into the lead, they would return to the 
suit first opened. 

Ducking. This is a method of play by which the dealer hopes to 
make his own suit even when the hand that is longer in it has no re- 
entry card. Suppose Dummy holds six clubs to the Ace King, and 
not another trick in his hand. The dealer has two small clubs only 
to lead. If the two winning clubs are led right out, it is impossible to 
catch the Q J lo, no matter how those cards lie, therefore the dealer 
leads a club, but makes no attempt to win the first round. No 
matter what is played by the adversaries he ducks the first round, 
keeping his Ace and King. Next time the dealer gets in, he leads 
another club, and now he is able to win the second and third rounds 
of the suit, and will probably catch all the adverse cards and es- 
tablish it. 

The dealer's play always requires careful planning of the whole 
hand in advance. 



26 (Bridge.) SUGGESTIONS FOB PLAY. 

THE NULLO. Although not yet in the official laws of 
the game, this bid seems to be a popular one with many play- 
ers. It is a contract to lose tricks instead of winning them, and 
is primarily a defence against overwhelmingly strong no- 
trumpers. A bid of three nullos means that the declarer will 
force his opponents to win nine tricks, he winning four only, 
so that each trick under seven counts for the nullo player on 
his side. 

SCOMIIfG. There is some difference of opinion as to the 
proper value for the nullo, but the general verdict seems to be 
to put it just below the no-trumper at lo a trick, no honours. 
Two no-trumps will outbid two nullos. If the adversaries of a 
nullo revoke, the declarer can give them three of his tricks, or 
take 100 in honours as penalty. If he revokes, they take lOO 
penalty as usual. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR BIDDING. The dealer should 
never bid a nullo originally, as it gives his partner no informa- 
tion as to the distribution of the suits. When any player has 
one long suit good for either no trumps or nullos, such as A K 
Q 6 4 2, he should "shout," bidding a trick more than necessary. 
Singletons and missing suits are valuable parts of a nullo hand, 
as they afford opportunities for discards. It is always danger- 
ous to bid a nullo without the deuce of the longest suit. If the 
dealer bids a spade, his partner may safely bid one nullo, because 
the contract is seldom or never obtained for less than two or 
three, but he should not persist in the nullo if his partner does 
not assist it. The greater the opposition from a no-trumper, the 
more probable that the nullo will succeed, but it is a dangerous 
declaration in any case. The player with aces and kings is sure 
to win tricks, regardless of his partner's hand, but deuces and 
treys are not sure to lose, as the partner may have all high 
cards, although not the tops. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR THE PLAT. The declarer 
should count up the tricks he must win, and as a rule win them 
early, bunching his high cards as much as possible. Suits with 
two small cards and two high ones must win one trick, but 
should escape with that. The great point is to lead losing cards 
from one hand and discard dangerous cards in other suits from 
the other hand whenever possible. 

The opponents of a nullo should lead their shortest suits, so 
as to get discards later, keeping their eyes on the dummy and 
forcing it to win tricks whenever possible, but never allowing 
it to get a discard. The partner's leads should be returned un- 
less a singleton can be led at once. It is usual to lead the top 
of two cards, the intermediate of three or more, and to avoid 
leading suits that are safe, with small cards at the bottom. 



ILLUSTRATIVE HANDS. (Briige.) 27 



ILLUSTRATIVE AUCTION HANDS. 

Z is the dealer in both instances, but Y makes the winning 
declaration, so that B leads for the first trick. The first illus- 
tration is straight auction ; the second is a nullo. The under- 
lined card wins the trick and the card under it is the next one led. 



A 


Y 


B 


z 




A Y B Z 


Q# 


2 ♦ 
6 ♦ 

J ♦ 


9* 
8 4» 

4 t^ 

3 ♦ 

4 

7 

8 
(3? 9 

<:? 2 

♦ lO 

^ 6 
^lO 

<;? A 


4 2 

C? 3 

<? 7 

^ J 
50 
J 


I 
2 
3 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 

9 

10 

II 

12 

13 


AO 


QO 
6 
40 
3 ^ 
Q* 

* 6 

^ J 


J 

8 
^ A 

9 « 
K* 


9 
5 
3 

A 4k 


A « 


KO 


K* 


lOO 


5 4» 
2 
lOO 

C 4 
7 4» 

<^ 8 

4 4 

* 5 

* 8 

* J 


J ♦ 

5 « 

7 
* 5 


QO 


6 ^ 
* K 


9 
3 
^ 5 

* 3 

♦ Q 


* J 
^ 5 
V Q 


A 


^ 9 
4 3 

^ K 

(5 8 
^ 6 

<;? 2 


KO 


^ 7 
J^ 4 

2 « 

^ 4 
(^ 3 
2 


6 


♦ 2 

4 ♦ 

♦ A 


4 9 
A 7 

VQ 
C? K 


7 « 


A A 


*io 

4 8 

* 7 


* K 


♦ 9 


* 6 


8 4 



In the first example the dealer, Z, bids a heart. A says one 
royal and Y two clubs. This bid of Y's denies any support for 
his partner's hearts, but shows a supporting minor suit, in case 
Z is strong enough to go on with the hearts. B bids two 
royals as he can stop the hearts twice and ruff the clubs. Z 
cannot pursue the hearts, but shows his supporting minor suit, 
bidding three diamonds. This says to Y, "Go no trumps if 
you can stop the spades." When A passes, having bid his 
hand on the first round, Y goes two no trumps and makes 
game. B leads the top of his partner's declared suit, and A 
leads a fourth round, hoping to get in with the club jack. At 
tricks 8 and g, B signals control in hearts. A keeps the pro- 
tection in clubs to the end and saves a trick by it. Y keeps two 
clubs in dummy, so that if club is led, he will have one to re- 
turn after he has made his diamonds. 

In the second example, they are playing nullos, Y declaring. 
The points in the play are holding the spade queen, so as to 
lead a diamond or a spade at trick 6. This B prevents, hoping 
to force two clubs on Y and Z and set the contract. At trick 
7, if the hearts are split, the queen must win the ten. If not, 
Z must win one heart trick. Y makes his contract, losing four 
odd. 



28 (Bridge.) 



BRIDGE. 

The difiFerence between straight bridge, as it is sometimes 
called, and auction is in the method of selecting the trump, which 
must be declared by the dealer or his partner, the opponents 
having nothing to say except to double the declaration if they 
think it will not win the odd trick. Another point is that either 
side can score toward game by getting the odd trick or more, 
there being no penalties for failure to make the odd except losing 
the value of the tricks because the dealer never declares to make 
anv given number of tricks on the hand. 

There are some irregularities which are peculiar to straight 
bridge that would not apply to auction. These are fully covered 
by the following description of the game, all other matters, such 
as the correct card to lead and the manner of combining the 
hands, have been fully described in connection with auction. 

MAKING THE TRUMP, This is the chief peculiarity 
in bridge. The trump is not turned up, but the suit is named by 
the dealer or his partner, after they have examined their cards. 
In order properly to understand the considerations which guide 
them in making the trump, one should first be familiar with the 
values attached to the tricks when certain suits are trumps. The 
first six tricks taken by one side do not count; but each trick 
above that number counts toward game according to the following' 
table : — 

When Spades are trumps, each trick counts 2 points. 
" Clubs " " " " " 4 " 

" Diamonds " " " " " 6 " 

" Hearts " " " " " 8 " 

" there is no trump " " " 12 " 

Better to understand the importance of this variation in value, 
it should be noticed that the game is 30 points ; so that if two 
partners won 3 by cards with no trump, or 4 by cards with hearts 
for trumps, they would win the game in one deal. On the other 
hand, if either of the black suits were trumps, they could not lose 
the game, even if a slam were made against them. 

It will thus be evident that two considerations influence the 
player whose privilege it is to make the trump : First, to win as 
much as possible, if he has the cards to do it. Second, to save 
himself, if he is weak ; or the game, if it is in danger. As a gen- 
eral proposition, it may be said that his decision will be indicated 
by the colour of the trump he names. If it is red, he is strong, and 
plays to win ; if it is black, he is taking to the woods. A further 



VALUE OF TRICKS. (Bridge) 29 

element may enter into his calculations, the state of the score. If 
he feels sure of the few points necessary to win the game or the 
rubber with a black trump, there is no necessity to risk making it 
red. This is a part of the subject which we shall go into further 
when we come to the suggestions for good play. 

The dealer has the first say in making the trump. If he does 
not feel himself strong enough to make it no trump, or red, although 
his hand may be black enough to promise a good score in clubs or 
spades, he should transfer to his partner the privilege of making 
the trump by saying : " I leave it to you, partner." Guided by this 
indication, his partner must fix on some suit for the trump or go 
no-trumps, and must announce it. 

Either the dealer or his partner may elect to play without a 
trump, if he has sufficient strength in all the suits to do so. 

UtnEGTJLAItlTIES IN DECLAHING. If the 
dealer's partner makes a declaration before being asked to do 
so, either adversary may demand that the declaration shall stand, 
or that there shall be a new deal. In England, only the eldest 
hand. A, may exact the penalty. If the dealer's partner passes 
the declaration to the dealer, either adversary may claim a new 
deal or may insist that the player in error shall make the declara- 
tion. In England, the eldest hand exacts this penalty. 

Should an adversary of the dealer make a declaration, the dealer 
may, after looking at his own hand, either have a new deal or pro- 
ceed as if nothing had been said. 

SETTLING THE VALUE OF THE THICKS. The 
trump suit having been announced, the first hand or leader. A, be- 
fore he plays a card, has the privilege of doubling the value of the 
tricks if he thinks the opponents cannot win the odd trick with the 
trump named. To do this, he simply says : " I double." If he 
does not feel justified in doubling, he transfers the opportunity to 
his partner, by asking him : " Shall I play ? " That is to say, 
" shall we play without doubling ? " If his partner will not double, 
he answers : "Yes." Either A or B having doubled, it becomes 
the privilege of the player who made the trump to double him again ; 
making the value of the trick four times greater than that given 
in the table. If he does not do so, he says : " I pass " ; and his 
partner then has the privilege. If either the dealer or his partner 
doubles, the adversary who first doubled may repeat it ; or if he 
passes, his partner may double. This doubling may be continued 
until the value of each trick over the book is loo points, when it 
must cease. 

IBHEGULARITIES IN DOUBLING. If the pone 
doubles before his partner has asked him " Shall I play ? " the 
maker of the trump shall say whether or not the double shall 
stand. If he allows it to stand it may be redoubled. Should 
a player redouble out of turn, the one whom he re-doubles shall 
have the right to say whether or not the re-double shall stand. 



30 (Bridge.) METHOD OF PLAYING. 

Any consultation between partners as to doubling or redoubling 
will entitle their adversaries to insist on a new deal. 

If the eldest hand leads without asking his partner's permission 
to play, the pone cannot double without the consent of the maker 
of the trump. Should the pone ask the eldest hand, " Shall I 
play?" that does not deprive the eldest hand of the right to 
double. 

METHOD OF PLATING. The trump suit and the value 
of the tricks settled, the player on the dealer's left begins by lead- 
ing any card he pleases. After he has played, the second player, 
Y, lays his hand face up on the table, and takes no further part in 
the play beyond availing himself of the privilege of asking his part- 
ner if he has none of a suit to which he renounces. From the mo- 
ment that Y's cards are exposed the game becomes Dummy, the 
dealer, Z, playing Y's cards for him. 

The dealer gathers the tricks for his side ; either adversary may 
gather for the other. The first six tricks taken by one side make 
a " book " and all over six count toward game. The tricks should be 
so laid that they can be readily counted by any player at the table. 

The Itevoke. Should a player fail to follow suit when able 
to do so, it is a revoke. Dummy cannot revoke under any cir- 
cumstances ; but the penalty for any other player is the loss of three 
tricks for each revoke made, which are taken from the side in error 
at the end of the hand. In England, the penalty may be exacted 
in any of three ways ; three tricks, or the value of three tricks in 
points, or the addition of a like amount to opponent's score. A slam 
cannot be scored if the tricks necessary to make it were taken for 
the revoke penalty. The side making a revoke cannot win the 
game that hand, no matter what they score ; but they may play the 
hand out, and count all they make to within two points of game, or 
28. Players cannot score a slam in a hand in which they have 
revoked. 

Exposed Cards. If the dealer or his partner exposes a 
card before the declaration has been made, either adversary may 
claim a new deal. If any player exposes a card before the first card 
is led, his partner forfeits the right to double or re-double. If the 
pone exposes a card in this manner, the dealer may call it an ex- 
posed card, or he may require the eldest hand not to lead that suit. 

If, during the play of the hand, either adversary of the dealer ex- 
poses a card, by playing two cards at once, dropping one face up on 
the table, or holding it so that his partner can see any portion of its 
face, the card so exposed must be left face upward on the table, and 
is liable to be called. 

Exposed cards can be called by the dealer at any time, but he 
cannot compel the play of a card which would constitute a revoke. 

Leading Out of Turn. If either of the dealer's adversa- 
ries lead out of turn, the dealer may either call the card exposed, or 
may call a suit when it is the turn of either adversary to lead. If 



GOOD PLAY. (Bridge.) 31 

the dealer leads out of turn, there is no penalty, but he cannot 
correct the error if the second hand has played. 

Cards Played in Error. If any player but the Dummy 
omits to play to a trick and does not correct the error until he has 
played to the next trick, his adversaries may claim a new deal. If 
anjr one, excepting Dummy, plays two cards to a trick and does 
not discover it, he is responsible for any revokes that he may make 
in consequence of not having the card in his hand. 

OBJECT OF THE GAME. As in all members of the 
whist family, the object in Bridge is to win tricks, the highest card 
played of the suit led winning, and trumps, if any, winning against 
all other suits. At the end of each hand the side that has won any 
tricks in excess of the book, scores them, after multiplying their 
number by the unit of value settled upon by the doubling, if any 
took place. As soon as either side reaches or passes 30, they win 
the game; but the hand must be played out, and all tricks taken 
must be counted. The total is written on the score-sheet ; the score 
of the losers standing to their credit until the final accounting at the 
end of the rubber. 

RUBBERS. Three games, of 30 points each, constitute a 
rubber; but if the first two are won by the same players, the 
third is not played. The side winning the majority of the games 
adds 100 (rubber) points to its score. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD PLAY. The points 
which the beginner may profitably study in Bridge are chiefly in 
making the trump, and in the methods by which the hands of the 
partners are combined, so as to work together. 

Making the Trump. The bridge player's first considera- 
tion should be the state of the score, which will show how many 
points he needs to win the game. Let us suppose this number to 
be 12, he having already scored 18. These 12 points can be made 
by winning six by cards with spades for trumps ; three by cards 
with clubs; or two by cards with diamonds or hearts. But if 
the hand can be played without a trump, the odd trick wins the 
game. 

It is hardly necessary to say that a player would be very foolish 
to engage himself to win six by cards if the odd trick would equally 
answer his purpose ; nor would he undertake to win three by cards 
with clubs for trumps, if he had as good a chance of making two 
by cards with diamonds or hearts. In other words, the player 
should not make the trump which promises the greatest number of 
tricks, but should select that which will yield the largest number of 
points. 

It is for this reason that every good player first considers the 
advisability of making it "no-trump," and if he thinks that injudi- 
cious, hearts or diamonds, leaving the black suits as a last resort. 



32 (Bridge.) 00 OD FLAY. 

It is the custom invariably to make it no-trump with three Aces, 
unless the hand is strong enough for a heart make, or holds great 
honour value in red. 

In estimating the probabilities of trick-taking, it is usual to count 
the partner for three tricks on the average. Conservative players 
do not depend on him for more than two. Generally speaking, 
the maker of the trump should have four pretty certain tricks in 
his own hand. 

The dealer should seldom announce a black trump unless he has 
a certainty of the game in his own hand, without any assistance 
from his partner, or unless he has such a poor hand that he must 
make it a " defensive spade." If he cannot safely make it no-trump 
or red, he should pass, and allow his partner the chance. With 
such a hand as seven clubs, including four honours, and absolutely 
worthless cards otherwise, the dealer should make it clubs, except 
when the adversaries have won the first game, and are about 20 
points in the second. This makes it not unlikely that they will win 
the rubber on the next hand with their deal. Under such circum- 
stances the dealer must invariably leave it to his partner, in the 
hope that he can save the rubber by making it no-trump. 

The dealer's partner should be aware that there cannot be any 
reasonable hope of four tricks in red in the leader's hand, or a red 
trump would have been announced; and unless he has at least 
five probable tricks in his own hand he should not make it red. 
With three Aces he should make it no-trump. Four Aces is al- 
ways a no-trumper, no matter what the rest of the hand may be. 
If he is obliged to make it black, and has three or four probable 
tricks, he s" ould announce whichever suit he is best in. Attention 
should be paid to the score; for in many instances the suit must 
be selected so that the adversaries cannot win the game with the 
odd trick, even if they double. 

Doubling. The dealer or his partner having announced the 
trump, the adversary should carefully consider the score before 
doubling or playing. Most players consider themselves justified 
in doubling when they have six reasonably certain tricks in their 
own hands, trusting partner for one only. Great caution should 
be used in doubling no-trumpers, the position of the lead being care- 
fully studied ; because the odd trick usually settles the fate of the 
game when a no-trumper is doubled. While a player with the 
lead, and seven certain tricks in one suit, should double a no- 
trumper, his partner would be very foolish to do so, unless he had, 
in addition to his long suit, the heart ace ; for it is a convention- 
ality of the game for A to lead hearts if B doubles a no-trumper. 

The original maker of the trump should be very strong to justify 
him in re-doubling the adversary. If he had four probable tricks 
originally, he may count the adversary who doubles for five, and 
of the four doubtful tricks remaining, the odds are against partner 
having the three which would be necessary to win the odd trick. 



GOOD PLAY. (Bridge.) 33 

Opening JLeads, The first lead must necessarily be made in 
the dark, but the selection of the suit will often depend on the 
trump, and whether it was named by the dealer or by his partner. 

If the dealer has made it red, and A has the A K of any plain 
suit, he should play the King, so as to retain the lead until Dum- 
my's hand is exposed. 

If the dealer passes it to his partner, he is probably weak in red. 
If Y makes it hearts, A should lead a supporting diamond, unless 
he has strength in another suit. If Y has made it diamonds, A 
should lead a supporting heart. But in either case, if A has in his 
hand such cards as A K, even of a black suit, he should play the 
King, and wait to see the Dummy's hand. If Y has made it black, 
A must be guided by his own cards, but should give a red suit the 
preference for his opening lead. 

Details as to the correct card to lead and the play after the 
opening lead have been fully covered in connection with auction 
bridge, which see. 

The discard is usually coupled with the system of opening 
a^inst a doubled no-trumper. If your partner says he is ''heart 
and strong" \\Q means that if you double a no-trumper and he 
is eldest hand, he will lead you his best heart, and that he will dis- 
card his strong suit when playing against a no-trumper. If he 
says he is "heart and weak/* he will lead the top heart ; but he 
will discard his weak suit. If he says he is "weak and weak," 
he means that he will lead the shortest or weakest suit in his hand, 
if you double no-trumps, that being the almost universal custom 
in England. 

All the situations which have been covered in the play of the 
second, third and fourth hands at auction can be studied with 
advantage by the bridge player, as the manner of securing the 
best results from certain distributions of the cards is the same 
in both games. The chief difference lies in the value of the 
tricks, because at bridge the opponents of the declaration can 
score toward game, and it is therefore frequently advisable to 
take a finesse or make a play that would be quite unjustifiable 
at auction, if there is any chance that such a play may win a 
game that would be otherwise impossible. 

Close attention to the score is an important factor in bridge 
which does not operate in auction, because in that game any 
previous score toward game is seldom of any use, eighteen out 
of every twenty deals being game hands or nothing, and the 
dealer having no more advantage in the selection of the trump 
than any other player. In bridge, one always calculates that the 
dealer will go out if he is i8 or 20 up on the score, as almost 
any suit will do. This prompts the side that has the deal, or a 
chance to go game, to lose no opportunity to win at once, before 
the other side gets a chance at it. 



34 (Bridge.) ILLUSTBATIVE HANDS. 

ILLUSTRATIVE BRIDGE HANDS. 

The dealer is Z in both instances. In the first example, he makes 
it no-trump. In the second, Dummy, Y, makes it no-trump. A 
leads in both cases : — 



A Y 


B Z 




A Y 


B 


Z 


70 


30 


J 


KO 


I 


C?6 


«:? A 


^7 


<;?3 


♦ Q 


♦ 2 


♦ K 


4 J 


2 


45 


4K 


♦ 3 


42 


AO 


80 


60 


20 


3 


48 


« lO 


♦ 7 


«J 




















40 


QO 


2 ♦ 


5 


4 


50 


30 


*A 


♦ 4 


♦ 4 


♦ 3 


♦ A 


« lO 


5 


^K 


^2 


<3?9 


<? J 


^3 


^5 


^ J 


<y A 


6 


<:?5 


^4 


60 


^Q 


8 « 


4^9 


^2 


♦ 8 


7 


5 4 


3 ♦ 


6 « 


*Q 


9« 


* 7 


3* 


^4 


8 


70 


4* 


8 * 


♦ 9 


^6 


« 6 


4* 


C?Q 


9 


90 


40 


10* 


♦ 6 


^Q 


*5 


<:?8 


7 ♦ 


lO 


A* 


9« 


J ♦ 


"T* 


90 


J ♦ 


5 « 


Q« 


II 


^ lO 


Q* 


80 


2« 


lOO 


^7 


6« 


A» 


12 


^8 


K* 


lOO 


20 


<?K 


^ lO 


K» 


104» 


13 


KO 


AO 


QO 


J 



The first of these examples shows the importance of playing for 
the suit which is longest between the two hands. Observe that 
the dealer plays the high cards from the hand which is shorter 
in the suit, and on the second round of clubs is careful to give up 
the higher of two cards, so as to get out of Dummy's way and 
clear, or establish, the suit. B, hoping to get his partner into the 
lead again, leads a heart up to Dummy's weakness, and leads a heart 
which will beat Dummy's best heart. At the eleventh trick, unless 
the dealer can make two tricks in spades by the finesse, he cannot 
win the game. 

The second example shows the importance of preserving a re- 
entry card in the hand which is longer in the suit the dealer intends 
playing for. If the dealer lets the heart come up to him, it is true 
that he will make win the first trick with the Jack ; but he will never 
win a trick with the Queen, and therefore he can never get in to 
make his clubs, even if he establishes them. By putting up the 
Ace of hearts, and keeping both Q and J in his own hand, he is 
certain of a re-entry in hearts. On the second round of clubs, the 
adversary still holding up or underplaying, the dealer must be care- 
ful to overtake Dummy's ten with his own Jack, so as to continue 
the suit without losing the lead. 



(Bridge.) 35 



VARIETIES OF BRIDGE. 

TirnEE HAND AUCTION. This is a game for three 
active players only, but four may form a table. Each player 
is for himself, there being no partnerships except the temporary 
combination against the declarer for each deal. The player who 
cuts the lowest card chooses his seat and cards and the player 
with the next lower cut sits on his left, the other on his right. 

The cards are dealt one at a time into four packets, of thirteen 
each, just as in the ordinary game of auction, the odd hand re- 
maining untouched until the winning declaration is decided. 
The dealer makes the first bid and then each bids in turn until 
two pass. The penalty for bidding out of turn is 50 points added 
to the score of each opponent, for doubling out of turn it is 100. 
If both pass the irregularity there is no penalty, but if only one 
passes, the third may call attention to it. 

The highest bidder takes up the dummy hand, sorts it and 
lays it on the table opposite him, face up, as soon as the eldest 
hand leads a card. If there is a player sitting opposite the high- 
est bidder, he moves to the vacant seat. 

The game is 30 points, and the winner of a game adds 125 
points to his score at once. The first player to win two games 
not only adds the 125 for the second game, but 250 more for 
winning the rubber. Honours are scored by each player separately, 
every honour being worth as much as a trick in that suit. Four 
or five in one hand count double. At no trump, the aces count 
for 10 each to the holders, four in one hand 100. The de- 
clarer scores his dummy's honours. 

At the end of the rubber, each wins from or loses to each 
of the others. The score is usually made up in this way, the 
final amounts to the credit of each being shown in the top line: 

A, 240 B, 980 C, 456 



— 740 + 740 + 215 

— 215 + 524 — 524 

— 955 +1264 — 309 

DUPLICATE AUCTION. This game may be played in 
any of the ways described for the movement of trays and players 
under the head of duplicate whist. Tricks and honours are scored 
as usual, but there are no games or rubbers. Should the declarer 
make 30 or more points on a single hand he gets 125 points bonus 
in the honour column. This game is now covered by the official 
laws for auction, which see. 



36 (Bridge.) BRIDGE FOB THREE. 

BRIDGE FOB THREE, Sometimes called Dummy 
Bridge, or Cut-Throat. The lowest cut deals the first hand 
and plays the Dummy. If the dealer will not declare on his 
own cards, he passes, and Dummy must declare according to a 
fixed schedule. With three or four aces ; no-trumps, no matter 
what the rest of the hand may be. With less than three aces, 
Dummy cannot make it no-trumps under any circumstances ; but 
must name the longest suit. If two suits are equal, the pips on 
each are counted, reckoning aces as ii each, other honours at lo 
each, and the larger number of pips is the suit. If this is still 
equal, the more valuable suit must be declared. 

No one but the eldest hand may double, and no one but the 
dealer may redouble. In order to make this fair for both sides, 
it is usual to let the pone sort and declare on Dummy's cards, so 
that the dealer shall not see them until the first card is led. 

No matter what points are made for tricks, the dealer only can 
score them below the line, to count toward game. If the adver- 
saries make the odd trick, they score above the line, in the honour 
column, so that no one can go out except on his own deal. 

After the deal is finished and scored, the players move, so as to 
bring about a change of partners. The one on the left of the 
vacant place moves into it, and the player on his right deals. 
Three of these movements bring about the original position. 

Each player's score is kept individually, and when one of the 
three has won two games, the scores are added up and balanced, 
after giving the winner loo rubber points. Each then pays the 
difference to the others. Suppose the winner to be A, with 320 ;. 
B having 80 and C 64. A wins 240 from B and 256 from C ; 
while B wins 16 from C. 

BRIDGE FOR TWO. Sometimes called "Chinese 
Bridge." The dealer gives his adversary four cards face down, 
and then deals four to himself, also face down. He then dis- 
tributes the remainder of the pack by dealing to his adversary 
and himself alternately, one card at a time, keeping them separate 
from the first four. Without lifting or looking at any of these 
twenty-two cards, each player places eleven of them in two rows, 
face down, and then the other eleven on the top of the first, but 
face up. This gives each player eleven cards face up on the table, 
covering eleven face down under them, and a separate hand of four 
cards. 

The dealer looks at his four cards, without showing them to his 
adversary, and after due consideration of what he sees on the table, 
declares. His adversary can double if he likes, or he can simply 
play a card. Tricks and honours count as in the ordinary rubber. 

The declaration made, the non-dealer leads any card he pleases, 
from the four in his hand or from the eleven face up on the table, 



MISERY BRIDGE. (Bridge.) 37 

and the dealer must follow suit if he can, either from his hand or 
from the table. The moment a card is played from the table, the 
card under it must be turned face up, and becomes playable ; but 
no card which is on the top of another card can be shifted, so that 
the card under it cannot be turned up until its covering card is le- 
gitimately played away. 

The second player having played to the trick, the original leader 
must play to it in his turn, and then his adversary plays the fourth 
card, completing the trick. The winner of the trick takes it in, 
turns it down, and leads for the next trick, and so on until all 
thirteen tricks have been played. The winner of the rubber scores 
100 points extra. 

MISERY BRIDGE. This is a game for two players, who 
sit opposite each other. Four hands of thirteen cards each are 
dealt, the dealer beginning on his left. Before declaring, the 
dealer may discard any number of cards from one to four, laying 
them on the table at his left, but face up, where they so remain 
during the play of the hand. 

In place of this discard, the dealer takes an equal number of 
cards from the top of the hand on his left. These are not shown 
to the adversary. Having discarded and drawn, the dealer de- 
clares. There is no doubling; but the dealer himself may under- 
take to win at least eight of the thirteen tricks, and if he announces 
"eight tricks," he can score them at double value if he succeeds. 
If he fails to get the full eight, his adversary scores ten points 
penalty, the dealer scoring nothing at all. No matter what the 
trump suit, the penalty of ten points remains the same. 

After discarding, drawing and declaring, the stock hand is laid 
aside, still face down, and the non-dealer takes up and sorts the 
hand on his left, turning it face up on the table, like a Dummy. 
This hand belongs to the non-dealer, who leads first and plays both 
hands, so that the dealer is practically opposed to two hands of 
thirteen cards each. 

If the dealer does not want to discard and draw, he can play 
misery f which is a no-trumper, but played to lose tricks, instead 
of to win them. If the dealer takes more than one trick, his ad- 
versary scores five points penalty for each so taken. But if the 
dealer succeeds in taking only one trick, or none at all, he scores 
five points for every trick his adversary has taken over the book of 
six. 

PIVOT BRIDGE. This is simply a movement of the play- 
ers, very popular in social games, which requires that the four 
originally seated at a table shall remain at that table until the game 
is ended, and shall not cut for partners after the first rubber, but 
change in regular order. The usual way is for the first dealer to 



38 (Bridge.) DUPLICATE BRIDGE. 

sit still all the time, the three other players moving round her in a 
circle at the end of each rubber. This will compel the player on 
her left to pass behind her and take the seat on her right. At the 
end of three rubbers, each will have had each of the others for a part- 
ner. When there are a number of tables in play, it will be neces- 
sary to have a prize for each, giving the first choice to the player 
who has the highest score in the room. 

When this method is adopted, it is not necessary to deduct the 
lower score from the higher at the end of each rubber, so that each 
player can keep what she gets, the comparative result being the 
same if the players remain at the same table. This method is open 
to the objection that if two strong players are opposed to weak ones 
all the time, it is a great advantage. It is also liable to abuse, if 
four players agree to double everything, so that some one at the 
table shall be high score. 

PROGRESSIVE BRIDGE. This is simply a movement 
of the players from table to table, much as described under the 
heading ot compass whist. The players may either agree that 
all the N & S pairs shall sit still, all the E & W pairs moving one 
table ; or they may arrange for the winners to move in a certain 
direction. In all progressive games, sometimes called Drive 
Bridge, there are no rubbers or games, as one table would keep 
all the others waiting. An even number of deals, usually four, is 
the rule for each round before moving. 

DUPLICATE BRIDGE. This is bridge with the hands 
kept separate and put into trays to be carried from table to table. 
The methods will be found fully described under the titles for du- 
plicate whist. In order to prevent the players from giving too much 
attention to the honours in declaring, it is sometimes the rule to add 
a certain number of points to the trick scores, as a bonus. This is 
called Bridge to the Score. Four deals is a round, before chang- 
ing adversaries, and fifty points are added to the score of the side 
having the greater trick score. Another method is to add fifty 
points to the side winning a game, if a game is won before moving, 
and then to add a definite number of points for every trick point 
that one side may be ahead of the other on unfinished games; or as 
many points as the higher score below the line. 

None of these methods have proved attractive enough to be popu- 
lar, however, although the first is the one commonly adopted for 
club tournaments, adding fifty points bonus for the higher trick 
score, regardless of any games or rubbers. All the additions of per- 
centages require special score cards and the services of some al- 
leged expert to run the game, and even then they are not attractive. 
The problem of duplicate bridge remains as yet unsolved, so far as 
a popular game is concerned. 



SIX-HAND BRIDGE. 



(Bridge.) 39 



SIX-HAND BRIDGE. This is played by six persons, sit- 
ting with two card tables pushed together so as to make one. Each 
dealer sits at the long end of the table, the two dealers being part- 
ners. On each side of one sits a pair of adversaries so that the 
initial arrangement, if pair A had the deal, would be this : — 





B 


c 






5 


6 




I 




' 


4 




2 


3 





Numbers are placed on the tables to indicate the positions to 
which the players shall move after each deal. The player at 6 goes 
to 5 ; 4 to 3 ; 3 to 2 ; 2 to i, and i to 6. Each pair of partners, as 
they fall into the end seats, have the deal. 

If the dealer at either end will not declare on his own cards, he 
passes it, and the Dummy hand opposite him must be handed to 
the dealer that sits at the other end of the long table, who must de- 
clare for his partner. The usual four hands are dealt and played 
at each table, and scored as usual. 

Three scores must be kept, because there are three separate rub- 
bers going on at once, — that between A and B ; between A and C, 
and between B and C If one pair wins its rubber against one of 
the others, three players will be idle at one end of the table for one 
deal, but then all will come into play again, for the next deal. Some 
persons think this is better than four playing a rubber while two 
look on. 



DOUBLE DUMMY BRIDGE. In this form of the game, 
the dealer always deals for himself. His adversary sits next him 
on the left for the first deal, and leads for the first trick before the 
Dummies are exposed. There is no doubling. On the next deal, 
the adversary must sort his Dummy's hand and must lead from it, 
before looking at his own. If the declaration is passed. Dummy 
must make it on the lines laid down for passed makes in Bridge for 
Three, which has already been described. There is no penalty for 
a revoke made by either Dummy ; but otherwise the laws of bridge 
govern. 



40 (Bridge.) KING'S BRIDGE. 

DRAW BRIDGE. This is double Dummy; but instead of 

laying Dummy's cards face up on the table, each player is provided 
with a holder in which he places his partner's cards in such a manner 
that his adversary cannot see them. As it comes to Dummy's turn 
to play to each trick, a card is drawn from the holder. All four 
hands are responsible for revokes. 

KING'S BRIDGE. This is sometimes called Four Hand 
Bridge^ each player being for himself. The movements of the 
players are the same as those described in Pivot Bridge, one player 
sitting still all the time, while each of the others in turn becomes 
his partner for four deals. 

The dealer declares. If he passes, the player sitting opposite him 
must make it according to the mechanical rules given in Bridge 
for Three. There is no doubling. The score of each player is 
kept in a separate column, and the trick and honour score is put 
down in one lump, plus or minus, the new score being added to or 
deduced from the previous one. It is simpler, however, to put 
down nothing but the plus scores, so that when the declaration is 
defeated, the points are credited to each of the three other players. 
Suppose the dealer wins i6and i6. He is put down as 32 plus. If 
he should lose 12 and 30, his score would not be touched, but each 
of the others would be put down 42 plus. 

There are no games or rubbers. At the end of four deals the 
players change partners by the pivot system. At the end of twelve 
deals, each has played four deals with each of the others. The 
scores are then added up and balanced by the method described in 
connection with the game of Skat. 

BEVEBSI BRIDGE. This is playing bridge to lose, and 
the object of the declaration is to pick out the make which is likely 
to win the least tricks. At the end of the hand, each side scores 
what the other makes ; so that if the dealer declares no-trumps, and 
loses two by cards, and finds thirty aces against him, he scores 24 
and 30 to his own credit. The adversaries can double if they wish 
to, and all the rules of regular bridge apply, except that if a revoke 
is made the usual penalty is reversed, the player in error taking three 
tricks instead of losing them. 

SHORT BRIDGE. This is bridge without any doubling or 
rubbers, and is played for so much a game instead of for so much a 
point, the winners being the side that has the higher score for 
tricks and honours combined when either side reaches thirty points 
below the line. It is a good game for occasions upon which the 
players may be interrupted at any time, or have not time to finish 
SI full rubber. 



(Bridge.) 41 

THE AMERICAN LAWS OF BRIDGE. 

Revised to November, 1913. 

Reprinted and Copyrighted, 1913, by permission of The Whist 
Club of New York. 



THE RUBBER. 



1. The partners first winning two games win the rubber. 
When the first two games decide the rubber, a third is not played. 

SCORING. 

2. Each side has a trick score and a score for all other counts, 
generally known as the honour score. In the trick score the only 
entries made are points for tricks won (see Law 3), which count 
both toward the game and in the total of the rubber. 

All other points, including honours, penalties, slam, little slam, 
and undertricks, are recorded in the honour score, which counts 
only in the total of the rubber. 

3. ilYhen the declarer wins the number of tricks bid or more, 
each above six counts on the trick score ; two points when spades 
are trumps, six when clubs are trumps, seven when diamonds are 
trumps, eight when hearts are trumps, nine when royal spades are 
trumps, and ten when the declaration is no trump. 

4. A game consists of thirty points made by tricks alone. Every 
deal is played out, whether or not during it the game be con- 
cluded, and any points made (even if in excess of thirty) are 
counted. 

5. The ace, king, queen, knave, and ten of the trump suit are the 
honours ; when no trump is declared, the aces are the honours. 

6. Honours are credited to the original holders ; they are valued 
as follows : 

When a Trump is Declared. 

3* honours held between partners equal value of 2 tricks. 

4 " 

5 " 

8 " 

9 " 

ID " 

Frequently called "simple honours." 



4 


" 


It 


i( (( 


S 


" 


" 


It It 


4 


" 


in I hand 




4 

5 


( « 


"I " C 


Sth in ) " 
partner's ) " 



42 (Bridge.) LAWS OF BRIDGE. 

When No Trump is Declared. 

3 aces held between partners count 30 

4 40 
4 " " in one hand " 100 

7. Slam is made when partners take thirteen tricks.* It counts 
40 points in the honour score. 

8. Little slam is made when partners take twelve tricks.f It 
counts 20 points in the honour score. 

9. The value of honours, slam, or little slam, is not affected by 
doubling or redoubling. 

10. At the conclusion of a rubber the trick and honour scores 
of each side are added and 250 additional points added to the 
score of the winners of the rubber. The size of the rubber is 
the difference between the completed scores. If the score of the 
losers of the rubber exceed that of the winners, the losers win the 
amount of the excess. 

11. When a rubber is started with the agreement that the play 
shall terminate (i. e., no new deal shall commence) at a specified 
time, and the rubber is unfinished at that hour, the score is made 
up as it stands, 125 being added to the score of the winners of a 
game. A deal if started must be finished. 

12. A proved error in the honour score may be corrected at any 
time before the score of the rubber has been made up and agreed 
upon. 

13. A proved error in the trick score may be corrected at any 
time before a declaration has been made in the following game, 
or, if it occur in the final game of the rubber, before the score has 
been made up and agreed upon. 

CUTTING. 

14. In cutting the ace is the lowest card; between cards of 
otherwise equal value the heart is the lowest, the diamond next, 
the club next, and spade the highest. 

15. Every player must cut from the same pack. 

16. Should a player expose more than one card, the highest 
is his cut. 

FORMING TABLES. 

17. Those first in the room have the prior right to play. Can- 
didates of equal standing decide their order by cutting; those 
who cut lowest play first. 

* Law 84 prohibits a revoking side from scoring slam, and provides 
that tricks received by the declarer as penalty for a revoke shall not en- 
title him to a slam not otherwise obtained. 

t Law 8t prohibits a revoking side from scoring little slam, and provides 
that tricks received by the declarer as penalty for a revoke shall not entitle 
him to a little slam not otherwise obtained. If a declarer bid 7 and take 
twelve tricks he counts 20 for little slam, although his declaration fails. 



LAWS OF BRIDGE. (Bridge.) 43 

1 8. Six players constitute a complete table. 

19. After the table has been formed, the players cut to 
decide upon partners, the two lower play against the two 
higher. The lowest is the dealer, who has choice of cards 
and seats, and, having made his selection, must abide by it.* 

20. The right to succeed players as they retire is acquired 
by announcing the desire to do so, and such announcements, in 
the order made, entitle candidates to fill vacancies as they occur. 

CUTTING OUT. 

21. If, at the end of a rubber, admission be claimed by one 
or two candidates, the player or players who have played the 
greatest number of consecutive rubbers withdraw; when all 
have played the same number, they cut to decide upon the 
outgoers; the highest are out.f 

RIGHT OF ENTRY. 

22. At the end of a rubber a candidate is not entitled to 
enter a table unless he declare his intention before any player 
cut, either for partners, for a new rubber, or for cutting out. 

23. In the formation of new tables candidates who have 
not played at an existing table have the prior right of entry. 
Others decide their right to admission by cutting. 

24. When one or more players belonging to an existing 
table aid in making up a new one, which cannot be formed 
without him, he or they shall be the last to cut out. 

25. A player belonging to one table who enters another, 
or announces a desire to do so, forfeits his rights at his original 
table, unless the new table cannot be formed without him 
in which case he may retain his position at his original table 
by announcing his intention to return as soon as his place at 
the new table can be filled. 

26. Should a player leave a table during the progress of a 
rubber, he may, with the consent of the three others, appoint 
a substitute to play during his absence ; but such appointment 
becomes void upon the conclusion of the rubber, and does 
not in any way alifect the rights of the substitute. 

27. If a player break up a table, the others have a prior 
right of entry elsewhere. 

SHUFFLING. 

28. The pack must not be shuffled below the table nor so the 
face of any card be seen. 

29. The dealer's partner must collect the cards from the 
preceding deal and has the right to shuffle first. Each player 

• He may consult his partner before making his decision. 
t See Law 14 as to value of cards in cutting. 



44 (Bridge.) LAWS OF BRIDGE. 

has the right to shuffle subsequently. The dealer has the right 
to shuffle last, but should a card or cards be seen during his 
shuffling or while giving the pack to be cut, he must reshuffle. 

30. After shuffling, the cards, properly collected, must be placed 
face downward to the left of the next dealer, where they 
must remain untouched until the end of the current deal. 

THE DEAL. 

31. Players deal in turn; the order of dealing is to the left. 

32. Immediately before the deal, the player on the dealer's 
right cuts, so that each packet contains at least four cards. 
If, in or after cutting and prior to the beginning of the deal, 
a card be exposed, or if any doubt exist as to the place of the 
cut, the dealer must reshuffle and the same player must cut again. 

32. After the pack has been properly cut, it should not be 
reshuffled or recut except as provided in Law 32. 

34. Should the dealer shuffle after the cut, his adversaries 
may also shuffle and the pack must be cut again. 

35. The fifty-two cards must be dealt face downward. The 
deal is completed when the last card is dealt. 

36. In the event of a misdeal, the same pack must be dealt 
again by the same player. 

A NEW DEAL. 

37. There must be a new deal : 

(a) If the cards be not dealt, beginning at the dealer's 

left into four packets one at a time and in regular 
rotation. 

(b) If, during a deal, or during the play the pack be 

proved incorrect. 

(c) If, during a deal, any card be faced in the pack or 

exposed, on, above, or below the table. 

(d) If more than thirteen cards be dealt to any player.* 

(e) If the last card does not come in its regular order 

to the dealer. 
(/) If the dealer omit having the pack cut, deal out of 
turn or with the adversaries' cards, and either 
adversary call attention to the fact before the 
end of the deal and before looking at any of his 
cards. 

38. Should a correction of any offence mentioned in 37 f 
not be made in time, or should an adversary who has looked at 
any of his cards be the first to call attention to the error, the deal 
stands, and the game proceeds as if the deal had been correct, 
the player to the left deahng the next. When the deal has been 

* This error, whenever discovered, renders a new deal necessary. 



LAWS OF BRIDGE. (Bridge.) 45 

with the wrong cards, the next dealer may take whichever pack 
he prefers. 

39. If, prior to the cut for the following deal, a pack be 
proved incorrect, the deal is void, but all prior scores stand.* 

The pack is not incorrect when a missing card or cards are 
found in the other pack, among the quitted tricks, below the table, 
or in any other place which makes it possible that such card or 
cards were part of the pack during the deal. 

40. Should three players have their proper number of cards, 
the fourth, less, the missing card or cards, if found, belong to 
him, and he, unless dummy, is answerable for any established 
revoke or revokes he may have made just as if the missing card 
or cards had been continuously in his hand. When a card is 
missing, any player may search the other pack, the quitted tricks, 
or elsewhere for it. 

If before, during or at the conclusion of play, one player hold 
more than the proper number of cards, and another less, the deal 
is void. 

41. A player may not cut, shuffle, or deal for his partner if 
either adversary object. 



THE DECLARATION. 

42. The dealer, having examined his hand, must declare to 
win at least one odd trick,t either with a specified suit, or at 
no trump. 

43. After the dealer has declared, each player in turn, be- 
ginning on the dealer's left, must pass, make a higher declaration, 
double the last declaration, or redouble a declaration which has 
been doubled, subject to the provisions of Law 54. 

44. A declaration of a greater number of tricks in a suit of 
lower value, which equals the last declaration in value of points, 
is a higher declaration; e. g., a declaration of "three spades" is 
higher than "one club." 

45. A player in his turn may overbid the previous adverse dec- 
laration any number of times, and may also overbid his partner, 
but he cannot overbid his own declaration which has been passed 
by the three others. 

46. The player who makes the final declaration^ must play the 
combined hands, his partner becoming dummy, unless the suit or 
no trump finally declared was bid by the partner before it was 
called by the final declarer, in which case the partner, no matter 
what bids have intervened, must play the combined hands. 

47. When the player of the two hands (hereinafter termed "the 

• A correct pack contains exactly fifty-two cards, one of each denomination. 

t One trick more than six. 

I A declaration becomes final when it has been passed by three players. 



46 (Bridge.) LAWS OF BRIDGE. 

declarer") wins at least as many tricks as he declared, he scores 
the full value of the tricks won (see Law 3).* 

470. When the declarer fails to win as many tricks as he de- 
clares, neither he nor his adversaries score anything toward 
the game, but his adversaries score in their honour column 50 
points for each undertrick (i. e., each trick short of the number 
declared). If the declaration be doubled, the adversaries score 
100 points ; if redoubled, 200 points for each undertrick. 

48. The loss on the dealer's original declaration of "one spade" 
is limited to 100 points, whether doubled or not, unless redoubled. 
Honours are scored as held. 

49. If a player make a declaration (other than passing) out of 
turn, either adversary may demand a new deal, or may allow 
such declaration to stand, in which case the bidding shall continue 
as if the declaration had been in turn. 

If a player pass out of turn, the order of the bidding is not 
affected, i. e., it is still the turn of the player to the left of the 
last declarer. The player who has passed out of turn may re- 
enter the bidding in his proper turn if the declaration he has 
passed be overbid or doubled. 

50. If a player make an insufficient or impossible declaration, 
either adversary may demand that it be penalized. The penalty 
for an insufficient declaration is that the bid is made sufficient in 
the declaration named and the partner of the declarer may not 
further declare unless an adversary subsequently bid or double. 
The penalty for an impossible declaration is that the bid is 
made seven in the suit named and the partner of the declarer may 
not further declare unless an adversary subsequently bid or 
double. Either adversary, instead of penalizing an impossible 
declaration, may demand a new deal, or that the last declaration 
made on behalf of his partnership become the final declaration. 

50a. If a player who has been debarred from bidding under 
Laws so or 65, during the period of such prohibition, make any 
declaration (other than passing), either adversary may decide 
whether such declaration stand, and neither the offending player 
nor his partner may further participate in the bidding even if 
the adversaries double or declare. 

S0&. A penalty for a declaration out of turn (see Law 49), 
an insufficient or impossible declaration (see Law 50), or a bid 
when prohibited (see Law soo) may not be enforced if either 
adversary pass, double, or declare before the penalty be de- 
manded.! 

Soc. Laws which give to either adversary the right to enforce 
a penalty, do not permit unlimited consultation. Either ad- 

• For amount scored by declarer, if doubled, see Laws 53 and 56. 

_ t When the penalty for an insufficient declaration is not demanded, the 
bid over which it was made may be repeated unless some higher bid have 
intervened. 



LAWS OF BRIDGE. (Bridge.) 47 

versary may call attention to the offence and select the penalty, 
or may say, "Partner, you determine the penalty," or words to 
that effect. Any other consultation is prohibited,* and if it 
take place, the right to demand any penalty is lost. The first 
decision made by either adversary is final and cannot be 
altered. 

51. At any time during the declaration, a question asked by a 
player concerning any previous bid must be answered, but, after 
the final declaration has been accepted, if an adversary of the 
declarer inform his partner regarding any previous declaration, 
the declarer may call a lead from the adversary whose next 
turn it is to lead. If the dummy give such information to the 
declarer, either adversary of the declarer may call a lead. A 
player, however, at any time may ask what declaration is being 
played and the question must be answered. 

52. A declaration legitimately made cannot be changed after 
the next player pass, declare, or double. Prior to such action 
a declaration inadvertently made may be corrected. If, prior to 
such correction, an adversary call attention to an insufficient or 
impossible declaration, it may not thereafter be corrected nor 
may the penalty be avoided. 

DOUBLING AND REDOUBLING. 

53. Doubling and redoubling doubles and quadruples the value 
of each trick over six, but it does not alter the value of a 
declaration ; e. g., a declaration of "three clubs" is higher than 
"two royal spades" doubled or redoubled. 

54. Any declaration may be doubled and redoubled once, but 
not more; a player may not double his partner's declaration nor 
redouble his partner's double, but he may redouble a declaration 
of his partner which has been doubled by an adversary. 

The penalty for redoubling more than once is 100 points in 
the adverse honour score or a new deal ; for doubling a partner's 
declaration, or redoubling a partner's double it is 50 points in 
the adverse honour score. Either adversary may demand any 
penalty enforceable under this law. 

55. Doubling or redoubling reopens the bidding. When a 
declaration has been doubled or redoubled, any one of the three 
succeeding players, including the player whose declaration has 
been doubled, may, in his proper turn, make a further declara- 
tion of higher value. 

56. When a player whose declaration has been doubled wins 
the declared number of tricks, he scores a bonus of 50 points in 
his honour score, and a further 50 points for each additional 
trick. When he or his partner has redoubled, he scores 100 

•The question, "Partner, will you select the penalty, or shall I?" is a 
form of consultation which is not permitted. 



48 (Bridge.) LAWS OF BRIDGE. 

points for making the contract and an additional loo for each 
extra trick. 

57. A double or redouble is a declaration, and a player who 
doubles or redoubles out of turn is subject to the penalty pro- 
vided by Law 49. 

58. After the final declaration has been accepted, the play 
begins; the player on the left of the declarer leads. 

DUMMY. 

59. As soon as the player on the left of the declarer leads, 
the declarer's partner places his cards face upward on the table, 
and the declarer plays the cards from that hand. 

60. The partner of the declarer has all the rights of a player 
(including the right to call attention to a lead from the wrong 
hand), until his cards are placed face upward on the table.* He 
then becomes the dummy, and takes no part whatever in the 
play, except that he has the right: 

(0) To call the declarer's attention to the fact that too 

many or too few cards have been played to a trick; 

(&) to correct an improper claim of either adversary; 

(c) to call attention to a trick erroneously taken by either 

side; 

(d) to participate in the discussion of any disputed ques- 

tion of fact after it has arisen between the de- 
clarer and either adversary; 

(e) to correct any erroneous score; 

(/) to consult with and advise the declarer as to which 

penalty to exact for a revoke; 
(g) to ask the declarer whether he have any of a suit 

he has renounced. 
The dummy, if he have not intentionally looked at any card 
in the hand of a player, has also the following additional rights : 
(h) To call the attention of the declarer to an established 

adverse revoke ; 
(t) to call the attention of the declarer to a card exposed 

by an adversary or to an adverse lead out of turn. 

61. Should the dummy call attention to any other incident in 
the play in consequence of which any penalty might have been 
exacted, the declarer may not exact such penalty. Should the 
dummy avail himself of rights (h) or (t). after intentionally 
looking at a card in the hand of a player, the declarer may not 
exact any penalty for the offence in question. 

62. If the dummy, by touching a card or otherwise, suggest 
the play of one of his cards, either adversary may require the 
declarer to play or not to play such card. 

• The penalty is determined by the declarer (see Law 66). 



LAWS OF BRIDGE. (Bridge.) 49 

62a. If the dummy call to the attention of the declarer that he 
is about to lead from the wrong hand, either adversary may re- 
quire that the lead be made from that hand. 

6^. Dummy is not subject to the revoke penalty; if he revoke 
and the error be not discovered until the trick be turned and 
quitted, whether by the rightful winners or not, the trick must 
stand. 

64. A card from the declarer's hand is not played until actually 
quitted, but should he name or touch a card in the dummy, such 
card is played unless he say, "I arrange," or words to that 
effect. If he simultaneously touch two or more such cards, he 
may elect which to play. 

CARDS EXPOSED BEFORE PLAY. 

65. After the deal and before the declaration has been finally 
determined, if any player lead or expose a card, his partner may 
not thereafter bid or double during that declaration,* and the 
card is subject to call.f When the partner of the offending 
player is the original leader, the declarer may also prohibit the 
initial lead of the suit of the exposed card. 

66. After the final declaration has been accepted and before 
the lead, if the partner of the proper leader expose or lead a 
card, the declarer may treat it as exposed or may call a suit 
from the proper leader. A card exposed by the leader, after 
the final declaration and before the lead, is subject to call. 

CARDS EXPOSED DURING PLAY. 

67. After the original lead, all cards exposed by the declarer's 
adversaries are liable to be called and must be left face upward 
on the table. 

68. The following are exposed cards : 

(1) Two or more cards played simultaneously; 

(2) a card dropped face upward on the table, even though 

snatched up so quickly that it cannot be named ; 

(3) a card so held by a player that his partner sees any 

portion of its face ; 

(4) a card mentioned by either adversary as being held 

in his or his partner's hand. 

69. A card dropped on the floor or elsewhere below the table, 
or so held that it is seen by an adversary but not by the partner, 
is not an exposed card. 

70. Two or more cards played simultaneously by either of the 
declarer's adversaries give the declarer the right to call any one 

• See Law 50a. 

t If more than one card be exposed, all may be called. 



50 (Bridge.) LAWS OF BRIDGE. 

of such cards to the current trick and to treat the other card 
or cards as exposed. 

700. Should an adversary of the declarer expose his last card 
before his partner play to the twelfth trick, the two eards in his 
partner's hand become exposed, must be laid face upward on 
the table, and are subject to call. 

71. If, without waiting for his partner to play, either of the 
declarer's adversaries play or lead a winning card, as against 
the declarer and dummy and continue (without waiting for his 
partner to play) to lead several such cards, the declarer may de- 
mand that the partner of the player in fault win, if he can, the 
first or any other of these tricks. The other cards thus im- 
properly played are exposed. 

72. If either or both of the declarer's adversaries throw his or 
their cards face upward on the table, such cards are exposed 
and liable to be called; but if e"ther adversary retain his hand, 
he cannot be forced to abandon it. Cards exposed by the de- 
clarer are not liable to be called. If the declarer say, "I have 
the rest," or any words indicating the remaining tricks or any 
number thereof are his, he may be required to place his cards 
face upward on the table. He is not then allowed to call any 
cards his adversaries may have exposed, nor to take any finesse 
not previously proved a winner unless he announce it when 
making his claim. 

73. If a player who has rendered himself liable to have the 
highest or lowest of a suit called (Laws 80, 86, and 92) fail 
to play as directed, or if, when called on to lead one suit, he 
lead another, having in his hand one or more cards of the suit 
demanded (Laws 66, y6, and 93), or if, when called upon to 
win or lose a trick, he fail to do so when he can (Laws 71, 80, 
and 92), or if, when called upon not to play a suit, he fail to 
play as directed (Laws 65 and 66), he is liable to the penalty 
for revoke (Law 84) unless such play be corrected before the 
trick be turned and quitted. 

74. A player cannot be compelled to play a card which would 
oblige him to revoke. 

75. The call of an exposed card may be repeated until it be 
played. 



LEADS OUT OF TURN. 

76. If either adversary of the declarer's lead out of turn, the 
declarer may either treat the card so led as exposed or may call 
a suit as soon as it is the turn of either adversary to lead. 
Should they lead simultaneously, the lead from the proper hand 
stands, and the other card is exposed. 

77. If the declarer lead out of turn, either from his own hand 
or dummy, he incurs no penalty, but he may not rectify the 



LAWS OF BRIDGE. (Bridge.) 51 

error unless directed to do so by an adversary.* If the second 
hand play, the lead is accepted. 

78. If an adversary of the declarer lead out of turn, and the 
declarer follow either from his own hand or dummy, the trick 
stands. If the declarer before playing refuse to accept the lead, 
the leader may be penalized as provided in Law 76. 

79. If a player called on to lead a suit have none of it, the 
penalty is paid. 

CARDS PLAYED IN ERROR. 

80. Should the fourth hand, not being dummy or declarer, 
play before the second, the latter may be required to play his 
highest or lowest card of the suit led, or to win or lose the 
trick. In such case, if the second hand be void of the suit led, 
the declarer in lieu of any other penalty may call upon the 
second hand to play the highest card of any designated suit. If 
he name a suit of which the second hand is void, the penalty is 
paid.f 

81. If any one, except dummy, omit playing to a trick, and 
such error be not corrected until he has played to the next, the 
adversaries or either of them may claim a new deal ; should 
either decide that the deal stand, the surplus card (at the end 
of the hand) is considered played to the imperfect trick, but 
does not constitute a revoke therein.^ 

82. When any one, except dummy, plays two or more cards to 
the same trick and the mistake is not corrected, he is answerable 
for any consequent revokes he may make. When the error is 
detected during the play, the tricks may be counted face down- 
ward, to see if any contain more than four cards; should this 
be the case, the trick which contains a surplus card or cards 
may be examined and such card or cards restored to the original 
holder.§ 

THE REVOKE.** 

83. A revoke occurs when a player, other than dummy, hold- 
ing one or more cards of the suit led, plays a card of a different 
suit. It becomes an established revoke when the trick in which 
it occurs is turned and quitted by the rightful winners (i. e., 
the hand removed from the trick after it has been turned face 
downward on the table), or when either the revoking player or 

* The rule in Law 50c as to consultations governs the right of adver- 
saries to consult as to whether such direction be given. 

t Should the declarer play third hand before the second hand, the fourth 
hand may without penalty play before his partner. 

t As to the right of adversaries to consult, see Law 50a. 

§ Either adversary may decide which card shall be considered played 
to the trick which contains more than four cards. 

** See Law 73. 



52 (Bridge.) LAWS OF BRIDGE. 

his partner, whether in turn or otherwise, leads or plays to the 
following trick. 

84. The penalty for each established revoke is : 

(0) When the declarer revokes, he cannot score for tricks 
and his adversaries add 100 points to their score in 
the honour column, in addition to any penalty which 
he may have incurred for not making good his 
declaration. 

(t) When either of the adversaries revokes, the declarer 
may either add 100 points to his score in the honour 
column or take three trick, from his opponents and 
add them to his own.* Such tricks may assist the 
declarer to make good his declaration, but shall not 
entitle him to score any bonus in the honour column 
in case the declaration has been doubled or re- 
doubled, nor to a slam or little slam not otherwise 
obtained.! 

(c) When, during the play of a deal, more than one re- 
voke is made by the same side, the penalty for each 
revoke after the first is 100 points. 

The value of their honours is the only score .that can be made 
by a revoking side. 

85. A player may ask his partner if he have a card of the 
suit which he has renounced ; should the question be asked before 
the trick be turned and quitted, subsequent turning and quitting 
does not establish a revoke, and the error may be corrected un- 
less the question be answered in the negative, or unless the re- 
voking player or his partner have led or played to the follow- 
ing trick. 

86. If a player correct his mistake in time to save a revoke, 
any player or players who have followed him may withdraw his 
or their cards and substitute others, and the cards so withdrawn 
are not exposed. If the player in fault be one of the declarer's 
adversaries, the card played in error is exposed, and the de- 
clarer may call it whenever he pleases, or he may require the 
offender to play his highest or lowest card of the suit to the 
trick, but this penalty cannot be exacted from the declarer. 

87. At the end of the play the claimants of a revoke may search 
all the tricks. If the cards have been mixed, the claim may be 
urged and proved if possible; but no proof is necessary and the 
claim is established if, after it is made, the accused player or his 
partner mix the cards before they have been sufficiently examined 
by the adversaries. 

* The Qummy may advise the declarer which penalty to exact, 
t The value of the three tricks, doubled or redoubled, as the case may be, 
i* counted in the trick score. 



LAWS OF BRIDGE. (Bridge.) 53 

88. A revoke cannot be claimed after the cards have been cut 
for the following deal. 

89. Should both sides revoke, the only score permitted is for 
honours. In such case, if one side revoke more than once, the 
penalty of 100 points for each extra revoke is scored by the other 
side. 

GENERAL RULES. 

90. A trick turned and quitted may not be looked at (except 
under Law 82) until the end of the play. The penalty for the 
violation of this law is 25 points in the adverse honour score. 

91. Any player during the play of a trick or after the four 
cards are played, and before the trick is turned and quitted, may 
demand that the cards be placed before their respective players. 

92. When an adversary of the declarer, before his partner 
plays, calls attention to the trick, either by saying it is his, or, 
without being requested to do so, by naming his card or draw- 
ing it toward him, the declarer may require such partner to 
play his highest or lowest card of the suit led, or to win or lose 
the trick. 

93. An adversary of the declarer may call his partner's atten- 
tion to the fact that he is about to play or lead out of turn; 
but if, during the play, he make any unauthorized reference to 
any incident of the play, the declarer may call a suit from the 
adversary whose next turn it is to lead. 

94. In all cases where a penalty has been incurred, the offender 
is bound to give reasonable time for the decision of his adver- 
saries. 

NEW CARDS. 

95. Unless a pack be imperfect, no player has the right to call 
for one new pack. When fresh cards are demanded, two packs 
must be furnished. When they are produced during a rubber, 
the adversaries of the player demanding them have the choice of 
the new cards. If it be the beginning of a new rubber, the dealer, 
whether he or one of his adversaries call for the new cards, has 
the choice. New cards cannot be substituted after the pack has 
been cut for a new deal. 

96. A card or cards torn or marked must be replaced by agree- 
ment or new cards furnished. 

BYSTANDERS. 

97. While a bystander, by agreement among the players, may 
decide any question, he should not say anything unless appealed 
to; and if he make any remark which calls attention to an over- 
sight affecting the score, or to the exaction of a penalty, he is 



54 (Bridge.) LAWS OF BRIDGE. 

liable to be called upon by the players to pay the stakes (not 
extras) lost. 



ETIQUETTE OF AUCTION. 

In the game of Auction slight intimations convey much in- 
formation. The code succinctly states laws which fix penalties 
for an offence. To ofifend against etiquette is far more serious 
than to offend against a law; for in the latter case the offender 
is subject to the prescribed penalties; in the former his adver- 
saries are without redress. 

1. Declarations should be made in a simple manner, thus : 
"one heart," "one no trump," "pass," "double"; they should be 
made orally and not by gesture. 

2. Aside from his legitimate declaration, a player should not 
show by word or gesture the nature of his hand, or his pleasure 
or displeasure at a play, bid, or double. 

3. If a player demand that the cards be placed, he should do 
so for his own information and not to call his partner's atten- 
tion to any card or play. 

4. An opponent of the declarer should not lead until the pre- 
ceding trick has been turned and quitted; nor, after having led 
a winning card, should he draw another from his hand before 
his partner has played to the current trick. 

5. A card should not be played with such emphasis as to draw 
attention to it, nor should a player detach one card from his 
hand and subsequently play another. 

6. A player should not purposely incur a penalty because he 
is willing to pay it, nor should he make a second revoke to con- 
ceal a first. 

7. Conversation during the play should be avoided, as it may 
annoy players at the table or at other tables in the room. 

8. The dummy should not leave his seat to watch his partner 
play. He should not call attention to the score nor to any card 
or cards that he or the other players hold. 

9. If a player say, "I have the rest," or any words indicating 
that the remaining tricks, or any number thereof, are his, and 
one or both of the other players expose his or their cards, or 
request him to play out the hand, he should not allow any 
information so obtained to influence his play. 

10. If a player concede, in error, one or more tricks, the con- 
cession should stand. 

11. A player having been cut out of one table should not 
seek admission in another unless willing to cut for the privilege 
of entry. 

12. A player should not look at any of his cards until the end 
of the deal. 



LAWS OF BRIDGE. (Bridge.) 55 



THE LAWS OF THREE HAND AUCTION. 

The Laws of Auction govern the three-hand game except as 
follows : 

(i) Three players take part in a game and four constitute a 
complete table. Each plays for himself; there are no partners, 
except as provided in Law 7. 

(2) The player who cuts lowest selects his seat and the cards 
with which he deals first. The player who cuts next lowest sits 
on the dealer's left. 

(3) The cards are dealt in four packets, one for each of the 
three players and one for the dummy.* The dummy hand is 
not touched until after the final declaration has been made. 

(4) The dealer declares, and the bidding continues as in Auc- 
tion, except that each player bids exclusively on his own account. 

(5) The penalty for a declaration out of turn is that each of 
the other players receives So points in his honour score. A 
declaration out of turn does not affect the right of the player 
whose turn it is to declare, unless both he and the other player, 
either by passing or declaring, accept the improper declaration. 

(6) If a player declare out of turn, and the succeeding player 
either pass or declare, the third player may demand that the 
mistake be corrected as is provided in Law 5. In such case the 
player who first declared out of turn is the only one penalized. 

(7) The player making the final declaration, i. e., a declara- 
tion that has been passed by both of the others, plays his own 
hand and that of the dummy against the two others, who then, 
and for that particular hand, assume the relationship of part- 
ners. 

(8) It is advisable that the game be played at a round table 
so that the hand of the dummy can be placed in front of the 
declarer without obliging any player to move; but, in the event 
of a square table being used, the two players who become the 
adversaries of the declarer should sit opposite each other, the 
dummy being opposite the declarer. At the end of the play the 
original positions should be resumed. 

(9) If, after the deal has been completed and before the con- 
clusion of the declaration, any player expose a card, each of his 
adversaries counts 50 points in his honour score, and the declarer, 
if he be not the offender, may call upon the player on his left 
to lead or not to lead the suit of the exposed card. If a card 
be exposed by the declarer after the final declaration, there is no 
penalty, but if exposed by an adversary of the declarer, it is sub- 
ject to the same penalty as in Auction. 

(10) If a player double out of turn, each of his adversaries 

• This hand is generally dealt opposite to the dealer. 



66 (Bridge.) LAWS OF BRIDGE. 

counts 100 poiiTts in his respective honour score, and the player 
whose declaration has been doubled may elect whether the double 
shall stand. The bidding is then resumed, but if the double shall 
be disallowed, the declaration may not be doubled by the other 
player. 

(ii) The rubber continues until two games have been won by 
the same player ; it may consist of two, three, or four games. 

(12) When the declarer fulfils his contract, he scores as in 
Auction. When he fails to do so, both of his adversaries score 
as in Auction. 

(13) Honours are scored by each player separately, i.e., each 
player who holds one honour scores the value of a trick; each 
player who holds two honours scores twice the value of a trick; 
a player who holds three honours scores three times the value of 
a trick; a player who holds four honours scores eight times 
the value of a trick; and a player who holds five honours 
scores ten times the value of a trick. In a no-trump declara- 
tion, each ace counts ten, and four held by one player count 100. 
The declarer counts separately both his own honours and those 
held by the dummy. 

(14) A player scores 125 points for winning a game, a further 
125 points for winning a second game, and 250 points for winning 
a rubber. 

(15) At the end of the rubber, all scores of each player are 
added and his total obtained. Each one wins from or loses to 
each other the difference between their respective totals. A player 
may win from both the others, lose to one and win from the 
other, or lose to both. 

THE LAWS OF DUPLICATE AUCTION. 

Duplicate Auction is governed by the Laws of Auction, except 
in so far as they are modified by the following special laws : 

A. Scoring. In Duplicate Auction there are neither games 
nor rubbers. Each deal is scored just as in Auction, with the 
addition that whenever a pair makes 30 or more for tricks as the 
score of one deal, it adds as a premium 125 points in its honour 
column. 

B. Irregularities in the Hands. If a player have either more 
or less than his correct number of cards, the course to be pur- 
sued is determined by the time of the discovery of the irreg- 
ularity. 

(1) When the irregularity is discovered before or dur- 

ing the original play: There must be a new deal. 

(2) When the irregularity is discovered at the time the 

cards are taken up for overplay and before such 
overplay has begun : It must be sent back to the 



LAWS OP BRIDGE. (Bridge.) 57 

table from which it came, and the error be there 
rectified. 
(3) When the irregularity is not discovered until after 
the overplay has begun : In two-table duplicate 
there must be a new deal; but in a game in which 
the same deals are played at more than two tables, 
the hands must be rectified as is provided above and 
then passed to the next table without overplay at 
the table at which the error was discovered ; in which 
case, if a player have less than thirteen cards and 
his adversary the corresponding surplus, each pair 
takes the average score for that deal ; if, however, 
his partner have the corresponding surplus, his pair 
is given the lowest score and his opponents the 
highest score made at any table for that deal. 

C. Playing the cards. Each player, when it is his turn to play, 
must place his card, face upward, before him and toward the 
centre of the table. He must allow it to remain upon the table 
in this position until all have played to the trick, when he must 
turn it over and place it face downward, nearer to himself ; if 
he or his partner have won the trick, the card should point to- 
ward his partner and himself ; otherwise it should point toward 
the adversaries. 

The declarer may either play dummy's cards or may call 
them by name whenever it is dummy's turn to play and have 
dummy play them for him. 

A trick is turned and quitted when all four players have turned 
and ceased to touch their respective cards. 

The cards must be left in the order in which they were played 
until the scores of the deal have been recorded. 

D. The Revoke. A revoke may be claimed at any time before 
the last trick of the deal in which it occurs has been turned 
and quitted and the scores of that deal agreed upon and recorded, 
but not thereafter. 

E. Error in Score. A proved error in the trick or honour 
score may be corrected at any time before the final score of the 
contestants for the deal or deals played before changing op- 
ponents has been made up and agreed upon. 

F. A New Deal. A new deal is not allowed for any reason, 
except as provided in Laws of Auction 36 and 37. If there be 
an impossible declaration some other penalty must be selected.* 
A declaration (other than passing) out of turn must stand ;t 
as a penalty, the adversaries score 50 honour points in their honour 
column and the partner of the offending player cannot there- 
after participate in the bidding of that deal. 

* See Law 50. The same ruling applies to Law 54. 

t This includes a double or redouble out of turn. See Law 57. 



58 (Bridge.) LAWS OF BRIDGE. 

The penalty for the offence mentioned in Law 8i is so points 
in the adverse honour score. 

G. Team Matches. A match consists of any agreed number 
of deals, each of which is played once at each table. 

The contesting teams must be of equal size, but each may con- 
sist of any agreed number of pairs (not less than two). One 
half of each team, or as near thereto as possible, sits north 
and south; the other half east and west. 

In case the teams are composed of an odd number of pairs, 
each team, in making up its total score, adds, as though won by 
it, the average score of all pairs seated in the positions opposite 
to its odd pair. 

In making up averages, fractions are disregarded and the 
nearest whole numbers taken, unless it be necessary to take 
the fraction into account to avoid a tie, in which case the match 
is won "by the fraction of a point." The team making the higher 
score wins the match. 

H. Pair Contests. The score of a pair is compared only with 
other pairs who have played the same hands. A pair obtains a 
plus score for the contest when its net total is more than the 
average; a minus score for the contest when its net total is less 
than the average. 

Note. — Some players in America are adopting the English rule, which 
allows the dealer to pass, without making any declaration. The usual ex- 
pression is, "No bid. Each player to the left may then pass in turn, and 
if no bid is made the deal passes to the left. The lowest declaration is 
one club, as spades have a constant value of nine and are always "royals." 

The English rule is to score 50 for little slam and 100 for grand slam, 
and some American players have adopted that rule. 



(Bridge.) 59 



TEXT BOOKS. i 

Bridge, and How to Play It, by A. Dunn, Jr., 1899. 
Foster's Bridge Manual, by R. F. Foster, 1900. 
Foster on Bridge, by R. F Foster, 1900. 
The Bridge Manual, by John Doe, 1900, 
Bridge Abridged, by W. Dalton, 1901. 
Elwell on Bridge, by J B. Elwell, 1902. 
Foster's Bridge Tactics, by R. F. Foster, 1903. 
Foster's Self-playing Bridge Cards, 1903. 
The Bridge Book, by A. Dunn, Jr., 1903. 
Bridge Up to Date, by C. S. Street, 1903, 
Sixty Bridge Hands, by C. S. Street, 1903. 
Laws and Principles of Bridge, by "Badsworth," 1903. 
Bridge Whist in Brief, by Fisher Ames, 1904. 
Bridge at a Glance, by W. Dalton, 1904. 
The Gist of Bridge, by R. F. Foster, 1904. 
Bridge Developments, by Robertson and Wallaston, 1904. 
Advanced Bridge, by J. B. Elwell, 1904. 
Auction Bridge, by John Doe, 1904. 
Bridge that Wins, by A. Metcalfe, 1905. 
Foster's Complete Bridge, by R. F. Foster, 1905. 
Foster's Bridge Maxims, by R. F. Foster, 1905. 
The Bridge Blue Book, by P, F. Mottelay, 1906. 
Good Bridge, by C. S. Street, 1907. 
Practical Bridge, by J. B. Elwell, 1908. 
Auction Bridge Up to Date, by W. Dalton, 1909. 
Principles of Auction Bridge, by "Badsworth," 1910. 
Auction Bridge Up to Date, by R. F. Foster, 1910. 
Advanced Auction Bridge, by R. F. Foster, 1911. 
Auction Bridge, by "Bascule," 1911. 
New Auction and Dummy Play, by J. B. Gleason, 1912. 
Fine Points of Bridge, by Florence Irwin, 1912, 
Auction Bridge, by J. B. Elwell, 1912. 
Royal Auction Bridge, by R. F. Foster, 1912. 
Scientific Auction Bridge, by E. V. Shepard, 1913. 
Auction of To-day, by Milton Work, 1913. 
Royal Auction and Nullos, by R. F. Foster, 1914. 
Auction Developments, by Milton Work, 1914. 
Whitehead's Conventions of Auction Bridge, by Wilbur C. 
Whitehead, 1914. 



60 (Whist.) 



WHIST. 



CARDS, Whist is played with a full pack of fifty-two cards, 
ranking A K QJio 98765432; the Ace being the 
highest in play, but ranking below the deuce in cutting. Two 
packs are generally used, the one being shufHed while the other is 
dealt. 

MARKERS are necessary to keep the score. The most com- 
mon are red and white circular counters ; the white being used 
for the points in each game, and the red for the games themselves, 
or for rubber points. It is better to have two sets, of different 
colours, each set consisting of four circular and three oblong count- 
ers, the latter being used for the rubber points, or for games. 

FLAYERS. Whist is played by four persons. When there 
are more than four candidates for play, five or six may form a 
" table." If more than six offer for play, the selection of the table 
is made by cutting. 

The table being formed, the four persons who shall play the 
first rubber are determined by cutting, and they again cut for 
partners, and the choice of seats and cards. 

CUTTING, The methods of cutting are the same as those 
described in connection with Bridge, and ties are decided in the 
same manner. 

PLAYERS* POSITIONS. The four players at a whist 
table are usually distinguished by the letters A, B, Y, Z ; the first 
two letters of the alphabet being partners against the last two, and 
their positions at the table being indicated as follows : — 



z 
Z is always the dealer ; A the original leader, or first hand ; Y 
the second hand ; B the third hand ; and Z the fourth hand. 
After the first trick, some other player may become the leader ; the 
one on his left being the second hand ; his partner the third hand, 
and the player on his right the fourth hand. B is the pone. 



GENERAL DIRECTIONS. (Whist.) 61 

DEALING. The cards having been properly shuffled, the 
dealer presents them to the pone to be cut. The American laws 
require that after separating the pack, the pone shall place the cut 
part, which he lifts off, nearer the dealer. Beginning at his left, 
the dealer distributes the cards one at a time in rotation, until the 
pack is exhausted. The last card is turned face up on the table, 
and the suit to which it belongs is the trump for that hand. 

When two packs are used, one is shuffled by the dealer's partner 
while the other is dealt, and the shuffled pack is placed on the left 
of the player whose turn it will be to deal next. Each player deals 
in turn until the conclusion of the game or rubber. 

IRBEG ULARITIES IN THE DEAL. The following 
rules regarding the deal should be strictly observed : — 

If any card is found faced in the pack, the dealer must deal 
again. Should the dealer turn over any card but the trump, while 
dealing, the adversaries may, if they please, demand a new deal. 
A player dealing out of turn may be stopped before the trump 
card is turned ; but after that, the deal must stand, afterwards 
passing to the left in regular order. On the completion of the 
deal, each player should take up and count his cards to see that he 
has thirteen ; if not, it is a misdeal, and unless the pack is found 
to be imperfect, the deal passes to the player on the misdealer's 
left. The dealer loses the deal : — if he neglects to have the pack 
cut ; if he deals a card incorrectly, and fails to remedy the error 
before dealing another ; if he counts the cards on the table, or 
those remaining in the pack ; if he looks at the trump card before 
the deal is complete ; or if he places the trump card face down, on 
his own or on any other player's cards. 

STAKES. When stakes are played for, it should be dis- 
tinctly understood at the beginning whether the unit is for a game, 
for a rubber, for rubber points, or for tricks. The English game 
is invariably played for so much a rubber point ; sometimes with 
an extra stake upon the rubber itself. In America, it is usual 
to play for so much a game ; but in some cases the tricks are the 
unit, deducting the loser's score from seven, or playing the last 
hand out and then deducting the loser's score. A very popular 
method is to play for a triple stake : so much a trick, playing each 
hand out ; so much a game ; and so much a rubber. These three 
stakes are usually in the proportion of lo, 25, and 50. In clubs it is 
customary to have a uniform stake for whist, and to fix a limit 
for all betting on the game beyond the " club stake." Good usage 
demands that those at the table should have the refusal of any 
bet made by a player, before it is offered to an outsider. 

METHOD OF PLAYING. The player on the dealer's 
left begins by leading any card he chooses, and the others must all 
follow suit if they can. Failure to follow suit when able is called 



62 (WhisU) GENERAL DIRECTIONS. 

revoking; the penalty for which, under the American laws, is the 
loss of two tricks ; under the English laws, three tricks or points. 
Any player having none of the suit led may either trump it or 
throw away a card of another suit, which is called discarding. 
When it is the dealer's turn to play to the first trick, he should 
take the trump card into his hand. After it has been taken up it 
must not be named, and any player naming it is subject to a pen- 
alty, (see Laws ;) but a player may ask what the trump suit 
is. If all follow suit, the highest card played wins the trick ; 
trumps win against all other suits, and a higher trump wins a 
lower. The winner of the trick may lead any card he pleases 
for the next trick, and so on until all thirteen tricks have been 
played. 

Cards Played in Error, or dropped face upward on the 
table, or two or more played at once, are called exposed cards, 
and must be left on the table. They can be called by the adver- 
saries ; but the fact of their being exposed does not prevent their 
being played when the opportunity offers. Some persons imagine 
that the adversaries can prevent an exposed card from being 
played ; but such is not the case. 

Leading out of Turn. Should a player lead out of turn, the 
adversaries may call a suit from the player in error, or from his 
partner, when it is next the turn of either of them to lead. Ameri- 
can laws require the call to be made by the player on the right of 
the one from whom the suit is called. The English laws give the 
adversaries the option of calling the card played in error an ex- 
posed card. If all have played to the trick before discovering the 
error, it cannot be rectified ; but if all have not played, those who 
have followed the false lead must take back their cards, which are 
not, however, liable to be called. 

MevoMng Players cannot win the game that hand, no matter 
what they score ; but they may play the hand out, and score all 
points they make to within one point of game. 

Any player may ask the others to draw cards in any trick, 
provided he does so before they are touched for the purpose of 
gathering them. In answer to this demand, each player should in- 
dicate which of the cards on the table he played. 

In the English game, any player may look at the last trick 
turned and quitted ; in the American he may not. 

Taking Tricks. As the tricks are taken, they should be 
neatly laid one upon the other in such a manner that any player at 
the table can count them at a glance. There are several methods 
of stacking tricks ; the first shown being probably the best. 



GENEHAL DIRECTIONS. 



(Whist.) 63 






When six have been taken by one side they are usually g^athered 
together to form a booh ; any subsequently taken being laid apart, 
as they are the only ones that count. It is customary for the 
partner of the player winning the first trick on each side to gather 
the tricks for that deal. In some places it is the custom for the 
partner of the winner of each trick to gather it, so that at the end 
of the hand each player has tricks in front of him. Although 
this method saves time, the practice is not to be recommended, as 
it hinders the players in counting the tricks already gained by 
each side. 

Immediately upon the completion of the play of a hand, the 
score should be claimed and marked. Any discussion of the play 
should be postponed until this has been attended to. The adver- 
saries must detect and claim revokes before the cards are cut for 
the following deal. 

The laws of whist should be carefully studied. 

OBJECT OF TME GAME. The object of all whist play 
is to take tricks, of which there are thirteen in each hand or deal. 
The first six tricks taken by one side are called a book, and do 
not count; but each trick above that number counts one point 
towards game. The se\enth trick is called the odd ; and two or 
more over the book are called ttvo, three, etc.. by cards. At 
the conclusion of each hand, the side that has won any tricks in 
excess of the book, scores them ; the opponents counting noth- 
ing. As soon as either side has scored the number of points pre- 
viously agreed upon as a game, which must be 5, 7, or 10, the 



64 (Whist.) GENERAL DIRECTIONS. 

cards are again shuffled and spread for the choice of partners, 
etc., unless it has been agreed to play a rubber. 

SCOMING. There are several methods of scoring at whist. 
The English game is 5 points, rubbers being always played. Be- 
sides the points scored for tricks, honours are counted ; the games 
have a different value, according to the score of the adversaries ; 
and the side winning the rubber adds two points to its score. 

In scoring, the revoke penalty counts first, tricks next, and hon- 
ours last. 

Hie Revoke. Should the adversaries detect and claim a re- 
voke before the cards are cut for the following deal, they have the 
option of three penalties : ist. To take three tricks from the re- 
voking player, adding them to their own. 2nd. To deduct 
three points from his game score. 3rd. To add three points to 
their own game score. The penalty cannot be divided. A revoke 
may be corrected by the player making it before the trick in which 
it occurs has been turned and quitted. The card played in error 
must be left face up on the table, and must be played when de- 
manded by the adversaries, unless it can be got rid of previously, 
in the course of play. In America, the revoke penalty is two tricks. 

TJie Honours are the four highest trumps. A, K, Q, and J ; and 
after tricks have been scored, partners who held three hon- 
ours between them are entitled to count two points towards game ; 
four honours counting four points. If each side has two honours, 
neither can count them. It is not enough to score them ; after the 
last card has been played, they must be claimed by word of mouth. 
If they are not claimed before the trump is turned for the following 
deal, they cannot be scored. Partners who, at the beginning ot a 
deal, are at the score of four, cannot count honours ; they must get 
the odd trick to win the game. Should one side be out by tricks, 
and the other by honours, the tricks win the game, the honours 
counting nothing. 

Mtibber Points. At the conclusion of each game, the rubber 
points are scored, either with the oblong counters, or on the small 
keys of the whist-marker. If the winners of a game are five 
points to their adversaries' nothing, they win a treble, and count 
three rubber points. If the adversaries have scored, but have one 
or two points only, the winners mark two points, for a double. 
If the adversaries have reached three or four, the winners mark 
one, for a single. The rubber points having been marked, all 
other scores are turned down. The side winning the rubber adds 
two points to its score for so doing. The value of the rubber is 
determined by deducting from the score of the winners any rub- 
ber points that may have been made by their adversaries. The 
smallest rubber possible to win is one point ; the winners having 
scored two singles and the rubber, equal to four; from which 



GENERAL DIRECTIONS. (Whist) 65 

they have to deduct a triple made by their adversaries. The 
largest rubber possible is eight points, called a bumper, the 
winners having scored two triples and the rubber, to their adver- 
saries' nothing. 

It is sometimes important to observe the order of precedence 
in scoring. For instance : if, at the beginning of a hand, A-B 
have three points to Y-Z's nothing, and A-B make two by hon- 
ours, Y-Z winning three by cards, Y-Z mark first ; so that A-B win 
only a single, instead of a treble. On the contrary, should A-B 
make two by cards, Y-Z claiming four by honours, A-B win a 
treble ; as their tricks put them out before it is Y-Z's turn to 
count. 

In America, where rubbers are played without counting honours. 
It is not usual to reckon rubber points ; but simply to add some 
agreed value to the score of those winning the odd game. 

Where single games are played, whether 5, 7, or 10 points, some 
persons consider the game as finished when the agreed number of 
points is reached. Others play the last hand out, and count all the 
tricks made ; so that if two partners were at the score of 6 in a 
7-point game, and made five by cards, they would win a game of 
II points. When this is done, it is usual to deduct the score of the 
losers from the total, and to call the remainder the value of the 
game. In the American Whist League, the rule is to stop at 
seven points, and to determine the value of the game by deduct- 
ing the loser's score from seven. 

When long sittings occur without change of partners or adver- 
saries, it is a common practice to count the tricks continuously, 
and on the conclusion of the play, to deduct the lower score from 
the higher, the winners being credited with the difference. 

CUTTING OUT. If rubbers are played, there is no change 
of partners, or of rotation in the deal, until one side has won two 
games, which ends the rubber. If the first two games are won by 
the same partners, the third is not played. If more than four 
players belong to the table, those who have just played cut to de- 
cide which shall give place to those waiting ; those cutting the 
highest cards going out. If six belong to the table, there will be 
no further cutting out ; as those who are out for one rubber re- 
enter for the next, taking the places of those who have played two 
consecutive rubbers. If five belong to the table, the three who 
remained in for the second rubber must cut to allow the fifth 
player to re-enter. At the end of the third rubber, the two cut 
that have not yet been out ; and at the end of the fourth rubber, 
the one who has played every rubber goes out without cutting. 
After this, it is usual to spread the cards, and to form the table 
anew. In all the foregoing instances, partners and deal must be 
cut for, after the cut has decided which are to play. 



66 (WWst.) 



GENERAL DIRECTIONS. 



JUASKIWG, There are various methods of using the 
counters. At the beginning of the game they may be placed at the 
left hand, and transferred to the right as the points accrue. An- 
other method is to stack the four circular counters one upon the other 
at the beginning of the game, and to count a point by placing one 
of them beside the others ; two points by placing another upon 
the first ; three points by placing a third beyond these two, and 
four points by placing them all in line. 



Nothing. One. Two. Three. Four. 

In the seven point game, the score is continued by placing one 
counter above, and to the right or left of the other three, to indi- 
cate live points ; and above and between them to indicate six. 



Five. Or this. Six. 

When counters are not used, one of the standard forms of 





The Foster Whist Marker, 
whist-marker is employed, the most legible and convenient being 
the " Foster Whist Marker," in which the counting keys are 
always level with the surface and can be seen equally well from 
any position at the table. 

The four large keys on one side are used to count single points, 
the single large key on the opposite side being reckoned as five. 
The three small keys are used for counting rubber points, or games. 

In ten point games, the scoring to four points is the same ; but 
beyond four, a single counter placed below two or more others, is 
reckoned as three ; and above two or more others, as five. 



Qp OOO O 

O o OO OOO 



Five. 



Six. 



Seven. 



Eight. 



Nine. 



When proper markers are not obtainable, many persons cut 
eight slits in a visiting card, and turn up the points, 



GENERAL DIRECTIONS. 



(Whist.) 67 



in 

1 



Visiting-Card Marker. 

Whatever the apparatus employed, it should be such that every 
player at the table can distinctly see the state of the score without 
drawing attention to it. 

METHODS OF CHEATING, Whist offers very few 
opportunities to the card-sharper. When honours are counted, he 
may be able to keep one on the bottom of the pack until the com- 
pletion of the deal by making the pass after the cards have 
been cut. A greek who possessed sufficient skill to do this with- 
out detection would be very foolish to waste his talents at the 
whist table ; for, however large the stakes, the percentage in his 
favour would be very small. 

When whist is played with only one pack, a very skillful shuffler 
may gather the cards without disturbing the tricks, and, by giving 
them a single intricate shuffle, then drawing the middle of the 
pack from between the ends and giving another single intricate 
shuffle, he may occasionally succeed in dealing himself and his 
partner a very strong hand in trumps, no matter how the cards are 
cut, so that they are not shuffled again. A hand dealt in this 
manner is framed on the walls of the Columbus, Ohio, Whist Club ; 
eleven trumps having been dealt to the partner, and the twelfth 
turned up. In this case the shuffling dexteritj'^ was the result of 
fifteen years' practice, and was employed simply for amusement, 
the dealer never betting on any game, and making no concealment 
of his methods. 

SUGGESTIONS FOM GOOD PLAT, Although whist 
is a game of very simple construction, the immense variety of 
combinations which it affords renders it very complicated in 
actual practice ; there being probably no game in which there is so 
much diversity of opinion as to the best play, even with the same 
cards, and under similar conditions. It has been repeatedly re- 
marked that in all the published hands at whist which have been 
played in duplicate, or even four times over, with the same cards, 
no two have been alike. 



68 (Whist.) GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 

It would be useless to formulate rules intended to cover every 
case that might arise, because the conditions are frequently too 
complicated to allow the average human intellect to select the exact 
rule which would apply. All that can be done to assist the begin- 
ner is to state certain general principles which are well recognised 
as fundamental, and to leave the rest to experience and practice at 
the whist table. 

GENERAL PRINCIPLES, _ Nothing obstructs the 
progress of the beginner so much as his attempts to cover all the 
ground at once. The more ambitious he is, the greater his ne- 
cessity for keeping in view the maxim ; " One thing at a time : all 
things in succession." One must master the scales before he can 
produce the perfect melody. 

The novice should first thoroughly understand the object, and 
the fundamental principle of the game. 

The Object is to win tricks. Not to give information, or to 
count the hands, or to remember every card played ; but simply 
and only to win tricks. 

The Principle is to secure for certain cards a trick-taking 
value which does not naturally belong to them ; either by 
getting higher cards out of the way of lower, or by placing the 
holder of intermediate cards at a disadvantage with regard to the 
lead. 

If any person will take the trouble to deal out four hands, 
and after turning them face up on the table, count how many tricks 
each side will probably take with its high cards and trumps, he 
will find that the total will hardly ever be exactly thirteen tricks. 
Let us suppose the following to be one of the hands so dealt ; Z 
turning up the ^ 6 for trumps : — 

*6 

OKJ653 
♦ A986 



(^43 2 

♦ AKQ8743 

07 




c? A K 10 5 

♦ J9 

A84 

♦ K 542 



^976 
* 10 5 2 
Q 10 9 2 
« J 103 



On looking over this hand it would appear that A could only 
make one trick in Clubs, of which the second round v/ould be 



GENERAL PRINCIPLES. (Whist.) 69 

trumped. His partner can count on five tricks : the two best and 
the fourth trumps ; the A, and the ♦ K ; a total of six tricks. 
On counting the adversaries' probable tricks, Y should make one 
of his three trumps, and the 4t A. Diamonds will not go round 
twice without being trumped, so we cannot count on his K. 
We cannot see any sure tricks for Z, Where are the five other 
tricks necessary to bring our total up to thirteen ? They must be 
there, for there are thirteen tricks taken in every hand played. 

If we play over the hand, we shall find that A-B may make 
six, seven, nine, or ten tricks, according to their good manage- 
ment, and the good or bad play of their adversaries. In Foster's 
JVJiist Tactics f Illustrative Hand No. 13, may be found the 
various ideas of sixteen of the best players in the American Whist 
League with regard to the proper management of this hand. 
They played it in four different ways, and with very different 
results in the score. 

This must show that the accidental distribution of the Aces, 
Kings, and trumps is not everything in whist, and that there must 
be ways and means of securing tricks which do not appear on the 
surface. 

There are four ways of taking tricks at whist : 

1st. By playing high cards, the suit of which the others must 
follow. This A does, in the example, on the first round of the 
Club suit. 

2nd. By playing low cards, after the higher ones have been 
exhausted, and the adverse trumps are out of the way. This Y 
will do with his Diamonds, or A with his Clubs, according to cir- 
cumstances. 

3rd. By trumping winning cards played by the adversaries. 
This Y will do if Clubs are led a second time, or A will do if 
Diamonds are led twice. 

4th. By being able to take tricks with cards which are not the 
best of the suit, the player who holds better cards having already 
played smaller. This B will do with the <;? 10 if A leads trumps, 
and Y does not play either Q or J. If B leads trumps he will lose 
this advantage. 

These four methods of winning tricks suggest four systems of 
play, which are those in common use by experts at the present 
day : 

1st. Playing high cards to the best advantage, so as to secure 
the best results from such combinations as may be held. This is 
the basis of all systems of leading. 

2nd. Leading from the longest suit, in order that higher cards 
may be forced out of the way of smaller ones, leaving the smaller 
ones " established," or good for tricks after the adverse trumps 
are exhausted. This is called the long-suit game. 

3rd. Trumping good cards played by the adversaries. This is 



70 (Whist) SYSTEMS OF PLAY. 

called ruffing. When two partners each trump a different suit, 
it is called a cross-ruff, or satc^. 

4th. Taking advantage of the tenace possibilities of the hand 
by placing the lead with a certain player ; or by avoiding the 
necessity of leading away from tenace suits. For example : A 
player holds A Q lo of a suit, his right hand adversary holding K 
J 9. These are known as the major and ininor tenaces. 
Whichever leads makes only one trick ; but if the holder of the 
major tenace can get the suit led twice, he makes all. This is 
called the short-suit game, or finesse and tenace. Its re- 
sources may be added to by finessing against certain cards. For 
example : Holding A Q 3 of a suit led by the partner, to play Q 
is a finesse against fourth hand having the King. 

Each of these systems has its advantages, and almost every 
hand will offer opportunities for practice in all of them. 

The most important thing to impress on the beginner is that 
whist cannot be played by machinery. Some authorities would 
have us believe that certain theories alone are sound ; that certain 
systems of play alone are good ; and that if one will persevere in 
following certain precepts, in such matters as leading, management 
of trumps, etc., that the result will be more than average success 
at the whist table. 

Nothing can be further from the truth. As in all other matters 
largely controlled by chance, there is no system, as a system, which 
will win at whist. One cannot succeed by slavish adherence to 
either the long or the short-suit game ; by the invariable giving of 
information, or the continual playing of false cards. The true ele- 
ments of success in whist lie in the happy combination of all the 
resources of long and short suits, of finesse and tenace, of candour 
and deception, continually adjusted to varying circumstances, so 
as to result in the adversaries' losing tricks. 

MOW TO STUDY WHIST. Any person, anxious to be- 
come an expert whist player, may attain to considerable proficiency 
in a short time, if he will content himself with mastering the fol- 
lowing general principles one at a time ; putting each into prac- 
tice at the whist table before proceeding to the next. 

The science of modern whist may be divided into two parts : 
1st. Tactics ; or the purely conventional rules for leading, sec- 
ond and third hand play, returning paitner's suits, etc., all of 
which may be learnt from books, or gathered from more experi- 
enced players. 2nd. /S'^/'ct^egr*// or the advantageous use of the 
information given by the conventional plays. This is largely de- 
pendent on personal ability to judge the situation correctly, and to 
select the methods of play best adapted to it. 

CONVENTIONAL PLAYS. These may be divided into 
two parts : those used by the partners who attack, either with 



CONVENTIONAL PL A YS. (Whist.) 71 

their strong suits, or by leading out trumps ; and those employed 
by their adversaries, who are defending themselves against such 
suits, or wishing to prevent their trumps being drawn. We shall 
first consider the conventionalities used in attack. 

Leading. The player with the original lead should have a 
double object in view ; to secure the best results for his own hand, 
and to indicate to his partner where he is in need of assistance. 

The first matter for his consideration will be whether to begin 
with a trump or with a plain suit. There are two principal uses for 
trumps. The most attractive to the beginner is that of rufhng the 
adversaries' winning cards ; and the most important to the expert 
is leading trumps to prevent this. No matter how strong or well 
established a plain suit may be, it is of uncertain value as long as 
the adversaries have any trumps with which to stop it. A suit is 
established when you can probably take every trick in it. If a 
player with a good established suit is sufhciently strong to make 
it probable that he can, with his partner's assistance, exhaust the 
adverse trumps, he should do so by leading trumps. If they are 
probably stronger than he, he must /orce them, by leading the es- 
tablished suit which they will be compelled to trump, weakening 
their hands and gradually reducing their trump strength until it is 
possible to exhaust what remains by leading. It being to the ad- 
vantage of the player with a good suit to exhaust the trumps, it 
must be desirable to his adversaries to keep theirs, if possible, for 
the purpose of ruffing this good suit. 

Trumps are also useful as cards of re-entry, when a player has 
an established suit, but has not the lead ; their most important use, 
however, is in defending or stopping established suits. 

Rules for Leading Trumps, With five or more trumps, 
the beginner should always begin by leading them, regardless of 
the rest of his hand. With three or less, he should never lead 
them, unless he has very strong cards in aU the plain suits. With 
four trumps exactly, he should lead them if he has an established 
suit and a card of re-entry in another suit. A card of re-entry in 
plain suits is one which is pretty sure to win a trick, such as an 
Ace, or a guarded King. The following are examples of hands 
from which trumps should be led originally by a beginner ; — 

Hearts are trumps in every case. 

<5'J8642; AK32; 01092,- ♦75. 
<5Qio2;*AK5;0KQio9;^AQ3. 
^K] 83; ♦AKQ1073; 03; <>„A7. 

The following are examples of hands from which trumps should 
not be led : — 

^AKQ; ♦J8753; 0Q4; *K4 2. 
<;:?QJio2;*52;OAKQ2;d&64 3. 
(2>A(2S4;*KQJ63;OA92,*K. 



72 (Whist.) RULES FOR LEADING. 

If at any later stage of the hand, a player finds himself with an 
established suit and a card of re-entry, he should lead trumps if he 
has four. For instance : The player with the last example should 
lead trumps if the first round of Clubs either forced the Ace out of 
his way, or found it with his partner. 

Mules for Leading Plain Suits. It is safest for the be- 
ginner to select his longest suit for the original lead ; unless he has 
a four-card suit which is much stronger. Length and high cards, 
the two elements of strength, are often very nearly balanced. In 
the following examples the player should begin with the longest 
suit : — 

^A43;*Jio983;OAKO; *K2. 

^ K ID 8 3 ; ♦ 4 2 ; K Q ID 8~2 ; ♦ A Q. 
In the following the four-card suit should be selected : — 

(:?J3;*6S432;OJI0 53;*0 8. 

<^Q42; *7; O106432; OAKQio. 
The principle which should guide in the selection of a plain suit for 
the original lead is, that if there are a number of small cards in 
one suit, and a few high cards in another, by leading the long 
suit first, the higher cards in it are forced out of the way, and the 
high cards in the shorter suit will then bring the holder of the 
established small cards into the lead again. But if the high cards 
of the short suit are first led, the long suit of small cards is dead. 

Having determined whether to lead the trump or the plain 
suit, the next point is to select the proper card of the suit to lead. 
At first the beginner need not trouble himself about making any 
distinction between trumps and plain suits ; that will come later. 

Mules for Leading High Cards. Having a strong suit, 
but without cards of re-entry or trump strength to support it, the 
best policy is to make tricks while you can. With such a suit as 
A K O 2, no one need be told not to begin with the deuce. 
Whenever a player holds two or more of the best cards of a suit 
he should play one of them. If he holds both second and third 
best, playing one of them will force the best cut of his way, leav- 
ing him with the commanding card. 

The cards which are recognised by whist players as high, are 
the A K O J 10, and if we separate the various combinations from 
which a player should lead each of them, a study of the groups 
so formed will greatly facilitate our recollection of them. 

In the first group are those containing two or more of the best 
cards. In this and all following notation, the exact size of any 
card below a Ten is immaterial. 



HIGH-CARD LEADS. 



(WMst.) 73 




<;? 


1 




1 






9 <? 












4- 


1 


4. 4- 

4. 4. 







• So far as trick-taking is concerned, it is of no importance which 
of the winning cards is first led ; but for the past hundred years 
it has been the custom for good whist players to lead the King 
from all these combinations, in order that the partner may be in- 
formed, by its winning, that the leader holds the Ace also. 

In the second group are those containing both the second and 
third best, but not the best. 









1 














9 9? 








•5. ♦ 




4. 4. 

4. * 



The King is the proper lead from these combinations. If it 
wins, the partner should have the Ace ; if it loses, partner should 
know the leader holds at least the Queen. 

Both these groups, which contain all the King leads, may be 
easily remembered by observing that the King is always led if 
accompanied by the Ace or Queen, or both. Beginners should 
follow this rule for leading the King, regardless of the number 
of small cards in the suit, unless they hold the sequence of K Q 
J, and at least two other cards. 




41 ''a 



♦ ♦ 



» » 




i 












From this combination the Jack is the usual lead, in order to 
invite partner to put on the Ace, if he has it, and get out of the 
way, thus establishing the suit in the leader's hand. This is the 
only high-card combination from which the Jack is led. 

There is only one combination from which the Queen is led. 
regardless of the number of the small cards. 



74 (Whist.) 



HIGH-CARD LEADS. 



^^ /mi *♦* * * "^ * 

Hi ^W **^ ' ' 



This may be remembered by observing that there is no higher 
card in the suit than the one led, and that it contains a sequence 
of three cards, O J lo. This lead is an indication to the partner 
that the leader holds neither Ace nor King. 

There is only one combination from which the Ten is led, re- 
gardless of the number of small cards. 



1 




M^ 








S? ^ 



The Ten led is an indication to partner that both Ace and 
Queen are against the leader. 

Combinations from which the Ace is led contain at least five 
cards in suit, or both Queen and Jack. 



<^ 


<7 <y 
9 9? 



9 s? 
9 9 





+ 


m 






This lead is an indication to partner that the leader has not the 
King, and that the suit is either long, or contains three honours. 

Hides for Leading Loiv Cards. If the suit selected for the 
lead contains none of the combinations from which a high card 
should be led, it is customary with good players to begin with the 
4th-best, counting from the top of the suit. This is called the 
card of uniformity ; because it indicates to the partner that there 
are remaining in the leader's hand exactly three cards higher than 
the one led. From any of the following combinations the proper 
lead would be the Four : — 



i 


1 


4- 
4- 4- 

4.*+ 



4* 4' 



S? <9 


<p <5> 


c> 


^ 9 






<7 cp 


<? q? 


'?> 



4- 


M 


4.*4' 
*** 








«? 


1 





4. 4- 



<9 <9 



(? 9 



ZOW'CABD LEADS. 



(Whist,) 75 


















♦ ♦ 

♦ ♦ 










o 







•:: 


%* 

« ♦ 
♦ * 






















Utiles for Leading Short Suits. It will sometimes happen 
that the only four-card suit in the leader's hand will be trumps, 
which it is not desirable to lead. In such cases, if there is no 
high-card combination in any of the short suits, it is usual to lead 
the highest card, unless it is an Ace or King. Many good players 
will not lead the Queen from a three-card suit, unless it is ac- 
companied by the Jack. All such leads are called forced, and 
are intended to assist the partner, by playing cards which may 
strengthen him, although of no use to the leader. The best card 
should be led from any such combinations as the following : — 



M 




i 




* * 
4. 4. 
4. 4. 












i 




0<^0 

Ooo 






















i 




♦ 4 















0.0 
0^0 























4. 4, 

4.*4. 

4. 4. 




4" 
4. 4. 

4.** 




4. 4. 
4. 4. 




















9 9? 
9 <7 




<9 cp 



All these rules for leading apply equally to any position at the 
table when a player opens his own suit for the first time. 

Mules for Leading Second Mound. On the second round 
of any suit, the player holding the best card should play it ; or 
having several equally the best, one of them. If he is Fourth 
Hand, he may be able to win the trick more cheaply. 

If the original leader has several cards, equally the best> such 
as A Q J remaining after having led the King, he should continue 
with the lowest card that will win the trick. This should be an 
indication to his partner that the card led is as good as the best, 
and that therefore the leader must have the intermediate cards. 



76 (Tliist.) 



SECONDART LEADS. 



Following King, which has been led from these combina- 
nations : — 





ffi 




<9 <? 








4. J(. 







Leading the Jack on the second round would show both Ace 
and Queen remaining. Leading Queen would show Ace, but not 
the Jack. Leading Ace would show that the leader had not the 
Queen. 

In combinations which do not contain the best card, the lead 
may be varied in some cases to show the number remaining in 
the leader's hand, or to indicate cards not shown by the first lead. 

Follotving King, which has been led from these combina- 
tions ; — 



i 




00 



WW ^wi 



i 


4. 4. 



Leading the Ten on the second round would show both Queen 
and Jack remaining. Leading the Jack would show the Queen; 
but not the ten. 

Following the Jack, led from this combination :— 



H 



wi 



<9 «? 



s? 


9? 


<;? 


9 


^ 


^ 



Leading King on the second round would show five cards in the 
suit originally. Leading the Queen would show more than five. 

Following the Queen, led from this combination : — 



0^^ 




M 




0^0 
0^0 




















M Vvl 





















Leading Jack on the second round shows the suit to have origi- 
nally contained only four cards ; the Ten would show more than 
four. 



SECONDARY LEADS. 



(Vhist.) 77 



Folloiving the Ace, led from these combinations :- 




4. ^ 
4. ^ 
4. 4" 



@ 




■ 






« ♦' 
^ 

» ♦! 



Leading the Queen shows the suit was short. Leading the Jack 
shows that it contained at least five cards. 

When a player holds both the second and third-best of a suit 
on the second round, he should always play one of them, whether 
he is First, Second, or Third Hand. This protects him, by forc- 
ing the command of the suit, if it does not win the trick. Having 
led the Ten from K J 10 x, if the Ace or Queen wins the first 
trick, the K should be next led. Having led the Four from Q 
J 6 4 2, if Ace or King falls to the first trick, the Queen should be 
led. If the Jack, Queen, and Ace fall to the first trick, a player 
holding both Ten and Nine should lead the Ten. 

After leading high cards from some combinations, and winning 
the trick, they may no longer contain either the best or the second 
and third best. Such are the following : — 



* 4 ♦ ♦ 






1 



0.0 
0^0 















4- 


4. 41 

4.* 4. 

4i 4> 


4.^4. 
4.*4. 


4> 4. 
4. 4. 




The rule in all such cases is to follow with the card of uniform- 
ity, the original fourth-best. 

If the combinations are those from which the fourth-best had 
been led originally, and the leader has neither the best, nor both 
second and third best to go on with, he should continue with the 
lowest card in his hand, unless he had six or more in suit ; in 
which case he may go on with the remaining fourth-best. 

AVOID CHANGING SUITS. A player having once 
begun with a suit, either for the purpose of establishing it, or of 
taking tricks in it, should not change it until he is forced to do so. 
Running off to untried suits is one of the beginner's worst faults. 
There are five good reasons for changing suits, and unless one of 
them can be applied, the suit should be continued ; 



78 (Whist.) AVOID CHANGING SUITS. 

1st. In order to lead trumps to defend it. 

2nd. In order to avoid forcing partner. 

3rd. In order to avoid forcing both adversaries. 

4th. Because it is hopeless, and there is some chance in another. 

5th. To prevent a cross ruff, by leading trumps. 

Simple Inferences from the fall of the cards usually supply 
the best guide in the matter of changing suits. 

If the Jack is led from K Q J x x, and wins the trick, partner 
may be credited with the Ace ; and if the original leader has four 
trumps, and a card of re-entry, he should quit his established suit, 
and lead trumps to defend it. 

If the King and Ace have been led from A K x x, partner 
dropping the Queen on the second round, the suit should be 
changed, unless the original leader is strong enough to risk weaken- 
ing his partner by forcing him to trump the third round. Four 
trumps are generally considered to be sufficiently strong to justify 
a force in this position. Some players will force, even with a weak 
hand, if the two cards played by the partner are small, and he has 
not availed himself of an artifice known as calling for trumps, 
which we shall consider presently. 

If the King and Ten have been led from K Q J 10, and on the 
second round one adversary has dropped the Eight, the other the 
Nine; the suit should be changed, as oartner must have the Ace, 
and neither of the adversaries have any more. To lead such a 
suit again is called forcing hoth adversaries; as it allows 
one to make a small trump and the other to get rid of a losing 
card. 

If the Four has been led from J 8 6 4, and the adversaries have 
won the first trick with the Nine or Ten, A K Q must be against 
the leader and his partner, and the suit should be abandoned as 
hopeless, unless it is feasible to force the partner. 

If at any time there is a strong indication that the adversaries 
will have a cross-ruff, it is usually best to stop leading plain suits, 
and attempt to get out the trumps. 

THE LEADER'S PARTNER, or the Third Hand, has 
several conventional plays to remember; the most important of 
which are the following : 

When Partner Leads High Cards, the Third Hand has 
usually little to do but to play his lowest of the suit. The excep- 
tions are : 

If he holds A J alone, on a King led, the Ace should be played. 

If he holds A Q alone on a Ten led, the Ace should be played. 
With A Q X, the Ten should be passed. With Ace and small 
cards, the Ace should be played on the Ten. With Queen and 
small cards the Ten should be passed. When Third Hand plays 



THIRD -HAND PLAY. (Whist.) 79 

Queen on a Ten led, it should be a certainty that he has no more 
of the suit. 

If he holds A K and only one small card, the King should be 
played on a Queen led. 

If he holds Ace and only one small card, the Ace should be 
played on the Jack led. If Third Hand has four trumps and a 
card of re-entry, the Ace should be played on Jack led, regardless 
of number, in order to lead trumps at once, to defend the suit. 

When Partner Leads Low Cards, the Third Hand should 
do his best to secure the trick. If he has several cards of equal 
trick-taking value, such as A K Q, or K Q J, he should win the 
trick as cheaply as possible. The only finesse permitted to the 
Third Hand in his partner's suit, is the play of the Queen, when he 
holds A Q and others ; the odds being against Fourth Hand hav- 
ing the King. 

Foster's Eleven Rule. By deducting from eleven the num- 
ber of pips on any low card led, the Third Hand may ascertain 
how far his partner's suit is from being established. For instance : 
if the card led is the Seven, Second Hand playing the Eight, and 
Third Hand holding A J 6 3, from which he plays Ace, Fourth 
Hand playing the Five ; the only card against the leader must be 
the King or Queen ; he cannot have both, or he would have led 
one. If the Second Hand has not the missing card, he has no more 
of the suit. The number of inferences which may be made in 
this manner by observant players is astonishing. A great many 
examples and exercises in them are given in Foster's Whist 
Manual. 

Third Sand having None of the Suit, should trump 
anything but an Ace or a King on the first round. On the second 
round, if there is only one card against the leader, his partner 
should pass with four trumps, and allow the suit to be established. 
For instance : If the leads have been Ace, then Jack, Third Hand 
holding only one of the suit ; he should pass if the Second Hand 
does not play King. 

Third Hand on Strengthening Cards. Unless Third 
Hand has both Ace and King of the suit, he should pass any 
forced or strengthening lead which is not covered by the Second 
Hand. This obliges the Fourth Hand to open another suit, or to 
continue at a disadvantage. 

Third Hand winning first round has the choice of four lines of 
play: 

1st. To lead trumps, if he is strong enough. 

2nd, To return the best card of his partner's suit if he has it. 
This is imperative before opening any other suit but trumps. 

3rd. To lead his own suit, if he can do anything with it. It is 
considered better play for the Third Hand to return the original 



80 (Whist.) RETURNING SUITS. 

leader's suit than to open a long weak suit of his own, such as one 
headed by a single honour. 

4th. To return his partner's suit, even with a losing card, in 
preference to changing. 

When the original lead is a trump, it should be returned in 
every case, either immediately, or as soon as the player can obtain 
the lead. 

The same reasons for changing suits as those given for the 
original leader will apply to the Third Hand. 

RULES FOR METURNING PARTNER'S SUITS. 

When the original leader's suit is returned by his partner, either 
immediately or upon his regaining the lead, it is usual to show, if 
possible, how many cards remain in the Third Hand, so that by 
adding them to his own, the leader may estimate the number held 
by his adversaries. This consideration is secondary to the return 
of the best, or one of the second and third best ; but in the absence 
of such cards, the Third Hand should always return the higher of 
only two remaining, and the lowest of three or more, regardless of 
their value. 

In addition to the foregoing conventionalities, which are proper 
to the leader of a suit and his partner, there are two usages which 
apply equally to any player at the table. These are discarding 
and forcing. 

Discardiiig. When a player cannot follow suit, and does not 
wish to trump, his safest play is to discard whatever seems of 
least use to him. It is not considered good play to unguard a 
King or to leave an Ace alone ; but this may be done if the part- 
ner is leading trumps, and there is a good established suit to 
keep. Beginners should be careful to preserve cards of re-entry, 
even if they have to discard from their good suit in order to do 
so. 

When the adversaries have shown strength in trumps, or are 
leading them, there is little use in keeping a long suit together. 
It is much better to keep guard on the suits in which they are 
probably strong, letting your own and your partner's go. 

A player having full command of a suit, may show it to his 
partner by discarding the best card of it. Discarding the second- 
best is an indication that the player has not the best ; and in 
general, the discard of any small card shows weakness in that 
suit. 

Forcing. We have already observed that a player who is 
weak himself should not force his partner. An exception may be 
made in cases where he has shown weakness, or has had a chance 
to lead trumps and has not done so. On the contrary, an adver- 
sary should not be forced unless he has shown strength, or the 
player forcing him is weak. The hope of a player with a good 
suit is to defend it by leading and exhausting the trumps. His 



FORCING. (Whist) 81 

adversary tries to keep his trumps in order to stop that suit ; at 
the same time forcing the strong hand, by leading cards which he 
must trump, hoping that such a force may so wealien him that he 
will be unable to continue the trump lead. 

It is usually very difficult to convince the beginner that the 
weaker he is himself, the more reason he has for forcing the 
adversaries to trump his good cards. He is constantly falling into 
the error of changing from a good suit, which the adversaries can- 
not stop without trumping, to a weak suit, which allows them to 
get into the lead without any waste of trump strength. If an 
adversary refuses to trump a suit, it is imperative to keep on with 
it until he does ; for it is always good play to force an adversary 
to do what he does not wish to do. 

Any person may convince himself of the soundness of this 
theory of forcing, by giving himself the six highest cards in any 
suit, three small cards in the others, and four trumps ; giving 
another player the four best trumps, and nine of the highest cards 
in two suits. If the first player forces the second with his good 
suit, and continues every time he gets the lead, he must win six 
tricks ; if he does not, the second player makes a slam. 

A deliberate force from a partner should always be accepted, 
if he is a good player. 

We may now turn our attention to the conventionalities used by 
players who are opposed to the establishment of suits in the hands 
of the leader and his partner. These are divided between the 
Second and the Fourth Hand, the former being the more impor- 
tant. Generally speaking, they are the tactics of defence. 

SECOND HAND PLAT. The player who is second to 
play on any trick is called the Second Hand. It is his duty to pro- 
tect himself and his partner, as far as possible, in the adversaries' 
strong suits. The chief point for the beginner to observe in Sec- 
ond Hand play, is the difference between the circumstances requir- 
ing him to play high cards, and those in which he should play low 
ones. 

Sigh Cards Led. When a card higher than a Ten is led on 

the first round of a suit, the Second Hand has usually nothing to 
do but to play his lowest card, and make what inference he can as 
to the probable distribution of the suit But if he holds the Ace, 
or cards in sequence with it, such p<; '^ K. he should cover any 
card higher than a Ten. If he holds K Q he should cover a J, lo, 
or 9 led ; but it is useless for him to cover an honour with a single 
honour, unless it is the Ace. 

Low Cards Led. High cards are played by the Second Hand 
when he has any combination from which he would have led a 



82 i^hku) 



SECOND-HAND PLAY. 



high one if he had opened the suit. The fact that a player on his 
right has already laid a small card of the suit on the table should 
not prevent the Second Hand from making the best use of any 
combinations he may hold. The only difference between leading 
from such combinations, and playing them Second Hand, is that in 
the latter case no attempt is made to indicate to the partner the 
exact nature of the combination held. The general rule is to win 
the trick as cheaply as possible, by playing the lowest of the high 
cards which form the combination from which a high card would 
be led. Such are the following : — 





The 



beginner must be careful with these : — 





0^0 

o o 



o o 


O 



The combination which makes the first of these a high-card 
lead is the A K, and the King must be played Second Hand. The 
Jack has nothing to do with it. In the second, the Ten does not 
form any part of the combination, and the Queen is the card to 
play Second Hand. Some players will not play a high card second 
hand with K Q x x unless weak in trumps. 

An exception is generally made with these combinations, from 
which the proper lead is the Ace. 



•> , V V *?• 
4. Ji 4. 4. 



♦ ♦ 

^J,^ 
'^*'^ 

* « 



%♦ 

%* 

♦ ♦ 





♦ ♦ 



» ♦ 



SECOND-HAND PLAY. 



(Vlilst.) 83 



Many will not play Ace Second Hand in any case, and will 
play the Queen with the first combination only when they are 
weak in trumps. The reason for this exception is the irnportance 
of retaining command of the adverse suit as long as possible. 

On the Second Round, the Second Hand should follow the 
usual rule for playing the best of the suit if he holds it ; or one of 
the second and third best, if he holds them. He should also be care- 
ful to estimate, by the eleven rule, how many cards are out against 
the leader, which will sometimes guide him to a good finesse. For 
instance : first player leads Ace, then Eight. If the Second Hand 
holds K J 9 2, instead of playing the best card to the second 
round, which would be King, he should finesse the Nine. 

With SJiort Suits. When Second Hand holds such short-suit 
combinations as : — 



1 




3 












1 




^^^ 
^ '^ 

^^^ 
<?^^ 




<9 (? 



and a small card is led, his proper play is one of the high cards, 
because he cannot save both of them. 

On Strengthening Cards Led. This is a difficult point for 
the beginner, and his best plan is to follow the rules already given 
for covering cards higher than the Ten. One of the most common 
errors is to cover a Jack led with a Queen, when holding A Q and 
others. The Ace should be put on invariably. To play the Queen 
in such a position is called finessing against yourself. 

Singly Guarded Honours. Many players put on the King 
Second Hand, if they hold only one small card with it, and a 
small card is led. This will win the trick as often as it will lose it ; 
but it betrays the hand to the adversary, and enables him to finesse 
deeply if the suit is returned. It may be done in order to get the 
lead, and in trumps the practice is very common, and generally 
right. With Queen and only one small card, it can be demon- 
strated that it is useless to play the Queen Second Hand, except 
as an experiment, or to get the lead in desperate cases. 

With any combination weaker than J lo x, it is useless to at- 
tempt to win the trick Second Hand, and only makes it difficult 
for the partner to place the cards correctly. 

TJie Fourchette. When the Second Hand has cards imme- 
diately above and below the one led, he should cover. The be- 
ginner may have some difficulty in recognising the fact that he 
holds fourchette if the suit has been round once or twice, and the 
intermediate cards have been played. Such cards as a Queen and 



84 {VhisU FOURTH-HAND PLAY. 

a Seven may be fourchette over a Nine, if Jack, Ten and Eight 
have been played. 

Second Mand Having None of the suit led, on either first 
or second round, must decide whether or not to trump it. If the 
card led is the best of the suit, he should certainly do so ; but if it 
is not, and there is any uncertainty as to M^ho will win the trick, it 
is usual for the Second Hand to pass when he has four trumps. 
With five trumps, there should be some good reason for keeping 
the trumps together, as a player with so many can usually afford 
to trump. If he does not trump, his play comes under the rules 
for discarding. 

FOURTH-SAND FLAY. The Fourth Hand is the last 
player in any trick. He is the partner of the Second Hand, but 
has not so many opportunities for the exercise of judgment, his 
duties being simply to win tricks if he can, and as cheaply as 
possible. If he cannot win the trick, he should play his lowest 
card. 

A bad habit of Fourth-Hand players is holding up the tenace A 
J when a King or Queen is led originally. This is called the 
Fath Coup, and the suit must go round three times for it to 
succeed in making two tricks. The holder of the tenace should 
equally make two tricks by playing the Ace at once, provided he 
does not lead the suit back. 

The Turn-up Trump. When trumps are led by the adver- 
saries, it is a common practice to play the turn-up as soon as pos- 
sible, unless it is a valuable card. On the contrary, it is usual to 
keep it as long as possible when the partner leads trumps. 

Changing Suits. If the Second or Fourth Hand wins the 
first or second round of the adversaries' suit, it is seldom right to 
return it, as that would probably be playing their game. The 
player should open his own suit, as if he were the original leader. 
If he is strong enough to lead trumps under ordinary circum- 
stances, he may be deterred from so doing if the adversaries have 
declared a strong suit against him. The same consideration may 
prevent his leading trumps in the hope of making a suit of his 
own, as the adversaries might reap the benefit by bringing in their 
suit instead. On the contrary, when the Second or Fourth Hand 
holds command of the adverse suit, they may often risk a trump 
lead which would otherwise be injudicious. Having once started 
a suit, it should not be changed, except for one of the reasons 
already given for the guidance of the First Hand. 

When the Adversaries Lead Trutnps, and the Second 
Hand has a chance either to establish a suit against them or to 
force his partner, he should stop the trump lead if he can. If his 
partner has led trumps, the Second Hand should generally play 



THE smNAL GAME. (Whist.) S5 

his winning cards on his right hand opponent's plain-suit leads, to 
stop them ; and continue the trumps. 

These are about all the conventionalities necessary for the 
beginner. After at least a year's practice with them, he will either 
discover that he has no aptitude for the game, or will be ready to 
go into further details. A beginner who attempts to handle the 
weapons of the expert simply plays with edged tools, which will 
probably cut no one but himself and his partner. 



THE SIGNAL GAME. Having become thoroughly famil- 
iar with the elementary conventionalities of the game, so that they 
can be used without the slightest hesitation at the whist table, the 
player may proceed to acquaint himself with the details of what is 
commonly known as the Signal Game, which comprises all the 
various methods of signalling up hands betvi'een partners, accord- 
ing to certain arbitrary and pre-arranged systems of play. Many 
players object to these methods as unfair ; but they are now too 
deeply rooted to yield to protest ; and the best thing for a player to 
do is to familiarise himself with his adversaries' weapons. 

TJie Trump Signal, A player anxious to have trumps led, 
but who has no immediate prospect of the lead, may call on his 
partner to lead trumps at the first opportunity, by playing any two 
cards of a suit led, the higher before the lower. Let us suppose 
him to hold five good trumps, with the Six and Two of a suit of 
which his partner leads King, then Jack. By playing first the 
Six, and then the Two, he calls upon his partner to quit the suit, 
and lead a trump. 

Among some players, the lead of a strengthening card when an 
honour is turned, is a call for trumps to be led through that honour 
at the first opportunity, but it is not good play. 

Passing a certain winning card is regarded by most players as 
an imperative call for trumps. 

The discard of any card higher than a Seven is known as a 
single-card-call. Even if it was not so intended, it is assumed that 
a trump lead cannot injure a player with nothing smaller than a 
Nine in his hand. 

Ansivering Trutnp Signals. In response to partner's call, 
a player should lead the best trump if he holds it ; one of the 
second and third best if he holds them ; the highest of three or 
less ; the lowest of four ; and the fourth-best of more than four. 
Holding any of the regular high-card combinations in trumps, he 
should lead them in the regular way in answer to a call. 



86 (Wtiktj TnnMP SIGNALS. 

After a Force, If the player is forced before he can answer 
the call, he may indicate the number of trumps originally held by 
playing them in this manner : — 

With 3 or less ; trumping with the lowest ; leading the highest. 

With 4 exactly ; trumping with the 3rd-best ; leading the high- 
est. 

With 5 or more ; trumping with the 3rd-best ; leading the 4th- 
best. 

These methods of taking the force must not be carried to ex- 
tremes. For instance : A player holding K J 10 2, would hardly 
be justified in trumping with the 10 to show number. Some 
experts, holding the best trump with at least four others, will not 
lead it ; preferring to show number first, by leading the fourth- 
best. Others, holding four, lead the lowest after trumping with 
the third-best. 

The Echo in Trumps. When the partner leads high 
trumps, the Third Hand should echo with four or more, by signal- 
ling in the trump suit. The universal form of the echo is to play 
first the third-best, then the fourth-best. When a player has 
called, and his partner leads, it is unnecessary for the caller to 
echo. Players seldom echo on adverse trump leads, even with five 
trumps. 

The Four-Signal. There are several ways of showing four 
or more trumps without asking partner to lead them. Among 
some players the original lead of a strengthening card is an evi- 
dence of four trumps, and is called an Albany Lead. A player 
holding three cards of any plain suit, such as the 3, 4, 5, may show 
the number of his trumps by playing these small cards as follows ; — 



of trumps. 


1st 


trick. 


2nd trick. 


3rd trick. 


3 or less 




3 


4 


5 


4 exactly 




4 


5 


3 


5 " 




4 


3 


5 


6 " 




5 


3 


4 


7 or more 




5 


4 


3 



The second of these is the four-signal ; the last three are trump 
signals. They are used only in following suit. 

The four-signal is sometimes used in the trump suit as a Sub- 
echo, to show three trumps exactly. 

Apart from signalling, trump strength may often be inferred, 
especially from player's passing doubtful tricks, forcing their part- 
ners, etc. 



LEADING TRUMPS. 



(Whist.) 87 



Trump Suit Leads. When trumps are not led for the pur- 
pose of exhausting them immediately, but simply as the longest 
suit, the fourth-best may be led from the following : — 



al 



1 


9 ^ 

<7 ^ 


' 











<9 <? 
9 <?> 














<> 












4. 4- 



If the Ten accompanies the King and Queen, in the third com- 
bination, it is best to adhere to the usual lead of the King. 

In leading trumps from combinations containing a winning 
sequence, such as the following : — 




1 


9 9 

























many players begin with the lowest of the winning cards, continu- 
ing with the next above it. 

Speculative Trump Leads. The whist player will often find 
himself with a single good suit, a card of re-entry, and few trumps. 
Certain conditions of the score may prompt him to make a specu- 
lative trump lead from such a hand. If his trumps are high, such 
as A K X, he may safely begin by leading them ; but if they are 
weak, and he is depending largely on his partner's possible 
strength, he should show his suit first by leading it once. 

Overtrumping is generally regarded as bad policy when a 
player has a good suit, and sufficient trump strength to justify him 
in hoping to do something with it. The refusal to overtrump, 
unless the trump played is a high one, should be regarded by the 
partner as a call. 

It is sometimes necessary to overtrump partner in order to get 
the lead. For instance : A player holds the two best trumps, and 
all winning cards of a plain suit, while the player on his right has 
a losing trump. In such a position the player with the two best 
trumps should trump any winning card his partner leads, or over 
trump him if he trumps, so as to prevent the adversary from mak- 
ing that losing trump. 

Underfrum^ping, or the Chfand Coup, is playing a low 
trump on a trick that partner has already trumped with a higher, 
in order to avoid the lead. For instance : A player holds major 
tenace in trumps with a small •ne, and knows that the minor 
lenace is on his right. Four cards remain in each hand. The 
player on the left leads ; Second Hand trumps ; Third Hand fol- 



88 (WiusU) 



TRUMP TACTICS. 



lows suit. If the. Fourth Hand keeps his three trumps, he must 
win the next trick, and lose the advantage of his tenace, 

A player will sometimes have the best card in two suits, and a small 
trump, and will know that the two best trumps and an unknown 
card are on his right. If the missing suit is led, and the player on 
the right trumps, his unknown card must be one of the two other 
suits, and the player with the command of them should keep both, 
and throw away his small trump. The discards on the next trick 
may enable him to determine the suit of the losing card on his 
right. 

T/ie Last Trump. If two players have an equal number of 
trumps, each of them having an established suit, it will be the ob- 
ject of both to remain with the last trump, which must bring in 
the suit. The tactics of each will be to win the third round of 
trumps ; and then, if the best trump is against him, to force it out 
with the established suit, coming into the lead again with the last 
trump. So often is it important to win the third round of trumps 
that few good players will win the second round, unless they can 
win the third also. With an established suit, a card of re-entry, 
and four trumps King high, a player should lead trumps; but if 
his partner wins the first round and returns a small trump, the 
King should not be put on, no matter what Second Hand plays, 
unless the card next below the King is fourchette. Some of the 
most brilliant endings in whist are skirmishes for the possession of 
the last trump ; the player who is at a disadvantage often persist- 
ently refuses the fatal force, hoping the leader will be compelled 
to change his suit, or will lose the lead. 

Drawing the Losing Trump. It is usually best to draw 
losing trumps from the adversaries, unless a player can foresee 
that he may want the best to stop a strong adverse suit. 

A TJiirteentJi Card, played by the partner, is usually considered 
an invitation to put on the best trump. The Second Hand should 
not trump a thirteenth card unless he is weak in trumps. 

AMEMICAN LEADS. Advanced players, who have had so 
much practice that they can infer the probable position of the 
cards without devoting their entire attention to it, have adopted a 
new system of leading from the four combinations following, in 
order to show the number of small cards in the suit : — 




m 


•^ 4* 

4. 4- 


9 






<> 

<^ 


1 


o 





i 


9 K> 


<9 S? 


<9 
<7 








1 






♦ 
♦ 



AMERICAN LEADS. (Wi^t) 89 

From these the King is never led if there are more than four 
cards in the suit. Having more than four, the lov/est of the se- 
quence of high cards is led. From the first this would be the 
Jack ; from the second the Queen ; from the third the Ace, (be- 
cause the King is barred ;) and from the fourth the Queen. The 
Ten is not ranked among the high cards in American Leads. 

On the second round, with the first two combinations, the dif- 
ference between a suit of five or one of six cards may be indicated 
by following with the Ace if five were held originally ; the King, 
if more than five. Seven cards may be shown with the first com- 
bination, by leading the Queen on the second round. 

The chief difference these leads make in the play of the Third 
Hand is that he should not trump any court card led, even if weak 
in trumps. The misunderstanding as to the meaning of the first 
lead, especially if it is a Queen, often occasions confusion and loss ; 
but this is claimed to be offset by the value of the information 
given. Some lead lofrom Q J lo; 4Lh-best from K J lo. 

To the adversaries these leads are often of value, as they are 
frequently enabled to place the cards very accurately from the in- 
formation given by the lead itself, regardless of the fall of the cards 
from the other hands. For instance : Second Hand holds A J of a 
suit in which King is led ; Third Hand plays the Four ; Fourth Hand 
plays the Nine. The leader remains with Q 3 2 ; Third Hand still 
has 8765; and if he has also the 10, Fourth Hand has no more. 
Again : The leader shows a suit of six ; Second Hand holding 
two only. If the suit is led a third time it is a doubtful trick, and 
with four trumps the Second Hand should pass. If the leader 
shows the exact number of the suit originally led, and then changes 
to a four-card suit, the adversaries know at least nine of his cards. 

So obvious is this that it is an almost invariable rule for a player, 
on quitting his suit, to conceal the length of the second suit led by 
leading the highest card of a short suit. 

If it were allowable to exercise some judgment in using these 
leads, they might not be open to so many objections ; but they are 
worse than useless unless the partner can depend on their being 
uniformly adopted. 

The Minneapolis Lead. This is another variation in the 
leads, which is confined to one combination ; that of Ace and any 
four other cards, not including the King. With strength in trumps 
the fourth-best is led instead of the Ace, the theory being that the 
Ace is more likely to be valuable on the second or third round of 
such a suit than on the first, and that the trump strength justifies 
the finesse of the original lead. With weak trumps the Ace is led. 
Some players extend this principle to the Second Hand, and play 
Ace on a small card led, when holding A x x x x with weak 
trumps. This is open to the objection that it gives up command 
of the adverse suit too early in the hand ; but it saves many a trick. 



90 (Whist.) VARIOUS TACTICS. 

The Plain-suit Echo. This is another device for giving in- 
formation as to number. When the original leader begins with a 
high card, the Third Hand should play his third-best if he holds 
four or more ; and on the second round his second-best, always re- 
taining his fourth-best and any below it. The value of this echo 
is much disputed, and the adversaries can usually render it inef- 
fective by holding up small cards ; a practice very much in vogue 
with advanced players. 

Low's Signal. This is the latest system of indicating to the 
leader the number of cards in his suit held by the Third Hand. 
With four or more of the suit, the third-best is played to the lead 
of a high card, or when no attempt is made to win the trick. In 
returning the suit, the second-best is led if three or more remain, 
and on the third round, or in a discard, the highest is played, 
always retaining the fourth-best and those below it. For in- 
stance : With the 8 7 5 2 of a suit which partner leads, the 5 is 
played to the first round. If the suit is returned, the 7 is played ; 
and next time the 8. Holding only three originally, the lowest is 
played to the first round, and the higher of two returned, in the 
usual way. The chief value of this signal is that the return of the 
lowest of a suit shows absolutely no more, instead of leaving the 
original leader in doubt as to whether it is the only one, or the low- 
est of three remaining. It is also a great exposer of false cards. 

Discard Signalling is another method of indicating plain 
suits. When a player is known to have no trumps, and there- 
fore cannot be calling for them, he may use the trump signal 
in any plain suit which he wishes led to him. As a general rule, 
a player should not use this signal unless he has a certain trick in 
the suit in which he signals. Some players use what is called the 
reverse discard ; a signal in one suit meaning weakness in it, and 
an invitation to lead another. This avoids the necessity for using 
the good suit for signalling purposes. 

Unblocking. When the original leader shows a suit of five 
cards, and the Third Hand has four exactly, the latter should 
keep his lowest card, not for the purpose of echoing, but in order 
to retain a small card which will not block the holder of the 
longer suit. If the Third Hand has three cards of the suit led, 
and among them a card which may block his partner, he should 
give it up on the second round. For instance : Holding K 4 3, 
and partner showing a five-card suit by leading Ace then Jack, 
Third Hand should give up the King on the second round. 
Again : Holding Q 9 3, partner leading Ace then Eight ; Second 
Hand playing King second round. Third Hand should give up the 
Queen. Again : Holding K Q, partner leading the 8 originally, 
won by Fourth Hand with Ace ; the King should be discarded or 
otherwise got rid of at the first opportunity. 



VARIOUS STRATAGEMS. (W&ist.) 91 

Short-suit Leads. Many players will not lead a long weak 
suit unless they have sufficient strength to justify them in hoping 
to establish, defend, and bring it in, with reasonable support 
from the partner. With a long suit, headed by a single honour, 
weak trumps, and no cards of re-entry, they prefer selecting a 
strengthening card for the original lead, hoping it may be of some 
assistance to partner by affording a successful finesse. It is 
claimed that it is better for a person, especially with a strong 
hand, to play with the knowledge that his partner is weak, than 
under the impression that he may be strong. Such an opening 
lead should warn the Third Hand to finesse deeply, to hold any 
tenaces he may have, and to let nothing pass him which might be 
too much for his weak partner to attend to. This is a very 
difficult game to play well, and is seldom resorted to except by the 
most expert. 

Deschapelles Coups. It often happens that after the adverse 
trumps are exhausted, a player will find himself with the lead, 
but unable to give his partner a card of his established suit. In 
such cases the best course is to sacrifice the King or Queen of 
any suit of which he has not the Ace, in the hope that it may 
force the best of the suit, and leave partner with a card of re- 
entry. For instance : The leader has established the Club suit ; 
his partner has exhausted the trumps, Hearts ; and having no 
Clubs, leads the King of Spades from K x x x. If the holder of 
the Club suit has Spade Queen, and the King forces the Ace, the 
Club suit will be brought in. If he has not the Queen, the Clubs 
are probably hopeless. The coup risks a trick to gain several. 

Players should be careful not to fall into this trap in the end- 
game ; and it is generally right to hold up the Ace if the circum- 
stances are at all suspicious. 

Tenace Positions. Many expert players will not lead away 
from a suit in which they hold tenace. Having two suits, one 
containing a tenace, and the other without it, they will select the 
latter, although it may be much weaker. It is noteworthy that 
players who disregard the value of holding a tenace in the open- 
ing lead, are well aware of its importance toward the end of the 
hand. When one player holds tenace over another, the end 
game often becomes a struggle to place the lead ; and players 
frequently refuse to win tricks in order to avoid leading away 
from tenaces, or to compel another player to lead up to them. 

Underplay is often resorted to by the Fourth Hand in suits 
in which the Third Hand has shown weakness. For instance : 
A small card is led ; Third Hand playing the Ten, and Fourth 
Hand holding A Q J x. It is a common artifice to win with the 
Queen, and return the small card. When the original leader is under- 
played in his own suit, he should invariably put up his best card. 



92 (WhisL) VARIOUS STRATAGEMS. 

Finessing, The expert may finesse much more freely than 
the beginner. Having led from such a suit as K J x x and partner 
having won with Ace and returned a small card, the Jack may be 
finessed with strong trumps. If the adversaries lead trumps, and 
the Ace wins the first round, a player holding the King second 
hand on the return, may finesse by holding it up, trusting his 
partner for the trick. 

In all cases that mark the best of the suit against a player, and 
on his left, he may finesse against the third-best being there also. 
For instance : A player leads from K lo x x x. Third Hand 
plays Queen and returns a small card. The Ten should be finessed, 
regardless of trump strength, as the Ace must be on the left, and 
the finesse is against the Jack being there also. Many varieties 
of this finesse occur. 

Placing the Lead. This is usually a feature of the end- 
game. A player may have an established suit, his adversary being 
the only person with any small cards of it. If the lead can be 
placed in the hand of this adversary, he must eventually lead the 
losing cards. 

A player begins with a weak suit of four cards, on the first 
round of which it is evident that his partner has no more, the ad- 
versaries having all the high cards. The suit is not played again, 
and for the last six tricks the original leader finds himself with 
three cards of it, and the Q x x of another suit. If the adversaries 
play King and Ace of the latter suit, the Queen should be given 
up, trusting partner for the Jack, for the Queen will force the holder 
of the three losing cards into the lead. It is sometimes necessary 
to throw away an Ace in order to avoid the lead at critical stages 
of the end-game. 

False Cards. It requires more than ordinary skill to judge 
when a false card will do less harm to the partner than to the 
adversaries. There are some occasions for false-card play about 
which there is little question. Having a sequence in the adverse 
suit, the Second or Fourth Hand may win with the highest card, 
especially if the intention is to lead trumps. Holding K Q only, 
Second Hand may play the King, especially in trumps. Holding 
A K X, the Fourth Hand should play Ace on a Queen led by an 
American leader. With such a suit as K J lo x, after trumps 
have been exhausted, the Ten is not a safe lead ; Jack or fourth- 
best is better. Holding up the small cards of adverse suits is a 
common stratagem ; and it is legitimate to use any system of 
false-carding in trumps if it will prevent the adversaries who have 
led them from counting them accurately. 

Playing to the Score. The play must often be varied on 
account of the state of the score, either to save or win the game in 
the hand. If the adversaries appear to be very strong, and likely 



INFERENCES. (WWst.) 93 

to go out on the deal, all conventionalities should be disregarded 
until the game is saved ; finesses should be refused, and winning 
cards played Second Hand on the first round. If the adversaries 
are exhausting the trumps, it will often be judicious for a player 
to make what winning cards he has, regardless of all rules for 
leading, especially if they are sufficient to save the game. 

It often happens that the same cards must be played in different 
ways according to the state of the score, and the number of tricks 
in front of the player. A simple example will best explain this. 
Hearts are trumps ; you hold two small ones, two better being 
out against you, but whether in one hand or not you cannot tell. 
You have also two winning Spades, one smaller being still out. 
The game is seven-point whist. The importance of playing to 
the score will be evident if you consider your play in each of the 
following instances, your score being given first : 

Score 6 to 6 ; you have 5 tricks in front of you. 

Score 6 to 6 ; you have 4 tricks in front of you. 

Score 6 to 5 ; you have 4 tricks in front of you. 

Score 5 to 4 ; you have 5 tricks in front of you. 

INFERENCES. The great strength of the expert lies in his 
ability to draw correct inferences from the fall of the cards, and 
to adapt his play to the circumstances. 

Inferences from the various systems of leads and returns are too 
obvious to require further notice ; but attention may be called to 
some that are often overlooked, even by advanced players : 

If a suit led is won by Third Hand with King or Ace ; and the 
original leader wins the second round with King or Ace, the ad- 
versaries must have the Queen. 

If the Third Hand plays Ace first round, he has neither King 
nor Queen. If he plays Queen on a Ten led, he has no more. If 
he plays Ace on a King led, he has the Jack alone, or no more. 

If the Second Hand plays King first round on a small card led, 
he has Ace also, or no more. If he plays Ace under the same con- 
ditions, he has no more. [See Minneapolis Lead.] 

If a suit is led, and neither Third nor Fourth Hand has a card in 
it above a Nine, the original leader must have A Q 10, and the 
second player K J. When neither Third nor Fourth Hand holds 
a card above the Ten, the major and minor tenaces are divided 
between the leader and the Second Hand. If it :an be inferred 
that the leader held five cards in the suit originally, he holds the 
minor tenace. 

When a player, not an American leader, begins with a Jack 
and wins the trick, the adversaries may conclude that his partner 
had two small cards with the Ace, and had not four trumps and 
another winning card. 

When a good player changes his suit, he knows that it will not 



94 (Whist,) THE AMERICAN GAME, 

go round again, or that the command is against him. This is 
often a valuable hint to the adversaries. When he quits his origi- 
nal suit and leads trumps, without his partner having called, the 
adversaries may conclude that the suit has been established. 

When a player puts Ace on his partner's Jack led, and does not 
lead trumps, the adversaries may count on him for only one small 
card of the suit led. 

When an adversary finesses freely, he may be credited with 
some strength in trumps. 

When a player changes his suit, the adversaries should note 
carefully the fall of the cards in the new suit. As already ob- 
served, the leader almost invariably opens the new suit with the 
best he has. Suppose a plaver to lead two winning cards in one 
suit, and then the Eight of another, which the Second Hand wins 
with the Ten ; The four honours in the second suit must be be- 
tween the Second and Fourth Hands. 

Having won the first or second round of the adverse suit, and 
having no good suit of his own, the Second or Fourth Hand may 
be able to infer a good suit with his partner, by the play. For in- 
stance : A player opens Clubs, showing five, his partner wins 
second round, and opens the Diamond suit with the Jack, on 
which Second Hand plays Ace, his partner dropping the 9. Hav- 
ing now the lead, and no good suit, it is evident that the play 
should be continued on the assumption that partner is all Spades 
and trumps. 



THE AMERICAN GAME. Since the revolt against the 
invariable opening from the longest suit, which was the style of 
game advocated by the old school of Pole and "Cavendish," many 
systems have been tried out by the various clubs that meet at our 
national tournaments. E. C. Howell was the first to attempt to 
set the short-suit game in order, but his methods have long since 
been superseded by more elastic tactics. 

The fundamental principle of the short-suit game, as first ex- 
plained to the world by the New York Sun, is to use the original 
or opening lead to indicate the general character of the hand rather 
than any details of the individual suit. In the long-suit game the 
original leader is always assuming that his partner may have some- 
thing or other, and playing on that supposition. The short-suit 
player indicates the system of play best adapted to his own hand, 
without the slightest regard to the possibihties of his partner. It 
is the duty of the partner to indicate his hand in turn, and to shape 
the policy of the play on the combined indications of the two. 

This does not mean that the player shall always lead a short 

. suit, but that he should combine the best features of both systems, 

without slavish adherence to either. This idea has been brought 



THE AMERICAN GAME. (Whist.) 95 

to perfection in practice by the famous American Whist Club of 
Boston, and under the able leadership of its captain, Harry H. 
Ward, it has demonstrated that he can take any kind of a team 
and beat any of the old style long-suit players, no matter how skilful 
they may be. The following is a brief outline of the American 
game, as given by Captain Ward in Whist ior May, 1906: — 

Five-trump Hands. With five trumps, and the suits split, 
3, 3, 2, we always open a trump, unless we have a tenace over the 
turn-up card. From five trumps and a five-card plain suit, we open 
the suit if it is one that will require some help to establish ; other- 
wise the trump. From five trumps with a four-card plain suit, we 
open the trump with hands of moderate strength ; otherwise the 
plain suit. 

Four-trump Hands. From four-trump hands we invari- 
ably open a suit of five cards or more, but prefer to avoid a four- 
card suit headed by a single honor. These are the suits in which 
the best chance for a single trick usually occurs when the suit is 
led by some one else. For example : Hearts trumps : — 

<3?8763 *98 0K832 ♦K42 

The best opening from such a hand is the club nine. 

When forced to open single-honor suits, the lead of the lowest 
card shows an honor as good as the Queen, while the lead of an 
intermediate card denies such an honor, as in the following ex- 
amples : hearts trumps : — 

^10 832 «K6 0Q764 «Qs4 

From this we should lead the four of diamonds ; but holding 

^10 832 ♦Ke 0J874 ♦Q54 

we should lead the seven of diamonds. 

From hands containing four trumps and three three-card suits, 
we use our own judgment, sometimes leading the trump, and some- 
times a plain suit. We prefer the plain suit if it is a desirable one 
to open, such as hearts trumps : — 

^K832 ♦J104 OA103 ♦843 
From this we would open the Jack of clubs ; but from 

Q?K832 ik] 3 2 0A103 ♦Qes 
we should lead the deuce of trumps. If in this hand the club suit 
were Q J 3, the Queen of clubs would be the best opening. 

It may seem paradoxical that a weaker hand should call for a 
trump lead ; but the opening is not an attack. It is a move to await 
developments. 

Three-trump Hands. From hands containing three trumps 
or less, our opening leads vary from the ordinary player's game 
more than in any other particular. We always open a long suit 



96 (Whist.) THE AMERICAN GAME. 

from three-trump hands if the suit is a good one, such as A K and 
others, K Q and others, or even Q J and others. But without such 
strength in the long suit, we let it severely alone, and develop the 
hand with a short-suit or "gambit" opening. 

With three trumps and a five-card suit containing two honors 
not in sequence, we still open the long suit if we have a sure re- 
entry in another suit. This, for example, hearts trumps : — 
^ Yi 6 2 *862 0AQ643 ♦A 10 
The trey of diamonds is the best opening. If there were no re- 
entry, such as only 10 2 of spades instead of A 10, we should open 
the 10 of spades. 

Although we open a great many short suits, we avoid weak three- 
card suits except in rare instances. 

While our system, like all others, entails losses at times, it seems 
to avoid many of the pitfalls that confront the player who always 
opens his long suit, regardless of the possibilities of ever bringing 
it in. In many instances we find he places himself in the worst 
possible position for any chance to make even one trick in the suit 
he opens. 

We admit that if a team adopts straight American leads, it is 
much easier for them to count the partner's hand accurately; but 
it seems to me that this advantage is more than overcome by the 
fact that in our openings we have a clear idea as to the general 
character of the partner's hand while there is still time to take 
advantage of the knowledge. In the long-suit game this element 
is entirely wanting. 

IN CONCLUSION. The first-class whist-player is usually 
developed gradually. If he possess the faculty of paying close 
attention to the game while he is playing, nothing should prevent 
his rapid progress. At first he may care little or nothing for 
"book" whist, but after some experience with book players, he is 
rather in danger of running to the other extreme, and putting more 
book into his game than it will carry. Having passed that stage, 
his next step is usually to invent some system of his own, and to 
experiment with every hand he plays. By degrees he finds that all 
special systems of play have some serious defects which over- 
balance their advantages, and this discovery gradually brings him 
back to first principles. If he gets so far safely, his game for all 
future time will probably be sound, common-sense whist, without 
any American leads, plain-suit echoes, or four-signals, and free 
from any attempts to take fourteen tricks with thirteen cards. 

When a whist-player reaches that point, he is probably as near 
the first class as the natural limitations of his mental abilities will 
ever permit him to go. 

THE LAWS will be found at the end of the Whist Family of 
Games. 



ILLUSTRATIVE HANDS. 



(Whist.) 97 



ILLUSTRATIVE WHIST HANDS. 

A and B are partners against Y and Z. A is always the origi- 
nal leader, and Z is the dealer. The underlined card wins the 
trick, and the card under it is the next one led. 

No. 3. Short Suits f 

^ Q turned. 



No, 


1, Long Suits ; \ 




^ 5 turned. 




A 


Y B 


z 


* K 


* 5 


* 7 


* 3 


^lO 


^ J 


^ Q 


^ 5 


♦ Q 


* J 


* 2 


*io 


(5 7 


C? 3 


^J^ 


^ 8 


J ♦ 


9 « 


2 « 


5 « 


* A 


Z> 4 


^ 6 


5 


4 * 


<:? K 


A «. 


6 ^ 


J 


7 


2 


K^ 


Q? 2 


3 


4 


AO 


* 9 


6 


3 « 


8 


* 8 


9 


7 4|k 


8 4^ 


« 6 


lOO 


K ♦ 


io« 


*4 


QO 


^ A 


Q * 



No- 2. American Game; 

^ 8 turned. 




9 
lOO 

* 3 

* 4 

* 7 

*io 

4 J 

7 4b 

^ 5 

^ 7 
K 4^ 
lO* 

<y 8 



B 



K 
A » 

loo 

^ 5 

t;? A 

* 2 

8 
4 « 
7 4k 

4 4 

♦ Q 

9 
Jjk A 



2 
5 « 

L^ 

Z> Q 
^ J 

7 
^ 9 

8 4» 

4k J 
* 9 



No. 4. Play to Score ; 

^ J turned. 



A 


Y 


B 


z 


K* 


4 « 


3 t^ 


A « 


^ 3 


^ 9 


^ Q 


<:? 2 


2 4k 


7 4k 


5 4k 


i?_4._ 


* 2 


4k K 


♦ 6 


♦ 3 


<:? 5 


^ 7 


^ 8 


^ J 


'^\o 


* 5 


^ K 


^ A 


* 8 


* J 


3 


*4 


5 


J 


A^ 


2 


10 4> 


9 4». 


8 4k 


'^ 6 


*Q 


♦ 7 


4 


» A 


Q ♦ 


J ♦ 


6 « 


*io 


loo 


7 


6 


« 9 


QO 


8 


9 


iL2. 



98 (Whist.) ILLUSTRATIVE HANDS. 

No. 1. This is a fine example of the Long-suit Game, the 
leader begins with one of the high cards of his long suit. Missing 
the 2, he knows some one is signalling for tramps, and as it is very 
unlikely that the adversaries would signal while he was in the lead, 
he assumes it is his partner, and leads his best trump. His partner 
does not return the trump, because he holds major tenace over the 
king, which must be in Y's hand. At trick 5 B still holds major 
tenace in trumps, and leads a small card of his long suit to try to 
get A into the lead again. If A leads trumps again, his only pos- 
sible card of re-entry for his club suit is gone. At trick 7, if B 
draws Y's king, he kills A's card of re-entry at the same time. 

No, 2. This is an excellent example of the American Game, 

A has a three-trump hand, but his long suit is not headed by two 
honors in sequence, and the Queen of clubs cannot be considered 
as a re-entry, so A makes the gambit opening of the singleton 
diamond. His partner, having nothing in plain suits, immediately 
returns the diamond. A now leads an intermediate club, and B 
forces him again. At trick 6, A avoids changing suits. If the long 
spade suit is opened, and Z returns the diamond 10, A-B will make 
four tricks less on this hand. 

No. 3, This example of the Short-suit Game is from Val 
Starnes' Short-Suit Whist. This is sometimes called the Gambit 
opening. The leader, having no reason to lead trumps, even with 
five, and not having three honours in his long suit, prefers the 
gambit opening of the singly guarded queen. Y holds what is 
called a potential or imperfect fourchette, and covers, in order to 
make A-B play two honours to get one trick. B also makes a 
gambit opening by returning a supporting spade. Three tricks 
are gained by the two leads of the supporting cards, and five would 
have been made but for Y's covering on the first trick. 

No, 4, This is an example of Tlaying to the Score, 

The game is English Whist, 5 points, counting honours. The 
first lead of trumps shows Z that honours are divided, and that he 
must make 1 1 tricks to win the game. At trick 3, he must trump ; 
to discard clubs would be inconsistent with refusing to trump in 
order to bring them in. At trick 4, if Y cannot win a trick in clubs 
and give Z a finesse in trumps, Z cannot win the game. At trick 
7, both black queens are against Z, and he must take the best 
chance to win if the diamond ace is also against him. The adver- 
saries cannot place the club ace, and so Z underplays in clubs as 
his only chance for the game. 



mUSSIAN WHIST, This is the ordinary 5, 7 or 10 
point whist, with or without honours, except that instead of turn- 
mg up the last card for trump, the player to the left of the dealer 
cuts a trump from the still pack, which is shuffled and presented 
to him by the dealer's partner. 



TEXT BOOKS. (Whist.) 99 

FA VO URITE WHIST. This is the regular 5, 7 or lo point 

whist, with or without honours, except that whichever suit is cut 
for the trump on the first deal of the rubber is called the favour- 
ite. Whenever the suit turns up for trump, after the first deal, 
tricks and honours count double towards game. There must be a 
new favourite at the beginning of each rubber, unless the same suit 
happens to be cut again. 

A variation is to attach a progressive value to the four suits ; 
tricks being worth i point when Spades are trumps ; when Clubs 2 ; 
when Diamonds 3 ; and when Hearts 4. Honours do not count, 
and the game is 10 points, made by tricks alone. The hands are 
played out ; the winners score all tricks taken, and the winners of 

the rubber add 10 points for bonus. 
The value of the rubber is the dif- 
ference between the scores of the 
winners and that of the losers. For 
instance : If the rubber is in A-B's 
favour with the score shown in the 



1st game ; 10 to 6 

2nd game ; 4 to 16 

3rd game; 14 to 8 

Rubber ; 10 



Totals 38 to 30 

margin A-B win a rubber of 8 points. 

This is a good game for superstitious people, who believe that 
certain trump suits are favourable to them. 



TEXT-BOOKS. 
The following list of works on whist, alphabetically arranged, 
contains the principal standard text-books on the game. Those 
marked * are especially for the beginner. Those marked x arc 
chiefly devoted to the Short-suit game. 

Art of Practical Whist, by Major Gen. Drayson. 

* Foster's Whist Manual, by R. F. Foster. 

* Foster's Whist Tactics, by R. F. Foster. 

X Foster's Common Sense in Whist, by R. F. Foster. 

* Foster's Self-Playing Cards, by R. F. Foster. 
X Foster's Duplicate Whist, by R. F. Foster. 

Foster's American Leads, by R. F. Foster. 

* Foster's Whist at a Glance, by R. F. Foster. 

* Gist of Whist, by C. E. Coffin. 

X Howell's Whist Openings, by E. C. Howell. 
Laws and Principles of Whist, by " Cavendish." 
Modern Scientific Whist, by C. D. P. Hamilton. 
Philosophy of Whist, by Dr. W. Pole. 

* Practical Guide to Whist, by Fisher Ames. 
X Short-Suit Whist, by Val. W. Starnes. 

* Short Whist, by James Clay. 

* Theory of Whist, by Dr. W. Pole. 

* Whist, or Bumblepuppy, by " Pembridge." 
Whist Developments, by " Cavendish." 

* Whist of To-day, by Milton C. Work. 

* Whist h Trots, by Ch. Lahure. [Dummy.] 
X Whist, and its Masters, by R. F. Foster, 

* Whist, A monthly journal} pub. Milwaukee, Wis., U. S. A. 



DUPLICATE WHIST. 

Duplicate whist is not a distinct game, but is simply the name 
given to that manner of playing whist in which a number of 
hands are played over again with the same cards, but by different 
persons. 

CARDS. The cards have the same rank as at whist ; they are 
dealt in the same manner, and the same rules apply to all irregu- 
larities in the deal, except that a misdealer must deal again. The 
objects of the game are the same, and so are all the suggestions 
for good play. The only differences that require attention are the 
positions of the players, the manner of counting the tricks, and the 
methods of keeping and comparing the scores. 

THEORY. It may briefly be stated that duplicate proceeds 
upon the principle that if two partners have made a certain num- 
ber of tricks with certain cards, under certain conditions with re- 
spect to the lead, distribution of the other cards in the adversaries' 
hands, etc., the only way to decide whether or not two other play- 
ers could have done better, or cannot do so well, is to let them try 
it, by giving them the same cards, under exactly similar conditions. 

This comparison may be carried out in various ways ; but in 
every instance it depends entirely upon the number and arrange- 
ment of the players engaged. The most common forms are : 
club against club ; team against team ; pair against pair ; or man 
against man. The reason for the arrangement of the players will 
be better understood if we first describe the method. 

METHOD OF FLAYING. There is no cutting for 
partners, and choice of seats and cards as at whist, because the 
players take their places and deal according to a prearranged 
schedule. 

The player to the left of the dealer begins by placing the card 
he leads face up on the table, and in front of him. The second 
player follows by placing his card in front of him in the same man- 
ner ; and so the third, and so the fourth. The four cards are then 
turned face down, and the dealer takes up the trump. The part- 
ners winning the trick place their cards lengthwise, pointing 
towards each other ; the adversaries place theirs across. At the 
end of the hand, the number of tricks taken by each side can be 
seen by glancing at any player's cards. If there is any discrep- 
ancy, a comparison of the turned cards will show in which trick it 
occurs, and the cards can be readily faced and examined. 



COUNTING TRICKS. (Duplicate.) 101 



. 






















) 











m 



w 



E 



) 






















X 












1 








N&S6; E&W7. East has made a mistake in turning the 
fifth trick. 

COUNTEMS. In some places 13 counters are placed on the 
table, the winner of each trick taking down one. This system often 
leads to disputes, as there can be no check upon it, and there is 
nothing to show in which trick the error occurred. 

COUNTING TRICKS. At the end of each hand, the 
players sitting North and South score the total number of tricks 
they have taken ; instead of the number in excess of a book. 
Their adversaries, sitting East and West, do the same. Each 
player then slightly shuffles his 13 cards; so as to conceal the 
order in which they were played, and the four separate hands of 
13 cards each are then left on the table, face down ; the trump be- 
ing turned at the dealer's place. 

TRAYS. When any apparatus is used for holding the cards, 
such as trays, boxes, or envelopes, each player puts his 13 cards in 
the compartment provided for them. Each tray has a mark upon 
it, usually an arrov/, showing which end of the tray should point 



102 (Duplicate.) 



APPARATUS. 



toward a given direction, usually the North. The pocket into 
which the dealer's cards go is marked " dealer," and it is usual to 
provide a trump slip for each tray. When the hand is first dealt, 
the trump is recorded on this slip, which travels round the room 
with the tray. After the dealer has turned up the designated 
trump, he places the trump slip in the tray, face down. When the 
play of the hand is finished and the cards replaced in the tray, the 
dealer puts his trump slip on the top of his cards. The four hands 
can then be conveniently carried or handed to any other table to 
be overplayed. 




Various Apparatus for Duplicate. 



SCORING. There should be two score-cards at each table. 
The various methods of putting down and comparing the scores can 
best be described in connection with the variety of competition to 
which they belong. It is a common practice to note the trump 
card on the score sheets. 

POSITION OF THE PLAYERS, The four players 
at each table are distinguished by the letters N S E W ; North 
and South being partners against East and West. West should 
always be the dealer in the first hand, North having the original 
lead. In all published illustrative hands, North is the leader, un- 
less otherwise specified. 

The deal passes in rotation to the left, and the number of hands 
played should always be some multiple of four, so that each player 
may have the original lead an equal number of times. 24 hands at 
each table is the usual number, and is the rule at all League tour- 
naments. The partners and adversaries should be changed after 
each eight hands. Three .changes in 24 hands will bring each 



ARRANGING PLATERS. (Duplicate.) 103 



member of a set of four into partnership with every other member 
for an equal number of hands. 

N leads 



Dealer, W 



S 

If two teams of four on a side, A B C D, and W X Y Z, play 
against each other, the arrangement in a League tournament 
would be as follows : — that A B C D should represent the players 
of the visiting club, or challengers, and W X Y Z the home club, or 
holders ; and that the positions of the players should be changed 
after every four hands. It is usual to play 24 hands in the after- 
noon, and 24 more at night. 



A 

W X 

B 


A 

Y Z 

B 


A 

W Y 

C 


A 
X Z 

c 


A 

X Y 

D 


A 

w z 

D 


I St. 


2nd. 


3rd. 


4th. 


5th. 


6th. 


Y 

C D 

Z 


W 

C D 

X 


X 

B D 
Z 


w 

B D 
Y 


W 

B C 

Z 


X 
B C 

Y 



If more than four players are engaged on each side, this ar- 
rangement must be repeated with every additional four ; the tables 
being always in sets of two each, but in such cases, and in fact in 
anything but League matches, it is usual to play only the ist, 3rd 
and 5th sets. 

CLUB AGAINST CLUB. The smaller club should 
put into the field as many multiples of four as it can ; the larger 
club presenting an equal number to play against them. The op- 
posing sides are then so arranged that half the members of each 
club sit North and South, the other half East and West. If we 
distinguish the clubs by the marks O and X, and suppose 16 to be 
engaged on each side, they would be arranged at 8 tables, thus :— 





X I X 






X3X 






X5 X 





X7X 




1st set 


2nd set 


3rd set 


4th set 


X 

O2O 
X 


X 
O4O 

X 


X 
060 

X 


X 
80 

X 



104 (DupKcate.) ARRANGING PLAYERS. 



^ If apparatus is used, the players may sit still for four hands, put- 
ting the trays aside, and then exchanging them for the four trays 
played at the other table in their set. If not, the cards are left on 
the table, as already described, and the fours change places ; those 
at table No. i going to table No. 2, while those at No. 2 go to No. 
I, the other sets changing in the same manner. This brings them 
into this position : — 



X 

I 

X 


X 

30 

X 


X 

50 

X 


X 

70 

X 




X2X 






X4X 






X6X 






x:8x 





The two O's that have just played the N & S hands at table 
No. I, proceed to play at table No. 2, the N & S hands which have 
just been played by two X's ; while the two O's that played the 
E & W hands at table No. 2, overplay at table No. i, the E & W 
hands just held by the two X's. 

It is now evident that the four O's have held between them all 
the 52 cards dealt at each table ; for the first pair have held all the 
N & S hands dealt at both tables, and the second pair have held 
all the E & W hands. The same is true of the four X players ; 
and if there is any difference in the number of tricks taken by the 
opposing fours, it is supposed to be due to a difference in skill, 
other matters having been equalised as far as the limitations of the 
game will permit. 

The overplay finished, the cards are gathered, shuffled, cut, 
and dealt afresh, East now having the original lead. It must be 
remembered that the deal can never be lost, and that no matter 
what happens, the player whose proper turn it is to deal must do 
so. 

NU3IBEB,ING HANDS. The hands simultaneously 
played are scored under the same number, but distinguished by the 
number of the table at which they are first dealt. Each pair of 
partners in a team play two No. i hands, in one of which they are 
N & S ; in the other E & W. 

SCORING. The result of the hand is entered upon the score 
sheets, which the opposing players at each table should then com- 
pare, and turn them face down^ leaving them on the table when 
they change places. 

Let us suppose the N & S partners of the O team to make 7 
tricks at table No. i ; the E & W partners of the X team making 
6. Each pair enters on its own score-card the number it makes. 
The E & W partners of the O team now come to table No. i, and 
play the 26 cards which the qtber members of their team did not 



SCORING. (Duplicate.) 105 

hold. They"are not permitted to look at the score-card until the 
hand has been overplayed. Then they enter the result, which 
should be 6 tricks. If the total of the tricks taken by the same 
team on the N & S and the E & W hands is not 13, it must be a 
loss or a gain. At the end of the 24 hands, the result of the 
match can be immediately ascertained by laying side by side the 
score cards of the East and West hands played at the same table. 
The North and South scores are not compared, because the laws 
say they may be incorrect, but the East and West must be, offi- 
cially, right. 

We give on the two preceding pages an illustration of the full 
score of a match. The check marks in the 6th column show that 
the N & S players compared the score with the E & W before turn- 
ing down their cards. The figures in the 2nd column are the gains 
on the various hands. The figures in the 7th column show which of 
the four players whose names appear at the top of the score-card 
were partners for that series of hands. The result shows that the O 
team had a majority of one trick at table No. i, while the X team 
had a majority of three tricks at table No. 2, leaving them the win- 
ners of the match by two tricks. 

If sixteen players were engaged, it would be necessary to insti- 
tute a similar comparison between each set of tables, and there 
would be sixteen score-cards to compare, two at a time, instead of 
four. 

TEAM AGAINST TEAM. The methods just described 
for a match of club against club are identical with those which are 
used in a contest between two teams of four ; the only difference 
being that of proportion. In the latter case there will be only one 
set, of two tables, and only four score-cards to compare. 

The change of partners should be exhaustive in team matches ; 
which will require six sets. 

TEAMS AGAINST TEAMS. When several quartette 
teams compete with one another, Howell's system of arrangement 
will be found the best. There are two methods ; for odd and for 
even numbers of teams. 

Odd Numbers of Teams. This is the simplest form of con- 
test. Let us suppose five teams to offer for play, which we shall 
distinguish by the letters, a, b, c, d, e, arranging each at its own 
table thus : — 



d e 

d4 d e 5 e 

d c 



N 


a 


b 


c 


W-hE 


a I a 


b2b 


c 3 c 


S 


a 


b 


c 



106 (Duplicate.) 



SCORE-CARDS. 










c< 



l\ I 



^^^■i\^^^^^^ 



N^^KOIo(T)IoqO vk^ r| 



H H H H r-\ t^ 






c1 



^ Qs.N^^ ro K^^ ^ro 00 ^ 



^ 




p. 



t 



% 



% 



\^\^\\'^\\^ ^^ 



I^5t^«3 5>o:l-4V^lo!0 



HCMtO-*in«Ot-000>OH(MtO'i< o 
H «H H rH H "8 



^ IS. K > ^ fo lo ^)c H It) H 



N 



^\ \" 






vo^t^^rooo^*^)^)^^^ 



SCOBE-CAEDS. 



(Duplicate.) lOT 







Xx 






^^^ '^^^^^^^\^ 



cotj^bNaro t^^'^^'o^^^ 



H H H H r-l eB 






^ cl ^-^tO 






^5- lb ^9 r\K :^^s ^ d ^ ^V> 







^SA \\^\'^\^\ 



^lo^^VQ r4 K^s,^ cA><30 



rH iH iH H H oU 



k ro -TJ ^ ^f r\^ ^N^Kfo <^ 



^ H ro 



\ 






^^blo rvJ5^^^\^cs^ 



108 (Duplicate.) E0WELV8 SYSTEM. 



The names of the N & S and the E & W members of each team 
should first be entered on the score-cards ; then all the N & S 
players move to the next table East ; those at table 5 going to table 
I ; and each table dealing and playing four hands, afterwards put- 
ting them away in trays. 



e 

a I a 

e 



Hands : — i to 4 



a 

b2b 

a 

5 to 8 



C3C 
b 

9 to 12 



c 

d4d 
c 

13 to 16 



d 

e 5 e 
d 

1 7 to 20 



The peculiarity of this system is in^he movement of the trays ; 
those at the middle table always going to the extreme West of the 
line, the others moving up as many tables at a time as may be 
necessary to follow them. In this instance the trays at table 3 go 
to I, all others moving up two tables. At the same time the 
N & S players all move one table further East, bringing about this 
position : — 



2nd set. d e 

a I a b 2 b 

d e 

Hands : — 9 to 12 13 to 16 



a 

c 3 c 

a 

17 to 20 



b 

d4d 

b 

I to 4 



c 

e 5 e 
c 

; to 8 



This movement of the trays and players is continued for two 
more sets, which completes the round : — 



3rd set. 


c 

a I a 

c 


d 

b2b 

d 


e 

c 3 c 

e 


a 

d4d 

a 


b 

ese 
b 


Hands : 


— 17 to 20 


I to 4 


5 to 8 


9 to 12 


13 to I 


4th set. 


b 

a I a 

b 


c 

b2b 

c 


d 

c 3 c 

d 


e 

d4d 

e 


a 

e 5 e 

a 


Hands : 


—5 to 8 


9 to 12 


13 to 16 


17 to 20 


I to 4 



If we now take any two of the teams engaged, a and d for in- 
stance, we shall find that the E & W ct and the N & S d pairs of 
those teams have played hands 9 to 12 at table i, in the 2nd set; 
and that N & S a and E & W d pairs have overplayed the same 
hands at table 4, in the 3rd set ; so that we have really been carry- 
ing out a number of matches simultaneously, between five teams 
of four players each. 

If there are 5, 7, 9 or 11 tables in play, the movement of the 
trays must be 2, 3, 4 or 5 tables at a time ; but the movement of 



OILMAN'S SYSTEM. (Duplicate.) 109 

the players remains the same; one table at a time, in the direction 
opposite to the trays. 

Gilman's System. Another method, recommended by 
Charles F. Gilman, of Boston, which prevents any possibility of 
players giving hints to their friends as they pass the trays, is to have 
each team play at its own table first, so as to get an individual score. 
The E & W players then move to the next table but one, in either 
direction, going from 1 1 to 9 ; from 9 to 7, etc, the N & S players 
sitting still. This movement is continued until the E & W players 
have gone iwice round. The trays move in the same direction as 
the players, but only one table at a time; going from 11 to 10, 
9 to 8, etc. This brings about the same result as the Howell's 
system. 

Even Numbers of Teams. The present method of arrang- 
ing even numbers of teams is also Oilman's ; but it requires con- 
siderable care in the movement of the trays, because half of them 
lie idle during each round, which is the same as skipping a table 
in other methods. 

Suppose we have ten tables, arranged in two rows thus, with a 
team of four players at each ; 

12345 

6 7 8-9 10 

Taking 30 deals as the number to be played, we place trays No. I, 
2, 3, to be played and overplayed by tables i and 6, which are oppo- 
site each other in the rows. Trays 4, 5, 6, we lay aside. Trays 
7, 8, 9, are to be played and overplayed by tables 2 and 7; while 
10, II, 12, are laid aside, and so on until we get to tables 5 and 10, 
which play and overplay trays 25, 26, 27. The easiest way to man- 
age this is to give tray No. 2 to table 6, while tray i is at table i, 
and then to let table i take tray 2, while table 6 plays tray 3. Then 
table I will get tray 3, while table 6 overplays tray i. This will 
make all the trays come in numerical order to table i, and will act 
as a check. 

The play of the first round, three deals, finished, the E & W 
players all move one table, 2 going to i, 3 to 2, etc. The umpire 
now brings into play the trays that were idle, giving trays 4, 5, 6, 
to tables i and 6; trays 10, 11, 12, to tables 2 and 7, and so on 
down the line, all the trays that were used in the first round lying 
idle. 

Again the players move, and now table i gets the 7, 8, 9, set of 
trays to overplay with table 6, and so on ; so that all the sets move 
up a table after each intervening round, and table i will get all the 
trays from i to 30 in order. 



110 (Duplicate.) FAIR PLAYING. 

SCORING. In both the foregoing systems, each pair should 
have Its own score-card, and should mark the name of the team it 
plays against for each series of four hands. These score-cards are 
more for private reference than anything else in tournaments ; be- 
cause there is always a professional scorer, for whose use small 
slips are filled out and collected from the tables at the end of each 
round. The winner is the team that wins the most matches ; not 
the one that gains the most tricks. In case of ties, the number of 
tricks won must decide. If the number of tricks taken by each side 
is a tie in any match, the score is marked zero, and each team 
counts_ half a match won. We give an illustration of the final 
score in a match between five teams. The c and d teams are 
tied for a second place in the number of matches ; but the c team 
takes third place, because it has lost one more trick than the d 
team. The 6 and c teams score a half match ; so do the c and e 
teams. 



Teams 


a 


"b 


c 


a 


e 


Matches 


Tricks 


a 
b 
c 
d. 


V 


■^5" 


-/ 


-hi 


-hi^ 


3 


-^1 


-r 


V 


o 


-/ 


4-2. 


/£. 


-^ 


4-/ 





\ 


-a. 


O 


^ 


-/ 


-/ 


^/ 


-i-2. 


X 


-0. 


2. 


o 


'¥ 


-2L 


O 


+J2. 


N 


/ir 


-^ 



PAin AGAINST PAIB. This is the most interesting 
form of competition, especially for domestic parties, as the arrange- 
ment of the players will allow of great latitude in the number en- 
gaged, table after table being added as long as players offer to fill 
them. 

Two Pairs. When only four players are engaged at a single 
table, the game is called Memory Duplicate; which is forbidden in 
all first-class clubs. The players retain their seats until they have 
played an agreed number of hands, which are laid aside one by 
one in trays. No trump is turned in Memory Duplicate; one suit 
being declared trumps for the entire sitting. 

Instead of the players changing positions for the overplay, the 
trays are reversed. If the indicators pointed N & S on the original 
deals, they must lie E & W for the overplay. 



PAIR PLAYIKQ. 



(l>iptica.te.) lit 



e 



8 




Original Position of Trays, 



Position for Overpla-^. 



Scoring, The E & W hands only are scored, the card being 
laid aside after the original play is completed, and a new card used 
for the overplay. The difference in the totals of these two sets of 
score-cards will show which pair g&ined the most tricks. 

Four Fairs. These should be arranged at two tables, chang- 
'\\g adversaries after ever}'^ 8 hands. The third set will exhaust 
the combinations, and it will then be found that each pair has 
played and overplayed an equal number of hands against every 
other pair. 

2nd set 



1st set 

b 

a a 
b 
Hands : — i to 8 

d 

c c 

d 



c 

a a 

c 
9 to i6 

b 
d d 

b 



3rd set 

d 

a a 

d 

17 to 24 

c 

b b 

c 



Four hands are dealt at each table in each set, and then ex« 
changed. The trump card is turned for every original deal. 

Scoring. Each pair carries its own score-card with it from 
table to table, until the 24 hands have been played. The 7th 
column is used to designate the pair played against. The pairs at 
the second table should begin scoring with hands Nos. 5, 13 and 21 
respectively ; as they will presently receive from the first table the 
series beginning i, 9 and 17 respectively. Eight hands complete 
a match, and the result must be tabulated in the same manner as 
for teams of four, ties being decided by the majority of tricks won. 
We give an example. 



112 (Duplicate.) 



PAIE PLAYING. 



Pairs 


a 


b 





d 


Matches 


Tricks 


a 


\ 


-hS 


-2. 


-hs- 


2L 


-f-6 


-3 


\ 


+-4^ 


-/ 


/ 





4-Z 


-4^ 


\ 


-2. 


/ 


-4^ 


-5" 


4-/ 


-^2. 


\. 


^ 


—2- 















The a pair wins the tie with <Z, being 6 tricks plus. 

Si'K Pairs. This is a very awliward number to handle, and 
should be avoided if possible. The whole could be played at three 
tables simultaneously ; but such a course would necessitate their 
changing places ten times, following a very complicated schedule 
in so doing. The simplest way to handle six pairs is to arrange 
them at three tables, two of which are constantly in play, the third 
only half the time. This is the first position : — 



b 

a I a 

b 



d 

C 2 C 

d 



f 

e 36 
f 



Tables i and 2 deal and play two hands each, and then exchange 
trays with each each other. At table 3, two hands are dealt and 
played, both being left in the trays. 

The players at tables i and 2 then change adversaries ; dealing, 
playing and exchanging two fresh hands. The players at the 
third table remain idle, or look on. 



c 

a I a 

c 



d 

b2b 
d 



Hands 5 and 6 played and exchanged. 
The 6 and c pairs now give way to e and /;- 



e 
a I a 

e 



d 

f 2f 

d 



Hands 7 and 8 played and exchanged. 



6 3 6 
f 

None. 



b 
c 3c 

b 

3 and 4. 



PAIR PLAYING. (Duplicate.) 113 

While tables i and 2 are playing two fresh hands, the trays con- 
taining hands Nos. 3 and 4 which were left at table 3 are over- 
played by the 6 and c pairs, which makes a match between them 
and the e and /pairs. 

Again the pairs at the first two tables change adversaries ; deal- 
ing, playing and exchanging two more hands ; the third table re- 
maining idle. 



f d 

a I a 6 2 6 

f d 

Hands 9 and 10 played and exchanged. 



b 

c 3 c 

b 

None. 



The pairs a and d now give way to 6 and c, and the 6 c e /pairs 
play two hands and exchange them ; then change adversaries for 
two more hands ; a and d remaining idle all the time. All the 
pairs have now been matched but a and d, and they take seats 
E & W at two tables, the N & S positions being filled up by any 
of the other players in the match. 

any any 

a I a d 2 d 

any any 

No notice is taken of the scores made by the N & S hands in 
the last set ; as it is simply a match between the a and d pairs. 

Scoring. Each pair against each is considered a match, and 
the winner of the most matches wins ; tricks deciding ties. 

Compass Whist. When we come to handle large numbers, 
the changes of position become too complicated, and the simplest 
plan is to arrange them at as many tables as they will fill, and to 
place on each table an equal number of trays. At the Knicker- 
bocker Whist Club, New York, which is still famous for its com- 
pass games, they play a minimum of 24 trays, or get as near that 
number as possible. If there are 14 tables, they play two deals 
at each. If there are only 10 tables, they play 30 trays. 

All the N & S players sit still, and at the end of each round, two 
or three deals as the case may be, all the E & W players move up 
one table, 2 going to i, 3 to 2, etc. Each pair keeps its own score 
card, on which is put down the number of the tray, the number of 
the pair played against, which is always the number of the table at 
which they started ; one of the pairs remaining there being No. 3 
N & S, the other moving away, being No. 3 E & W. 

Each pair adds up its score card at the end, and puts down the 



114 (DupHcatc.) FAm PLAYING. 

total number of tricks they have won. The names of the players 
having been previously written on the blackboard, their scores are 
put down opposite their names, each side, N & S and E & W, is 
then added up in order to find the average, and all scores above 
average are plus, while all below average are minus. 

The following is an example of the averaging of a game in which 
five tables took part, playing 30 deals : — 

N &S E& W 

a 201 — 6 f 189 4-6 

b 204 —3 g 186 +3 

c 211 +4 h 179 — 4 

d 207 = j 183 = 

e 212 +5 k 178 —5 



5 I 1035 5 I 915 

Aver. 207, N & S. Aver. 183, E & W. 

The e and /pairs make the best scores N & S and E & W re- 
spectively ; the / pair, having won the greatest number of tricks 
above the average of the hands, would be the winners. 

Howell Pair System. A very popular system of managing 
pairs in club games, and also in the national tournaments for the 
Minneapolis trophy, is called the Howell Pairs. Indicator cards 
are placed on the tables, which show each player the number of the 
table and the position at that table to which he should move next. 
Sometimes he will sit N, sometimes S, and sometimes E or W, but 
he always finds his partner opposite him, and at the end of the 
game he will have had every other pair in the game for an adver- 
sary once, and will have played all the hands dealt. 

A different set of indicator cards is required for every differ- 
ent number of tables in the game. They are the invention of the 
late E. C. Howell of Washington, D. C, and have been arranged 
for any number of pairs from four to thirty-four. 

INDIVIDUALS. When four play memory duplicate, one 

of the four, usually S, retains his seat and keeps the score, the 

others changing places right and left alternately, each playing with 

S as a partner for 8 hands. These changes successively bring 

about the three following positions : — 

c b 

a b a c 

S S 



Hands : — i to 4 



5 to 8 



9 to 12 



For the overplay, the trays are reversed, the hands originally 
dealt N & S being placed E & W ; but the players continue to 
change right and left alternately. This brings the same partners 
together, but on different sides of the table. 



FOUR PLAYERS. (DupKcate.) 115 



c 

b a 

S 

Hands : — i to 4 



b 

c a 

S 

5 to 8 



a 

c b 

S 

9 to 12 



Scoring, The names of the four players should be written at 
the head of each score-card, and as there is no trump turned in 

memory dupli- 
cate, the third 
and seventh col- 
umns can both 
be used for the 
numbers of the 
players that are 
partners, and 
the sixth col- 
umn for the N 
& S gains. 

When the 
match is fin- 
ished, a tabu- 
lation of the 
tricks lost or 
won by each 
player will read- 
ily show which 
is the winner. 
In the illustra- 
tion which we 
give, No. 3 fin- 
ishes plus 6 ; 
No. 4 plus 2 ; 
No. I minus 4; 
and No. 2 min- 
us 4. 

It must be remembered that the hands which are here scored N 
& S, in the sth column, were E & W v/hen originally dealt ; so 
that the ist and 5th columns are really the same hands. The 
score-card should be folded down the middle during the overplay, 
so that the original scores cannot be seen. It is even better to use 
a new card. 

Foster's System of playing two pairs at one table, which was 
used at all the matches for the Utica Trophy, in which one pair 
from a club challenged the pair that held the trophy for another 
club, consisted in having an umpire to transpose the suits between 





.MANHATTAN WHIST CLUB 


i 


Table No .... ,i ,...-?('. -T^^?^*:*/ 


1RQO 


1 -&A^i^,n^6A^- 7, <St.!>^Z-«T-^: 


E-W 


Gain 


ParVs 


HAND 


N-S 


Gain 


Part"'s 


fi- 






1 
2 
3 

,4 
5 

,'6 

.7; 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 


/o 


2- 




^ 




/V2. 


,5" 


/ 


sy-u 


Cn 


/ 


-H- 


.■r 




+^ 


.? 






.5" 


2- 




7 






fl 


/ 


r^ 


2. 


/y3 


^ 




2V/^ 


? 




+/ 


'¥■ 


/ 


— / 


/O 


/ 




f 






s- 






% 


/ 




9 




/t/^V- 


/O 


/ 


2.yfB 


'/0 


2- 


-/ 


a 




4-/ 


-5L 






^ 


/ 




Summary | 


1 to 4 


5 to 8 


9 to 12 


Tbtal 


Nc 


) 1 _ 


-u 


-t-/ 


— / 


-¥ 




2 _ 


— ¥ 


-/ 


•+-/ 


-a 




3 1 


\-¥ 


4-/ 


+ / 


^h 




4 J 


i-^ 


-/ 


-/ 


+5L 















116 (Duplicate.) SAFFOBD'S SYSTEM. 



the original and the overplay of the deals. The trays containing 
the hands were sent in to the umpire's room, and he had an extra 
pack of cards, from which he duplicated each hand of thirteen 
cards as he took it out of the pocket to which it belonged, but 
changed the suits, making clubs trumps instead of hearts, etc. 
This system was found to do away with the memory part of the 
game, it being very difficult to recognize a hand unless it had some 
startling feature. 

Coupled with the present practice of throwing out all hands in 
which there is found to be a suit of more than six cards, and deal- 
ing it over again, Foster's system for two pairs is the best so far 
suggested. 

Eight Individuals. This form of contest is seldom used, 
because players dislike the continual changing of position, and the 
delay in arriving at the results of the score. It would require 
seven sets to exhaust the combinations ; and at each table two 
hands should be dealt, played, and exchanged with the other table 
in the set, before the players change positions. This would require 
28 hands to complete the match. 

Sajford's System for arranging the players is to have indica- 
tor cards on the tables : — 





The players take their seats in any order for the first set ; after 
which they go to the next higher number ; 8 keeping his seat, and 
7 going to I. 

Scoring. Each individual must keep his own score, adding up 
the total tricks taken in each set of four hands. These totals must 
then be compared with those of the player occupying the same 
position, N, S, E, or W, at the other table in the set ; and it will 
save time in the end if these are tabulated at once, on a sheet pre- 
pared for the purpose. For instance : Let this be the arrange- 
ment of eight players in the first set : — 



b 

a I c 

d 



Hands i to 4. 



f 

e2g 
h 



If a and c take 34 tricks E & W ; e and g taking only 30 with 
the same cards, either a and c must have gained them, or e and 
g must have lost them. It is a waste of time to put down both 
losses and gains, and all that is necessary is to call the top score 
zero, and charge all players with the loss of as many tricks as their 



MITCHELVS SYSTEM. (Duplicate.) 117 



total is short of the top score. In this case we charge e and g 
with a loss of 4 each. It must be obvious that /and Ji have also 
made 4 more tricks than b and d; and that the latter must be 
charged with a loss of 4 on the same hands that e and g lose on. 

We give as an illustration a sheet balanced in this way, showing 
the losses of the various players. The totals at the end of the match 
show that c is the winner, losing less tricks than any other player. 



Players 


a 


b 


c 


d 


e 


f 


g 


h 


2 

.4 

i 5 

6 

y 


_ 


¥ 


_ 


^ 


^ 


__ 


^ 


— 


■ 


2 




2- . 




2. 




2. 


5- 


5- 










5- 


5" 


/ 


._ 


,^^ 


/ 


I 




^ 


/ 


^^ 


_ 


3 


3 


Am. 


_ 


3 


3 


,-, 


.^ 




_ 


3 


3 


3 


\3 


¥ 


— 


. 


^ 


— 


¥ 


V 


.,, 


















Totals 


/o 


// 


3 


/^ 


3 


f 


/f 


/¥ 



















Jjurge Numbers of Individuals. Several ingenious 
methods have been devised for handling large numbers of players, 
especially in domestic parties ; Safford and Mitchell having both 
distinguished themselves in this line. The simplest form has 
been suggested by Mitchell, and is especially adapted for social 
gatherings of ladies and gentlemen. 

As many tables as possible are filled ; all the ladies sitting N & 
E ; the gentlemen S and W. 



LADY 



GENTLEMAN 




LADY 




GENTLEMAN 



The number of hands dealt at each table must be adjusted to 
the number of tables filled, and the time to be devoted to play. 
The trays containing the hands are passed to the West, and all 
the gentlemen move one table to the East, the ladies sitting_ still. 
In all the changes each gentleman keeps to his original point of 



118 (Duplicate.) MARRIED COVPLES. 

the compass, South or West. When he arrives at the table ht 
started from, the round is finished. If an odd number of tables 
are engaged in play, the changes may take place in regular order 
to the end. If even, a dummy must be put in ; but as that is 
objectionable in a social gathering, it is better to adopt one of the 
two systems following, unless half the number of tables is an odd 
number, when the method already described *may be used. 

1st Method. Some table in the series, which must not be 
either the first or the last, deals no original hands, but overplays 
all the hands coming from the other tables to the East of it. The 
four players sit still, taking no part in the progression ; thus oblig- 
ing those whose turn it would be to play at their table to pass on 
to the next. 

2nd Method. Each gentleman should carefully note the 
number of the hand originally dealt at the table from which he 
starts. He progresses until he meets this hand again. The first 
to observe this should give notice to the company by a bell tap, as 
all the gentlemen must meet their original hands at the same time. 
Instead of stopping at the table at which this tray is encountered, 
all the gentlemen move on to the next, leaving the trays as they 
are. This skip enables each to finish the round without playing 
any of the hands twice. 

Scoring. There must be four winners ; the ladies with the 
best scores for the N & E hands respectively, and the gentlemen 
with the best S & W scores. If a choice is necessary, the lady 
and the gentleman taking the greatest number of tricks above the 
average should be selected as the winners. 

MAJRBIED COUPLES. Safford has an ingenious sched- 
ule for. eight married couples, so arranged in two sets that no hus- 
band and wife are ever in the same set at the same time. When 
seven sets have been played, every lady will have overplayed four 
hands against every other lady and gentleman, including four held 
by her husband. The same will be true of every man. Indicators 
are placed on the tables to show players their successive positions. 
The numbers represent the husbands, and the letters the wives, 
the couples being a-i,-b-2, etc. The couple a-i always sit still; 
the ladies go to the next higher letter of the alphabet, and the men to 
the next higher number ; h going to h, as a sits still ; and 8 to 2. 





N 






N 






N 






N 




6 






3 






f 






c 


w 


a 1 2 


E 


W 


d 2 8 
e 


E 


W 


13b 
6 


E 


W 


4 4 h 
5 



s s s s 

One hand is dealt at each table, and overplayed at each of the 
others. A different point of the compass should deal at each table, 
in order to equalise the lead. 



DUPLICATE LAWS. (Whist.) 119 

Scoring. The score of each four hands should be added up 
by each individual player, and the results tabulated at the end of 
every four hands, in the manner described for eight individuals. 
The winner is the player who loses the fewest tricks. This is the 
only known system for deciding whether or not a man can play 
whist better than his wife. 

PROGRESSIVE DUPLICATE WHIST is the ge- 
neric name by which those sytems of duplicate are known in 
which the purpose is to have as many as possible of the players 
meet one another during the progress of the match. Most of the 
systems we have been describing belong to this class. 



There are at present only two works on Duplicate Whist ; but a 
number of articles on the subject may be found in " JVhts/." 

Duplicate Whist; by John T. Mitchell, 1896. 

Foster's Duplicate Whist; 1894. 

Whist; Jan., 1892; Jan., 1894; Aug., 1894; Oct., 1894; Jan., 
1895 ; Mar., 1895 ; May, 1895 ; July, 1895 ; Oct., 1895. 



THE LAWS OF DUPLICATE WHIST. 

The Laws of Duplicate Whist as Amended and Adopted at the 
Whist Congress, Niagara Falls, New York, July, 1900; as 
amended at the Twelfth Congress, June, igo2; as amended at 
the Thirteenth Congress, July, 1903; Fourteenth A. W. L. 
Congress, July, 1904; Fifteenth Congress, July, 1905; Six- 
teenth Congress, July, 1906; Twentieth Congress, July igio. 

DEFINITIONS. 

The words and phrases used in these laws shall be construed in 
accordance with the following definitions unless such construction 
is inconsistent with the context : 

(a) The thirteen cards received by any one plaver are termed a 
"hand." 

(b) The four hands into which a pack is distributed for play are 
termed a " deal ; " the same term is also used to designate the act 
of distributing the cards to the players. 

(c) A "tray" is a device for retaining the hands of a deal and 
indicating the order of playing them. 



120 (Whist. ) D TJFLICATE LA TVS. 

(d) The player who is entitled to the trump card is termed the 
"dealer," whether the cards have or have not been dealt by him. 

(e) The first play of a deal is termed "the original play; " the 
second or any subsequent play of such deal, the "overplay." 

(f) " Duplicate Whist " is that form of the game of whist in 
which each deal is played only once by each player, and in which 
each deal is so overplayed as to bring the play of teams, pairs of 
individuals into comparison. 

(g) A player " renounces " when he does not follow suit to the 
card led ; he "renounces in error " when, although holding one or 
more cards of the suit led, he plays a card of a different suit; if 
such renounce in error is not lawfully corrected it constitutes a 
" revoke." 

(h) A card is " played " whenever, in the course of play, it is 
placed or dropped face upwards on the table. 

(i) A trick is " turned and quitted " when all four players have 
turned and quitted their respective cards. 

LAW I. — Shuffling. 

Sec. I. Before the cards are dealt they must be shuffled in the 
presence of an adversary or the umpire. 

Sec. 2. The pack must not be so shuffled as to expose the face 
of any card ; if a card is so exposed the pack must be reshuffled. 

LAW IL — Cutting for the Trump. 

Sec. I. The dealer must present the cards to his right hand 
adversary to be cut; such adversary must take from the top of the 
pack at least four cards and place them toward the dealer, leaving 
at least four cards in the remaining packet ; the dealer must reunite 
the packets by placing the one not removed in cutting upon the 
other. If, in cutting or in reuniting the separate packets, a card is 
exposed, the pack must be reshuffled and cut again ; if there is any 
confusion of the cards or doubt as to the place where the pack was 
separated, there must be a new cut. 

LAW IIL — Dealing. 

Sec. i. When the pack has been properly cut and reunited, the 
cards must be dealt, one at a time, face down, from the top of the 
pack, the first to the player at the left of the dealer, and each suc- 
cessive card to the player at the left of the one to whom the last 
preceding card has been dealt. The last, which is the trump card, 
must be turned and placed face up on the tray, if one is used ; other- 
wise, at the right of the dealer. 



DUPLICATE LAWS. (WWst.) 121 

Sec. 2. There must be a new deal — 

(a) If any card except the last is faced or exposed in any way in 
dealing; 

(b) If the pack is proved incorrect or imperfect ; 

(c) If either more or less than thirteen cards are dealt to any 
player ; 

(d) If, after the first trick has been turned and quitted on the 
original play of a deal, one or more cards are found to have been 
left in the tray. 

LAW IV. — The Trump Card. 

Sec. I. The trump card and the number of the deal must be 
recorded, before the play begins, on a slip provided for that pur- 
pose, and must not be elsewhere recorded. Such shp must be 
shown to an adversary, then turned face down and placed in the 
tray, if one is used. 

Sec. 2. The dealer must leave the trump card face up until it 
is his turn to play to the first trick; he must take the trump card 
into his hand and turn down the trump slip before the second trick 
is turned and quitted. 

Sec. 3. When a deal is taken up for overplay, the dealer must 
show the trump slip to an adversary, and thereafter the trump slip 
and trump card shall be treated as in the case of an original deal. 

Sec. 4. After the trump card has been lawfully taken into the 
hand and the trump slip turned face down, the trump card must not 
be named nor the trump slip examined during the play of the deal ; 
a player may, however, ask what the trump suit is. 

Sec. 5. If a player unlawfully looks at the trump slip, his 
highest or lowest trump may be called ; if a player unlawfully names 
the trump card, or unlawfully shows the trump slip to his partner, 
his partner's liighest or lowest trump may be called. 

Sec. 6. These penalties can be inflicted by either adversary at 
any time during the play of the deal in which they are incurred be- 
fore the player from whom the call can be made has played to the 
current trick ; the call may be repeated at each or any trick until 
the card is played, but cannot be changed. 

Sec. 7. When a deal has been played the cards of the respec- 
tive players, including the trump card, must be placed in the tray 
face down and the trump slip placed face up on top of the dealer's 
cards. 

Sec. 8. If on the overplay of a deal, the dealer turns a trump 
card other than the one recorded on the trump slip, and such error is 
discovered and corrected before the play of the deal is commenced, 
the card turned in error is hable to be called. 

Sec. 9. If such error is not corrected until after the overplay 
has begun and more than two tables are engaged in play, the 



122 (Whist .) D UP Lie A TE LA WS. 

players at that table shall take the average score for the deal ; if 
less than three tables are in play there must be a new deal. 

Sec. id. Should a player record on the trump slip a different 
trump from one turned in dealing and the error be discovered at 
the next table, there must be a new deal. If the deal has been 
played at one or more tables with the wrong trump, the recorded 
trump must be taken as correct and the players at the original table 
take the average score for the deal; if less than three tables are in 
play, there must be a new deal. 

Sec. 1 1 . By the unanimous consent of the players in any match, 
a trump suit may be declared and no trump turned. 

LAW V. — Irregularities in the Hand. 

Sec. I. If, on the overplay, a player is found to have more than 
his correct number of cards or the trump card is not in the dealer's 
hand, or any card except the trump card is so faced as to expose 
any of the printing on its face, and less than three tables are en- 
gaged, there must be a new deal. If more than two tables are in 
play, the hands must be rectified and then passed to the next table ; 
the table at which the error was discovered must not overplay the 
deal but shall take the average score. 

Sec. 2. If after the first trick has been turned and quitted on 
the overplay of a deal, a player is found to have less than his cor- 
rect number of cards, and the others have their correct number, 
such player shall be answerable for the missing card or cards and 
for any revoke or revokes which he has made by reason of its or 
their absence. 



LAW VI. — Playing, Turning and Quitting the Cards. 

Sec. I. Each player when it is his turn to play, must place his 
card face up before him and towards the center of the table and 
allow it to remain in this position until all have played to the trick, 
when he must turn it over and place its face down and nearer to 
himself, placing each successive card as he turns it, so that it over- 
laps the last card played by him and with the ends towards the win- 
ners of the trick. After he has played his card and also after he 
has turned it, he must quit it by removing his hand. 

Sec. 2. The cards must be left in the order in which they were 
played and quitted until the scores for the deal are recorded. 

Sec. 3. During the play of a deal a player must not pick up or 
turn another player's card. 

Sec. 4. Before a trick is turned and quitted any player may re- 
quire any of the other players to show the face of the card played 
to that trick. 



D UP Lie A TE LA WS. (What. ) 123 

Sec. 5. If a player names a card of a trick which has been 
turned and quitted or turns or raises any such card so that any por- 
tion of its face can be seen by himself or his partner he is liable to 
the same penalty as if he had led out of turn. 

LAW VII. — Cards Liable to be Called. 

Sec. t. The following cards are liable to to be called : 

(a) Every card so placed upon the table as to expose any of the 
printing on its face, except such cards as these laws specifically 
provide, shall not be so liable. 

(b) Every card so held by a player as to expose any of the print- 
ing on its face to his partner or to both of his adversaries at the 
same time. 

(c) Every card, except the trump card, named by the player 
holding it. 

Sec. 2. If a p)layer says, " I can win the rest," " The rest are 
ours," " It makes no difference how you play," or words to that 
effect, or if he plays or exposes his remaining cards before his part- 
ner has played to the current trick, his partner's cards must be laid 
face up on the table and are liable to be called. 

Sec. 3. All cards liable to be called must be placed face up on 
the table and so left until played. A player must lead or play them 
when lawfully called, provided he can do so without revoking; the 
call may be repeated at each or any trick until the card is played. 
A player cannot, however, be prevented from leading or playing a 
card liable to be called ; if he can get rid of it in the course of a 
play no penalty remams. 

Sec. 4. The holder of a card liable to be called can be required 
to play it only by the adversary on his right. If such adversary 
plays without calling it, the holder may play to that trick as he 
pleases. If it is the holder's turn to lead, the card must be called 
before the preceding trick has been turned and quitted, or before 
the holder has led a different card ; otherwise he may lead as he 
pleases. 

LAW VIII. — Leading out of Turn. 

Sec. I. If a player leads when it is the turn of an adversary to 
lead, and the error is discovered before all have played to such 
lead, a suit may be called from him or from his partner, as the 
case may be, ithe first time thereafter it is the right of either of 
them to lead. The penalty can be enforced only by the adversary 
on the right of the one from whom a lead can lawfully be called, 
and the right thereto is lost unless such adversary calls the suit 
he desires led before (the first trick won by the offender or his 
partner subsequent to the offence is turned and quitted. 

Sec. 2. If a player leads when it is his partner's turn and the error 
is discovered before all have played to such lead, a suit may at once 
be called from the proper leader by his right-hand adversary. 



124 (Whist.) DUPLICATE LAW 8. 

Until the penalty has been exacted, waived or forfeited, the 
proper leader must not lead; should he so lead, the card led by 
him is liable to be called. 

Sec. 3. If a player when called on to lead a suit has none of 
it, he may lead as he pleases. 

Sec. 4. If all have not played to a lead out of turn when the 
error is discovered, the card erroneously led and all cards played 
to such lead are not liable to be called, and must be taken into 
the hand. 

LAW IX. — Playing out of Turn. 

Sec. I. If the third hand plays before the second, the fourth 
hand may also play before the second. 

Sec. 2. If the third hand has not played and the fourth hand 
plays before the second, the latter may be called upon by the third 
hand to play his highest or lowest card of the suit led, and, if he 
has none of that suit, to trump or not trump the trick ; the pen- 
alty cannot be inflicted after the third hand has played to the 
trick. If the player liable to this penalty plays before it has been 
mflicted, waived or lost, the card so played is liable to be called. 

LAW X.— The Revoke. 

Sec. i._ a renounce in error may be corrected by the player 
making it, except in the following cases, in which a revoke is 
esabhshed and the penalty therefor incurred: 

(a) When the trick in which it occurs has been turned and 
quitted. 

_ (b) When the renouncing player or his partner, whether in his 
right turn or otherwise, has led or played to the following trick. 

Sec. 2. At any time before the trick is turned and quitted a 
player may ask an adversary if he has any of a suit, to which such 
adversary has renounced in that trick, and can require the error 
to be corrected in case such adversary is found to have anv of 
such suit. 

Sec. 3 If a player, who has renounced in error, lawfully 
corrects his mistake, the card improperly played by him is liable 
to be called and, if he be the second or third hand player and his 
left hand adversary has played to the trick before attention has 
been called to the renounce, he may be required by such ad- 
versary to play his highest or his lowest card to the trick in 
which he has renounced, and shall not play to that trick until 
such adversary has inflicted or waived the penalty. Any player 
who has played to the trick after the renouncing player, may • 
withdraw his card and substitute another; a card so withdrawn 
IS not liable to be called. 

Sec. 4. The penalty for a revoke is the transfer of two tricks 



DUPLICATE LAW 8. (Whist.) 125 

from the revoking side to their adversaries. If more than one 
revoke during the play of a deal is made by one side, the penalty 
for each revoke, after ithe first, is the transfer of one trick only. 
The revoking players cannot score more, nor their adversaries 
less than the average on the deal in which the revoke occurs; 
except that in no case shall the infliction of the revoke penalty 
deprive the revoking players of any tricks won by them before 
their first revoke occurs. 

In Pair Matches the score shall be recorded as made, in- 
dependently of the revoke penalty, which shall be separately ii>- 
dicated as plus or minus revoke (" — R" for the revoking side, 
and "+R" for their adversaries). In such matches, the penalty 
for a revoke shall not increase the score of the opponents of the 
revoking players above the maximum, as made at the other 
tables, on the deal in which the revoke occurs ; provided, how- 
ever, that if the opponents win more tricks than such maximum, 
independently 'of the revoke penalty, their score shall stand as 
made. Nor shall the score of the revoking players be reduced, 
by the infliction of the revoke penalty, below the minimum so 
made at the other tables until the averages for the match and 
the relative scores of the other players have been determined; 
the score of the revoking players shall then, if necessary, be 
further reduced, so that in all cases ithey shall suffer the full 
penalty as provided in the first paragraph of this section. 

Sec. 5. A revoke cannot be claimed if the claimant or his 
partner has played to the following deal, or if both have left 
the table at which the revoke occurred. If the revoke is dis- 
covered in season, the penalty must be enforced and cannot be 
waived. 

Sec. 6. At the end of the play of a deal the claimants of a 
revoke can examine all of the cards ; if any hand has been 
s' afifled the claim may be urged and proved if possible ; but no 
proof is necessary and the revoke is established if, after it has 
been claimed, the accused player or his partner disturbs the 
order of the cards before they have been examined to the satis- 
faction of the adversaries. 

LAW XI. — Miscellaneous. 

Sec. I. If any one calls attention in any manner to the trick 
before his partner has played thereto, the adversary last to play 
to the trick may require the offender's partner to play his high- 
est or lowest of the suit led, and, if he has none of that suit, to 
trump or not to trump the trick. 

Sec 2. A player has the right to remind his partner that it is 
his privilege to enforce a penalty and also to inform him of the 
penalty he can enforce. 

Sec. 3. A player has the right to prevent his partner from 



126 (Whist.) DUPLICATE LAWS. 

committing any irregularity, and for that purpose, rtay ask his 
partner whether or not he has a card of a suit to which he has 
renounced on a trick which has not been turned and quitted. 

Sec. 4. If either of the adversaries, whether with or with- 
out his partner's consent, demands a penalty to which they are 
entitled, such decision is final ; if the wrong adversary demands 
a penalty or a wrong penalty is demanded, or either adversary 
waives a penalty, none can be enforced except in case of a revoke. 

Sec. S. If a player is lawfully called upon to play the highest 
or lowest of a suit, to trump or not to trump a trick, to lead a 
suit or to win a trick, and unnecessarily fails to comply, he is 
liable to the same penalty as if he had revoked. 

Sec. 6. If any one leads or plays a card, and then, before his 
partner has played to the trick, leads one or more other cards, 
or plays two or more cards together, all of which are better 
than any of his adversaries hold of the suit, his partner may be 
called upon by either adversary to win the first or any subsequent 
trick to which any of said cards are played, and the remaining 
pards so played are liable to be called. 

For the Rules of Etiquette of Duplicate Whist, see page 85. 

SINGLE TABLE, OR MNEMONIC DUPLICATE. 

The laws of Duplicate Whist govern where applicable, except 
as follows: 

Each player plays each deal twice, the second time playing a 
hand previously played by an adversary. Instead of turning the 
trump, a single suit may be declared trumps for the game. On 
the overplay, the cards may be gathered into tricks instead of 
playing them as required by law (Law VIII, Sec. i). In case 
of the discovery of an irregularity in the hands, there must al- 
ways be a new deal. 

MNEMONIC DUPLICATE FOR MORE THAN ONE TABLE. 

Except a contest played in comparison with a progressive 
match, the replaying of the cards by the same players — "up and 
back," as it is sometimes called — is the only possible method of 
approximating to Duplicate Whist for one table; but where 
eight or more players participate, this form of the game is ex- 
tremely undesirable, from the element of memory entering into 
the replay and destroying the integrity of the game and its 
value as a test of Whist skill. It has been well described as "a 
mongrel game — partly Whist and partly Dummy, but lacking in 
the best features of each." 

In the early days of Duplicate Whist, Mnemonic Duplicate 
was, to some extent, played even when several tables of players 
were participating. It still survives in a few circles, chiefly 
where Duplicate Whist has never been tried. It can be played un- 



DUMMY. (Dummy.) 127 

der any of the Duplicate Whist schedules by playing them through 
twice — the second time with the North and South hands given 
to the East and West players, and vice versa. As each deal 
is played twice by each pair, double the time is required to 
play the same number of deals, as at Duplicate Whist. Allow- 
ance must be made for this in fixing the number of deals to 
be played. 

The Snow System of movement, where practicable, is prefer- 
able. Where the Howell pair system of movement is used, the 
scores do not require "equating", as they are equalised on the 
replay. Under other systems, only the North and South scores 
need be kept, as the comparison can be made quite as readily 
as by direct comparison of these scores. 



DUMMY. 

There are three forms of Dummy : The English game, for 
three players ; the French game, for three or four ; and the game 
now generally known as Bridge, or Bridge Whist. Dummy is 
not recognized in any form by the American Whist League, and 
there are no American Laws governing it. We shall describe 
each variety of the game in its turn ; beginning with the English. 

Cards. ENGLISH DUMMY, is played with a full pack 
of fifty-two cards, ranking as at whist both for cutting and playing. 
Two packs are generally used. 

Markers are necessary, and are of the same patterns as those 
used in whist. 

Players. According to the English usage, Dummy is played 
by three persons, and the table is complete with that number. 

They cut for partners and for the deal ; the player cutting the 
lowest card takes dummy for the first rubber ; the one cutting the 
next lowest takes dummy for the second rubber ; and the one 
cutting the highest takes it for the last rubber. It is considered 
obligatory to play three rubbers, in order that each may have 
whatever advantage or disadvantage may be supposed to attach 
to the dummy. The three rubbers so played are called a Tourn^e. 
It is sometimes agreed that one player shall take dummy continu- 
ously, on condition that he concedes to his adversaries one point 
in each rubber. When this is done, the largest rubber that the 
dummy's partner can win is one of seven ; and he may win 



128 (Dummy.) ENGLISH DUMMY. 



nothing; whereas his adversaries may win a rubber of nine, and 
must win at least two. This concession of a point is not made, as 
many imagine, because it is an advantage to have the (dummy) 
partner's hand exposed ; but because it is an advantage to have 
the player's hand concealed. He knows the collective contents of 
the adversaries' hands ; each of them knows only the contents of 
dummy's hand and his own. 

Cutting. The player cutting the lowest card has the choice of 
seats and cards ; but he must deal the first hand for his dummy ; 
not for himself. The methods of spreading, cutting, deciding ties, 
etc., described in connection with whist, are those employed in 
dummy. 

Position of the Flayers. The players are distinguished, as 
at whist, by the two first and last letters of the alphabet, and their 
positions at the table are indicated in the same manner. There is 
no mark to distinguish the dummy hand ; a defect which is reme- 
died in the French system. 

Dealing. At the beginning of a rubber, dummy's partner 
presents the pack to his left-liand adversary to be cut, and deals 
from right to left, beginning with the player on his right, and turn- 
ing up the last card for dummy's trump. When two packs are 
used, there is no rule as to which player shall collect and shufifle 
the still pack. On this point the French rules are very explicit. 

The general rules with regard to irregularities in the deal are 
the same as at whist. 

The cards having been dealt, it is usual for dummy's partner to 
take up and sort the dummy first. There are several ways of 
laying out dummy's hand; the most common being to run the 
suits down in rows, with the turn-up across and to the right of the 
other trumps, if any. 



^ 



' — o 
o 




Method of Spreading Dummy's Cards. 

Stakes, The remarks made on this subject in connection with 
whist apply equally to dummy. Dummy's partner must pay to, 
or receive from each adversary the amount agreed. 

Method of Playing. The general method of playing is 
Identical with that of whist, with the following exceptions :— 

When it is dummy's turn to play, his partner selects the card. 



ENGLISH DUMMY. (Dummy.) 129 

The Mevoke, For this dummy is not liable to any penalty, as 
his adversaries can see his cards. Even should the revoke be 
occasioned by dummy's cards being disarranged, or one of them 
covered up, the adversaries should be as able to detect the error as 
the partner. Should dummy's hand revoke, it cannot be remedied 
after the trick in which it occurs has been turned and quitted ; 
and the game must proceed as if no revoke had occurred. All the 
penalties for a revoke may be enforced against dummy's partner, 
should he renounce in error, and not correct it in time. There 
being no American laws for dummy, the English penalty of three 
tricks or three points may be enforced, and the revoking player 
cannot win the game that hand. 

Cards Played in Error. Dummy's partner is not liable to 
any penalty for cards dropped face upwards on the table, or two or 
more played at once, because it is obvious that Dummy cannot 
gain any advantage from such exposed cards. 

Leading out of Turn. Should either dummy or his partner 
lead out of turn, the adversaries may call a suit from the one that 
should have led. It should be noticed that if it was not the turn 
of either to lead, there is no penalty ; for neither can have gained 
any advantage from knowing what suit the other wished to lead, 
or from the exposed card. Should all have played to the errone- 
ous lead, the error cannot be corrected, and no penalty remains. 

The methods of TaMng Tricks ; Scoring ; Claiming atid 
Counting Honours ; Marking Rubber Points, etc., are the 
same as in whist, and the counters are used in the same manner. 

Cutting Out. As already observed, there is no change of 
partners, or of the rotation of the deal, until the completion of a 
rubber ; but at the beginning of each rubber, dummy must deal 
the first hand. Should one side win the first two games in any 
rubber, the third is not played. At the end of the tournee, should 
any player wish to retire, and another offer to take his place, the 
cards must be shuffled and cut as at the beginning ; a player's 
position in one tournee giving him no rights in the next. There is 
nothing in the English game to recognize that there may be more 
than three candidates for dummy ; as it is supposed that if four 
were present, they would prefer playing whist. 

Suggestions for Good Play. As these are equally proper 
to any form of dummy, we shall postpone their consideration until 
we have described the other varieties of the game ; French dummy, 
and Bridge ; giving them all at the end of the chapter on " Bridge." 



130 (Dummy.) 

DOUBLE DUMMY. 

^S^^P^' ,^°"^'^ Dummy is played with a full pack of fifty- 
^IcVs^'e^g^Sirusfd."''" '"' ''' ^""^"^ -^ ^^^-^- ^wo 

as^^sf ufe!rw\Tst""""^' ^'^^ ^" °^ ^^^ ^^™^ ^--'P^-'^ 

is '^r.tfJh^tr. '^"^"'■^'"^ ^° the English usage, double dummy 
number! ^ ^'''°'''' ^""^ '^^ '^""^^ '^ ^^^^P'^^^ ^'^h that 

CUTTING. The players cut for the deal : the nlaver rnttincr 
the lowest card deals for his dummy first, and has ?heThokeo1 
s.ttmg to the right or left of his opponent. It is usual to sele? 
the seat on the right of the living player, because it is poss ble 
that one may forget whether or not certain cards have beenSed 
and under such circumstances it is better to lead up to an exposed 
hand than to one whose contents you are not sure of. ^ 

Ihe methods of spreading, cutting, deciding ties etc arp thp- 
same as those employed at whist. ^ ' ' ^^ 

rn^^/^T^^^ ^^ ^^^ I'LATEMS, It is not usually 
dicate whtrh 'Ti: '^ ^f '"8^"'^h the players further than to in- 
Snn^I? ""^ had the ongmal lead. For this purpose the 
Whist notation is used, A being the leader, and Z the dealer 



ORIGINAL LEADER, A 



K ^m /^^^' ^^^" t^° P^^'^^ ^'■e "sed, the still pack should 
be shuffled by the non-dealer, and placed on the left of the plaver 
or dummy whose turn it will be to deal next. 

The general rules with regard to irregularities in the deal are 
the same as in whist. 

The cards being dealt, it is usual to sort the dummy hands first 
running the suits down in rows, with the turn-up trump across, 
and to the right of the others. 

STAKES. The remarks already made on this subject in con- 
nection with whist and dummy, apply equally to double dummy, 
except that there is no double payment ; but each player wins 
trom or loses to his living adversary the unit agreed upon 

METHOD OF PLAYING. This so closely resembles 
dummy as to need no further description. Neither dummy can 
revoke, and there are no such things as exposed cards, or cards 



DOUBLE DUMMY. (Dummy.) 131 

played in error. It is very common for one player to claim that 
he will win a certain number of tricks, and for his adversary to 
admit it, and allow him to score them, without playing the hand 
out. 

LEADING OUT OF TURN. Should either of the 
dummies or the players lead out of turn, the adversary may call a 
suit from the one that ought to have led ; but if it was the turn of 
neither, there is no penalty. If all four have played to the trick, 
the error cannot be corrected, and no penalty remains. 

The methods of Taking Tricks ; Scoring ; Claiming and 
Counting Honours ; Marking JRubber Points, etc., are the 
same as in whist, and the counters are used in the same manner. 

RUBBERS. If the first two games are won by the same 
player and his dummy, the third is not played. Tournees are not 
played, and the completion of the rubber breaks up the table. 

CUTTING IN. The table being complete with two, at the 
end of a rubber a new table must be formed. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD PLAY. The player 
should first carefully examine the exposed hands, and by compar- 
ing them with his own, suit by suit, should fix in his mind the 
cards held by his living adversary. This takes time, and in many 
places it is the custom to expose the four hands upon the table. 
Players who have better memories than their opponents object to 
this, for the same reason that they prefer sitting on the right of the 
living player. It is not at all uncommon for a player to forget that 
certain cards have been played, to his very serious loss. 

The hands once fixed in the mind, some time should be given to 
a careful consideration of the best course to pursue ; after which 
the play should proceed pretty rapidly until the last few tricks, 
when another problem may present itself. 

There is nothing in the game beyond the skilful use of the tenace 
position, discarding, and establishing cross-ruffs. Analysis is the 
mental power chiefly engaged. There are no such things as in- 
ferences, false cards, finesse, underplay, speculative trump leads, or 
judgment of human nature. The practice of the game is totally 
different from any other form of whist, and much more closely re- 
sembles chess. 

The laws of Dummy will be found at the end of the English 
Whist Laws. 



HUMBUG WHIST, 

This is a variation oi double dummy, in which two players sit 
opposite each other. The deal and seats are cut for in the usual 



132 (Humfaog Vhist.) GOOD PLAY. 

manner ; four hands of thirteen cards each are dealt, and the last 
card is turned for trump. 

Each player examines the hand dealt to him, without touching 
those to his right or left. If he is content with his hand, he an- 
nounces it ; if not, he may exchange it for the one on his right. In 
case of exchange, the discarded hand is placed on the table face 
down ; and the other taken up and played. If a player retains the 
hand originally dealt him, he must not look at the others. If the 
dealer exchanges, he loses the turn-up card, but the trump suit re- 
mains the same. Each player deals for himself in turn, there 
being no deal for the dead hands. Whist laws govern the deal 
and its errors. 

METHOD OF PLATING. The dealer's adversary has 
the first lead ; the other must follow suit if he can, and the highest 
card of the suit led wins the trick. Trumps win all other suits. 

SCORING. Each trick above six counts one point towards 
game. Of the four honours, A K Q J of trumps, if each player 
holds two, neither can count. But if one player has only one 
honour, or none, the other counts 2 points for two honours, if he 
holds them ; 3 points for three ; and 4 points for four. The hon- 
ours count towards game as in whist. The penalty for a revoke is 
three tricks, and it takes precedence of other scores ; tricks count 
next, honours last. Five points is game. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD FLAT. It is consid- 
ered best for a player not finding four reasonably sure tricks in his 
hand to exchange ; for there is a certain advantage to be gained by 
knowing thirteen cards which cannot be in the adversary's hand. 
Before changing, the player should fix in his memory the exact 
cards of each suit in the hand which he is about to discard. By 
combining his knowledge of them with his own cards, he may 
often be able to direct his play to advantage. Beyond this there is 
little skill in the game. 

A variation is sometimes made by the dealer announcing a 
trump suit after he has examined his hand, instead of turning up 
the last card. His adversary then has the right either to play his 
hand, or to exchange it for the one on hjs right ; but the dealer 
thust play the hand dealt to him. 



THIRTEEN AND THE ODD. 

This is Humbug Whist without the discard. The dealer gives 
thirteen cards to his adversary and to himself, one at a time, and 
turrjs up the next for the trump. The trump card belongs to neither 
player. The winner of the odd trick scores a point. Five points is 
game. 



(Mort.) 133 

MORT. 

WmST A TROIS; OR FRENCH DUMMY. 

MOMT means simply the dead hand ; and is the equivalent of 
the English word Dummy ; the partner being known as Vivant, 
or the living hand. In these words the English usually sound the 
tf as they do in such words as piquet, and valet. 

CAItDS. Mort is played with a full pack of fifty-two cards, 
ranking as at whist for cutting and playing. Two packs are gen- 
erally used. 

MARKERS are necessary to count the game points only. 
Four circular counters for each side, preferably of different colours, 
are employed, or the ordinary whist markers may be used. At 
the end of each game, the score of the points won or lost by each 
player must be transferred to a score-sheet, kept for that purpose. 

PLAYERS. Mort is played by three persons ; but the table 
is usually composed of four. If there are more than four candi- 
dates, the methods described in connection with whist are adopted 
for deciding which four shall play the first tournee. 

The table being formed, the cards are again shuffled and spread 
to cut for partners and deal. 

TIES are decided in the same manner as at whist. 

CUTTIKG. If there are three players, the one cutting the 
lowest card takes dummy for the first game ; he also has the 
choice of seats and cards, and may deal the first hand for himself 
or for Mort, as he pleases ; but having once made his choice, he 
must abide by it. The player cutting the intermediate card takes 
dummy for the second game ; and the player cutting the highest 
card takes it for the third game ; each in turn having the choice 
of seats and cards. These three games finish the rubber or 
tournee, each having once had the advantage or disadvantage of 
playing with Mort. It is obligatory to finish the tournee, no player 
being allowed to withdraw and substitute another without the con- 
sent of the other players. In Mort it is very unusual for one per- 
son to take dummy continuously. 

If there are four players, the one cutting the highest card of the 
four sits out, and takes no part in the first game. It is customary 
for him to take Mort's seat, and to make himself useful in sorting 
dummy's cards for him. He plays in the three following games, 
taking Mort in the fourth, or last. Four games complete the tour- 
nee for four players. 

POSITION OF THE PLAYERS. The players or 
hands are distinguished by the letters, M, V, L, and R ; which 
stand respectively for Mort, Vivant, Left, and Right. The Mort 
is the dead hand, which is turned face up on the table. The Vi- 



134 (Moit.) PLAYERS' POSITIONS. 



vant is his partner, who sits opposite him, and plays his cards for 
him. The Left and Right are the adversaries who sit on the 
left and right of Mort. 

Special attention must be called to the use of the term adver- 
saries m any description of Mort. It is used exclusively to desig- 
nate the two partners opposed to the Mort and Vivant. In all 
other cases where opposition is implied, the terra opponents 
must be used. 

When necessary to distinguish the dealer from the first, second 
or third hand, it is usual to add the letters employed for that pur- 
pose m whist ; placing them inside the diagram of the table, thus •— 




This diagram shows that Vivant dealt, and that the adversary 
on the Right of Mort had the original lead. 

With Three Players. Vivant having selected his seat and 
cards, the adversaries may select their seats. It is usual for the 
strongest adversary to sit Right. 

With Four Players, we can best describe the arrangement 
by numbering them 1,2, 3, and 4, respectively, the lowest number, 
I, having cut the lowest card, and the others having the right to 
play Vivant in their numerical order. The initial arrangement 
would be as follows : — 

4 4 



or this : 



1 1 

For the three succeeding games the arrangement would be : — 





Mort. 
Vivant. 




Mort. 
Vivant. 



It will be seen that each player, immediately after being Vivant, 
sits out, or takes Mort's place, for the next game. 

DEALING. It is usual for Vivant to deal the first hand for 
himself, as the disadvantage of exposing fourteen cards is more 



DEALING. (Moft.) 135 

than compensated for in compelling the adversary to open the 
game by leading up to an unknown hand. If Vivant deals the 
first hand for Mort, he must present the pack to the player on 
dummy's right to be cut, and deal the cards from right to left, 
turning up the trump at Mort's place. If he deals for himself, 
he presents the pack to the pone to be cut, and proceeds as in 
whist. 

When two packs are used, the French laws require that if the 
deal is for Mort, the Right shall gather and shuffle the still pack ; 
and that if Vivant deals for himself, the pone shall gather and 
shuffle. I have found this to be awkward, because the player who 
is gathering and shuffling the cards of one pack is called upon to 
cut the other. For this reason I recommend that whichever 
adversary is the pone for the deal in hands should allow his part- 
ner to gather and shuffle the still pack. When either adversary 
deals, his partner will, of course, gather and shuffle the still pack. 

The general rules with regard to irregularities in the deal are 
the same as at whist, with the following exceptions :— 

A misdeal does not lose the deal unless the opponents so elect ; 
they may prefer a new deal by the same dealer. The reason for 
this is that the deal is a disadvantage, especially for Mort. 

If Vivant or Mort offers the pack to one adversary to cut, and 
then deals as if the other had cut, it is a misdeal ; and it is not 
admissible to shift the packets in order to remedy matters. 

It might be imagined that a card exposed in dealing, if dealt to 
Mort, would make no difference, as all his cards will presently be 
exposed. But the laws give the opponents of the dealer the option 
of either allowing the deal to stand, or having a new deal, or call- 
ing it a misdeal. 

According to the French laws, if there is any discussion in prog- 
ress with regard to the previous hand or play, the dealer may 
lay aside the trump card, face down, until the discussion is fin- 
ished. If this law prevailed in America, I think the trump would 
very seldom be turned immediately. 

STARES, In Mort the stake is a unit, so much a point. It 
may assist players in regulating the value of the stake to remem- 
ber that six is the smallest number of points that can be won or 
lost on a single game, and that thirty-seven is probably the highest, 
although fifty, or even a hundred is not impossible. The average 
is about twelve. The same customs as at v/hist prevail with re- 
gard to outside betting. 

The Vivant must pay or receive double, as he has to settle with 
each adversary. If four play, the one sitting out has nothing to do 
with the stakes ; but he may make outside wagers on the result of 
the game. 

THE METHOD OF PLAYING is practically the same 
as at wiiist, with the following exceptions : — 



136 (Mort.) METHOD OF PLAYING. 

When it is the turn of Mort to play, Vivant selects the card fof 
him. 

The MevoJce. The rules governing' this are the same as those 
already given for English Dummy. Mort is not liable to penalty 
under any circumstances. If any other player revokes, his oppo- 
nents may take three points from the score of his side ; or add three 
points to their score ; or take three of his tricks. The penalty 
cannot be divided ; but if two or more revokes are made by the 
same side, the penalty for each may be enforced in a different 
manner. For instance : If the score is 3 to 2 in favor of the adver- 
saries, Vivant may take three points from their score for one revoke, 
and add three to his own score for the other. It is not permis- 
sible to reduce the revoking player's tricks to nothing. At least 
one must be left in order to prevent slams being made through 
revoke penalties. 

Cards Played in Error. Vivant is not liable to any pen- 
alty for dropping his cards face up on the table ; but if he or Mort 
plays two cards at once to a trick, the adversaries may select 
which they will allow to be played. The adversaries are subject 
to the same penalties as in whist for all cards played in error. 

Leading Oiit of Turn. If Vivant or Mort lead out of turn, 
the adversaries may let the lead stand, or demand it be taken back. 
If it was the turn of neither, no penalty can be enforced, and if 
all have played to the trick, the error cannot be corrected. 

Taking Tricks. The methods of taking tricks, and placing 
them so that they can be easily counted, have been fully described 
in connection with whist. 

OBJECT OF THE GAME. As in whist, the object is to 
take tricks ; the highest card played of the suit led wins, and 
trumps win against all other suits. The first six tricks taken by one 
side, and forming a book, do not count ,• but all above that number 
count toward game. At the end of each hand, the side that has 
taken any tricks in excess of the book scores them, their oppo- 
nents counting nothing. As soon as either side reaches five 
points, they win the game, but the concluding hand must be 
played out, and the winners are entitled to score all the points 
over five that they can make on that hand. For instance : The 
score is 4 to 3 in favor of Vivant and Mort. They win the first 
seven tricks, which makes them game ; but they do not cease - 
playing. If they succeed in gaining eleven tricks out of the thir- 
teen, they win a game of 9 points, instead of 5. 

As already observed, Vivant loses or gains double the value of 
the points in each hand. In the three-handed game this must be 
so ; but in my opinion it would be a great improvement in the 
four-handed game to allow the player sitting out to share the 
fortunes of the Vivant, as in Bridge, and in many German games 
of cards, notably Skat. 



SCOBING. (Mort.) 137 

SLAMS, The two great differences between French and 
English Dummy are that honours are not counted in Mort, and 
that a special value is attached to slams. A slam is made when 
one side takes the thirteen tricks. These must be actually won, 
and cannot be partly made up of tricks taken in penalty for re- 
vokes. Players cannot score a slam in a hand in which they have 
revoked. 

A slam counts 20 points to the side making it ; but these 20 
points have nothing to do with the game score. For instance : 
The score is 4 all. Vivant and Mort make a slam. This does 
not win the game ; but the 20 points are debited and credited on 
the score-sheet ; the deal passes to the left, and the game proceeds 
with the score still 4 all, as if nothing had happened. 

SCORIWCr, The number of points won on each game are 
put down on the score-sheet, each side being credited with the 
number of points appearing on their markers when the game is 
finished. To the winners' score is added : 3 points, for a triple 
game, if their opponents have not scored ; 2 points, for a double 
game, if their opponents are not half way ; or i point, for a simple 
game, if their opponents are 3 or 4. In addition to this, the win- 
ners add 4 points, for bonus or consolation, in every instance. 
From the total thus found must be deducted whatever points 
have been scored by the losers, whether game points, slams, or 
both. For instance : Vivant and Mort win a game with the score 
8 to 2 in their favor, which is a double. This is put down on the 
score sheets thus : — • 

8 4-2 for the double, -}- 4 consolation, = 14, minus 2 scored by 
the opponents; making 12 the net value of the game. Vivant 
therefore wins 24 points, and each of the adversaries, R and L, lose 
12. Again :— 

R and L win a simple with a score of 5 to 4, V and M having 
made a slam. 5 + 1 for the simple, -f- 4 for consolation, = 10, 
minus 4 points scored, and 20 for the slam = 24 ; showing that R 
and L lose 14 points each, although they won the game. 
Again : — 

V and M win a triple, with a score of 8 to o ; R and L having 
revoked. 8, -f- 3, -f-4, +3 for the revoke = 18, from which there 
is nothing to deduct. 

The greatest number of points that can be made on a game, 
exclusive of slams and revokes, is 17 ; and the least number is 6. 

MAMKI^Cr. The methods of using the counters in scoring 
the game points have already been described in connection 
with whist. 

CUTTING OUT. If there are more than four candidates 
for play at the conclusion of a tournde, the selection of the new 
table must be made as if no tournde had been played ; all having 
equal rights to cut in. 



138 (Cayenne.) CAYENNE. 

CHEATING. Mort offers even less opportunity to the greek 
than whist, as the deal is a disadvantage, and nothing is gained by- 
turning up an honour, beyond its possession. 



CAYENNE, 

OR CAYENNE WHIST. 

CARDS. Cayenne is played vi^ith two full packs of fifty-two 

cards, v^'hich rank as at Whist, both for cutting and playing. 

MARKERS are necessary, and must be suitable for counting 
to ten points. A sheet of paper is used for scoring the results of 
the games. 

PLAYERS. Cayenne is played by four persons. When 
there are more than four candidates for play the selection of the 
table must be made as at Whist. Partners and deal are then cut for. 

CUTTING. One of the packs having been spread on the 
table, face down, each of the four players draws a card ; the two 
lowest pairing against the two highest. The lowest of the four is 
the dealer, and has the choice of seats and cards. Ties are de- 
cided in the same manner as at Whist. 

POSITION OF THE PLAYERS. The partners sit 
opposite each other, and the players are distinguished, as at Whist, 
by the letters A-B and Y-Z. Z is the dealer, and A has the 
original lead. 

HEALING. One pack of cards is shuffled and cut as at 
Whist. The dealer then gives four cards to each player, begin- 
ning on his left ; then four more, and finally five, no trump being 
turned. In many places six cards are first dealt to each player, 
and then seven ; but the 4-4-5 system is better, and is the rule in 
the very similar game of Boston. 

The general rules with regard to irregularities in the deal are the 
same as at Whist ; except that a misdeal does not lose the deal. 
The misdealer must deal again, and with the same pack. 

CAYENNE. After the cards are all dealt, the player to the 
left of the dealer cuts the still pack, which is shuffled and presented 
to him by the dealer's partner, and the top card of the portion left 
on the table is turned up for Cayenne. This card is not a trump, 
but is simply to determine the rank of the suits. 

STAKES. In Cayenne the stake is a unit, so much a point. 
The largest number of points possible to win on a rubber is 24, 
and the smallest, i. The result of the rubber may be a tie, which 
we consider a defect in any game. In settling at the end of the 
rubber it is usual for the losers to pay their right-hand adversaries. 



MAKING THE TBUMP. (Cayenne.) 139 

MAKING THE TBUMP. The trump suit must be 
named by the dealer or his partner, after they have examined their 
cards. The dealer has the first say, and he may either select 
cayenne or any of the other suits ; or he may announce ffrandf 
playing for the tricks without any trump suit ; or he may call iiuUo, 
playing to take as few tricks as possible, without a trump suit. If 
the dealer makes the choice, his partner must abide by it ; but if he 
has not a hand to justify him in deciding, he should leave the 
selection to his partner, who must decide one way or the other. 

The considerations which should guide players in their choice 
are the scoring possibilities of their hands, in tricks and in honours. 
As in Whist, the first six tricks taken by one side do not count ; 
but each trick above that number counts one, two, etc., by cards. 
There are five honours in the trump suit in Cayenne ; A K Q J lo ; 
and the partners holding the majority of them count i for each 
honour that they hold in excess of their opponents, and I in addi- 
tion, for hmiours. For instance : If A-B have three honours 
dealt them, they must have one more than their adversaries, and i 
for honours ; entitling them to score 2. If they have four, they 
have 3 in excess, and i for honours, a total of 4. If they have 
five, they count 6 by honours. 

At the end of the hand the points made by cards and by honours 
are multiplied by the value of the trump suit. This value varies 
according to the suit which is cayenne, which is always first pref- 
erence. If cayenne is also the trump suit the points made by 
cards and honours are multiplied by 4. If the trump suit is the 
same colour as cayenne, the multiplier is 3. If it is a different 
colour the multiplier is 2 or i, according to the suit. The rank of 
the suits as multipliers will be readily understood from the follow- 
ing table : — 

If Cayenne is ^ * ♦ If trumps, multiply by 4. 

Second color is 'I' ♦ * If trumps, multiply by 3. 

Third color is ♦♦<:?<;? If trumps, multiply by 2. 

Fourth color is ♦♦00 If trumps, multiply by i. 

Better to understand the importance of considering this variation 
in value when making the trump, it should be noticed that 
although the game is 10 points, several games may be won in a 
single hand, as everything made is counted, and any points over 
10 go to the credit of the second game. If more than 20 points 
are made, the excess goes on the third game, and so on. Another 
important point is the great value attached to honours, and the 
maker of the trump should never forget that he can better afford 
to risk his adversaries winning 2 by cards with a trump in which 
he has three honours, than he can to risk a trump in which they 
may have three honours, and he can probably win only the odd 
trick. 



140 (Cayenne.) METHOD OF FLAYING. 

A further element may enter into his calculations, the state of 
the score. Tricks count before honours, and if he feels certain of 
making, by cards, the few points necessary to win the rubber, he 
may entirely disregard the honours. 

With such a hand it would be better to play without a trump, 
and to announce a grand, in which there are neither trumps 
nor honours, and every trick over the book is multiplied by 8. 
Two by cards at grand is worth more than two by cards and two 
by honours with any trump but cayenne. 

There is still another resource, to announce nullo, in which there 
is no trump, and the object of the players is to take as few tricks 
as possible. In nullo, every trick over the book counts for the ad- 
versaries, and is multiplied by 8. A peculiarity of nullo is that the 
Ace of each suit ranks below the deuce, unless the player holding 
it wishes to declare it higher than the King. In the latter case he 
must announce it when he plays it, and before his left-hand ad- 
versary plays to the trick. 

If the dealer transfers the right of making the trump to his 
partner, he must use the phrase, " You make it, partner." If a 
player makes the trump out of turn, his adversaries may consult 
as to the propriety of demanding a new deal. 

METHOD OF PLAYING. The trump suit, grand, or 
nullo having been announced, the player on the dealer's left be- 
gins by leading any card he pleases, and the others must all 
follow suit if they can. The penalty for a revoke is the loss of 
three tricks ; or the value of three tricks in points ; or the addition 
of a like amount to the adversaries' score. The side making a re- 
voke cannot win the game that hand, no matter what they score ; 
but they may play the hand out, and count all they make to within 
one point of game, or 9. Revoking players cannot count points 
for slams. 

The rules for cards played in error, leading out of turn, and all 
such irregularities, are the same as in Whist. The last trick turned 
and quitted may be seen. 

The methods of gathering and stacking the tricks is the same 
as at Whist. 

OBJECTS OF THE GAME. The chief object in Cay- 
enne, either with a trump or in a grand, is to take tricks ; in a 
nullo it is not to take them. In any case the highest card played 
of the suit led wins the trick, and trumps, if any, win against all 
other suits. At the end of each hand the side that wins any 
tricks in excess of the book scores them, after multiplying their 
number by the unit of value settled upon by the announcement. 
If a nullo is played the adversaries score them. Honours are then 
claimed ; but the game cannot be won by honours alone, as at 
Whist ; those holding honours must stop at the score of 9, unless 
they also win the odd trick. As soon as either side reaches or 
passes 10 points, they win a game ; but the hand must be played 



SCORING. 



(Cayenne.) 141 



out, and all tricks taken must be counted. If one side goes out by 
cards, the other cannot score honours. Thirteen tricks taken by 
one side is called a slam, and it counts 6 points. Twelve tricks is 
a litUe slam, and it counts 4. Either of these must be made 
exclusive of revoke penalties. 

RUBBERS. The rubber is won by the side that first wins 
four games of ten points each ; and the winning side adds 8 points 
to its score. 

SCORING, The game score should be kept on a whist marker, 
using the four large keys on one side for single points, and the 
single large key on the opposite side for five points. The three 
small keys are used to show how many games of the rubber have 
been won by that side. 




Two Games Won, and 2 Points Scored on the Third. 

The method of using counters for scoring lo-point games has 
already been described in connection with Whist. 

In addition to either markers or counters, there must be a sheet 
of paper to keep the final results of the games. 

In scoring, the revoke penalty counts first, tricks next, and 
honours last. 

The side first reaching 10 points wins a quadruple, or game 
of 4, if their adversaries have not scored ; a triple, or game of 3, 
if their adversaries have not reached 4 ; a double, or game of 2, 
if the adversaries have not reached 7 ; and a single, or game of 
I, if their adversaries are 8 or 9 up. These game points are put 
down on the score-sheet, and all the points on the adversaries' 
marker are then turned down. If the winners make any points in 
excess of 10, such points are left to their credit on the marker, 
and count toward the next game. For instance : The score is 
A-B, 6 ; and Y-Z, 8 ; shown on the markers thus : — 





A-B 6 Points. 



Y-Z 8 Points. 



142 (Cayenne.) 



SCORING. 



Let us suppose that Z announces cayenne, and makes 2 by 
cards ; A-B claiming two by honours. Y-Z multiply by 4, mak- 
ing them 8, and bringing their total score on the marker to 16 ; 
that is, a game, and 6 points to their credit on the second game. 
This must now be put down on the score-sheet. A-B's honours 
not counting, as Y-Z went out by cards, the game is a double ; 
A-B not having reached 7 points. The score and markers now 
stand : — 



A-B 



Score ; 



Y-Z 



f 





A-B's, Nothing. 



Y-Z's, I Game, 6 Points. 



Let us suppose A-B to announce grand on their deal, and to 
make four by cards, which, multiplied by 8, gives them 32 points ; 
that is, three games, and 2 points to their credit on the marker. 
The first of these games is a double, Y-Z having 6 points up. 
The two others are quadruples, put down on the score-sheet 
thus : — 



Score : 



A-B 





2 


4 


4 


} 






Y-Z 


2 



















A-B's, 3 Games, 2 Points. 




Y-Z's, I Game, o Points. 



In the next hand let us suppose cluJbs to be cayenne. Y deals, 
and plays in colour, spades. Y-Z win 6 by cards, and 4 by 
honours ; 10 points multiplied by 3, = 30. For this they score 



SCORING. 



(Cayenne.) 143 



three games, the first being a triple, and the others quadruples. 
These three games win the rubber, for which they add 8 points, 
and 4 points for the httle ^am. This is ail put down on the 
score-sheet : — 



Score ; 



A-B 


o 


2 


4 


4 


c 


o 


o 


Y-Z 


2 


O 


o 


o 


. 3 


4 


4 



4=25 



Both scores being added up, the value of the rubber won by 
Y-Z is found to be 15, after deducting the 10 points made by 
A-B. 

CUTTING IN. If there are more than four persons belong- 
ing to the table, those waiting cut in, as at Whist. 

METHODS OF CHEATING. In all games in which the 
cards are dealt in bulk, four or six at a time, there is more or less 
temptation for the greek to gather desirable cards in the pack, 
leaving them undisturbed in the shuffle If he can pick up two 
tricks of the previous deal with eight good cards of the same suit 
in them, by placing any two tricks of other cards between them, 
and dealing six at a time, he can tell exactly how^ many of the 
eight located cards are in his partner's hand. For this reason a 
player who does not thoroughly shuffle the cards should be care- 
fully watched ; and an immediate protest should be made against 
any disarrangement of the tricks as they are taken in during the 
play, such as placing the last trick taken under the first. If the 
player doing this is to be the next dealer, any one observing the 
movement should insist upon his right to shuffle the cards 
thoroughly ; if not to leave the game. 

We are strongly opposed to dealing the cards in bulk at 
Cayenne, and see no reason why the methods that prevail in the 
very similar game of Bridge should not be adopted. 

SUGGESTIONS FOB, GOOD FLAY. There is little 
to add to the rules already given for Whist. The principles that 
should guide in the making of the trump have been given in con- 
nection with the more important game of Bridge ; and the sug- 
gestions for playing nullo wnll be fully discussed in the games in 
which it is a prominent characteristic : Solo Whist, and Boston. 
Grand is practically Whist after the trumps are exhausted. 

For the Laws of Cayenne, see Whist Family Laws. 



lU (Solo Wliist.) 

SOLO WHIST, 

OR WHIST DE GAND. 

CAMDS. Solo Whist is played with a full pack of fifty-two 
cards, which rank as at Whist, both for cutting and playing. Two 
packs are generally used, the one being shuffled while the other is 
dealt. 

MARKERS are not used in Solo Whist, every hand being a 
complete game in itself, which is immediately settled for in 
counters representing money. At the beginning of the game each 
player should be provided with an equal number of these counters. 
They are usually white and red, the red being worth five times as 
much as the white. Twenty white and sixteen red is the usual 
allotment to each player when the game begins. Some one 
player should be the banker, to sell and redeem all counters. 

PLAYERS, Solo Whist is played by four persons. If there 
are five candidates for play, they all sit at the same table, each 
taking his turn to sit out for one hand while the four others play. 
The dealer is usually selected to sit out. If there are only three 
players, one suit must be deleted from the pack, or the 2, 3, and 4 
of each suit must be thrown out. 

CUTTING. The table being formed, the players draw from 
an outspread for the deal, and choice of seats and cards. The 
player drawing the lowest card deals the first hand, and it is 
usual for him to dictate to the other players what seats they shall 
occupy with relation to himself. Ties are decided in the same 
manner as at Whist. 

POSITION OF THE PLAYERS. The four players at 
Solo Whist are usually distinguished by the letters A B Y Z. 




Z is the dealer, and A is known as the eldest hand. The 
position of the players does not imply any partnership ; for, as we 
shall see presently, any player may have any one of the others for 
a partner, without any change taking place in their positions at 
the table. 

The players having once taken their seats are not allowed to 
change them without the consent of all the others at the table. 



OBJECTS OF THE GAME. (Solo Whist.) 145 

DEALIKG. The cards having been properly shuffled, are 
presented to the pone to be cut. Beginning on his left, the dealer 
distributes the cards three at a time, until only four remain. These 
he deals one at a time, turning up the last for the trump. When 
two packs are used, the player sitting opposite the dealer shuffles 
the still pack while the other is dealt. The deal passes in regular 
rotation to the left. 

When three play with a pack of forty cards, the last card is 
turned up for trumps, but it does not belong to the dealer, and is 
not used in play. 

The general rules with regard to irregularities in the deal are 
the same as at Whist ; except that a misdeal does not pass the 
deal. The misdealer must deal again, and with the same pack. 

The cards dealt, each player sorts and counts his hand to see that 
he has the correct number of cards, thirteen. If not, he should 
immediately claim a misdeal ; for a player having more or less 
than his right proportion of cards cannot win anything on that 
hand, but will have to stand his proportion of all losses incurred 
by him or his side. 

OBJECTS OF THE GAME, There are seven distinct 
objects in the Solo Whist, and before play begins each player has 
an opportunity of declaring to which of these objects he proposes 
to attain. They are : — • 

1st. To win 8 of the 13 tricks, with the assistance of a partner. 
This is called a Proposal ; the partner's share is an Accept- 
ance. 

2nd. To win 5 of the 13 tricks, against the three other players 
combined. This is called a Solo, 

3rd. To take no tricks, there being no trump suit, and the three 
other players being opposed. This is called Misere, or Nullo. 

4th. To win 9 of the 13 tricks against the three other players 
combined ; the single player to name the trump suit. This is 
called Abundance. 

5th. To win 9 of the 13 tricks against the three other players 
combined, with the trump suit that is turned up. This is called 
Abundance in Trumps. 

6th. To take no tricks, there being no trump suit, and the three 
other players being opposed ; the single player's cards being ex- 
posed face up on the table after the first trick is complete. This 
is called Misere sur table, or A Spread. 

7th. To win all 13 tricks against the three other players com- 
bined ; the single player to name the trump suit, and to have the 
original lead whether eldest hand or not. This is called Abund- 
ance Declaree, or A Slam. 

While the object of the proposing player is to win or lose the 
declared number of tricks, that of his adversaries is to prevent him 
from doing so, if possible. There are no honours, and the only 



146 (Solo Wliist.) DECLARING. 

factor in the count is the number of tricks actually taken. The 
highest card played of the suit led wins the trick, and trumps, if 
any, win against all other suits. 

METHOD OF DECLARING. The eldest hand has the 
first say, and after examining his cards he may make any of the 
several propositions just enumerated. The smallest proposal he 
can make is to take 8 tricks with the assistance of a partner. To 
do this he should have four reasonably sure tricks in his own hand. 
Some players say he should be strong in trumps ; while others 
claim that the eldest hand should propose only on general strength. 
The former is the better plan. No other player should propose on 
trumps alone. This announcement is made by saying : '' I pro- 
pose." If a player thinks he can take five tricks against the com- 
bined efforts of the three other players, he announces : " Solo." 
If he feels equal to a misere, he calls : '^ Mishre ; " and so on, 
according to the strength of his hand. If he does not feel justified 
in making a call, he says : "- 1 pass ; " and the next player on 
his left has the opportunity ; and so on, until some player has pro- 
posed to do something, or all have passed. 

If any player has proposed for a partner, any of the others, in 
their proper turn, may accept him by simply saying : ''I accept.'* 
By so doing, a player intimates that he has four probable tricks 
also, but in the plain suits, and that he is willing to try for eight 
tricks with the proposer for a partner. All the other calls are 
made by a single player with the intention of playing against the 
three others. Any player except the eldest hand having once 
said, " I pass,'' cannot afterwards make or accept any proposal. 
The eldest hand, after passing once, can accept a proposal, but he 
cannot make one. 

It is the custom in some places, when no one will make a pro- 
posal of any sort, to turn down the trump, and play the hands 
without any trump suit, each man for himself ; the winner of the 
last trick losing to each of the others the value of a solo. This is 
called a Grand. 

RANK OF THE PROPOSALS. The_ various calls 
outrank one another in the order in which we have given them. If 
one player says, "I propose," and another calls " Solo," the solo 
call shuts out the proposal, even though it has been accepted by a 
second player. The call of a misere would in turn shut out a solo ; 
abundance would take precedence of misere ; and abundance in 
trumps would be a better call than simple abundance. The slam 
of course outranks all other bids. This making of a better 
proposition than one already made is known as '* Overcalling." 

A player who has made a call of any kind, or has accepted a 
proposal, may amend his proposition to a better one, only in case 
he is overcalled ; or a player who can not get a partner to accept 
him may amend his call to solo. For instance : A player may 



PAYMENTS. (Solo Whist.) 147 

have a hand which he feels sure is good for 8 tricks, perhaps 9. 
To be safe, he calls solo, and hopes to make three or four over- 
tricks. If he is outbid by some player overcalling him with a 
misere, he may be tempted to amend his call to abundance. 

No call is good until every player who has not already passed 
does so, by saying distinctly, " I pass." 

STAKES. The losses and gains of the players are in propor- 
tion to the difficulties of the tasks they set themselves. 

The most popular method of settling is to pay or take red 
counters for the various calls, and white counters for the tricks 
under or over the exact number proposed. If the callers succeed 
in their undertakings, their adversaries pay them ; if they fail, they 
pay their adversaries. A red counter is worth five white ones. 

Proposal and Acceptance wins or loses i red counter. 

Solo wins or loses 2 red counters. 

Misere, or Nullo, wins or loses 3 red counters. 

Abundance, of any kind, wins or loses 4 red counters. 

Open Misere, or Spread, wins or loses 6 red counters. 

Declared Abundance, or Slam, wins or loses . . 8 red counters. 
Each Over or Under-trick wins or loses i white counter. 

In Proposal and Acceptance, each of the partners pays one of 
his adversaries. In all cases in which a single player is opposed 
to the three others, he wins or loses the amount shown in the 
foregoing table with each of them individually ; so that a single 
player calling a solo would win or lose 6 red counters. If he lost 
it, making only four tricks, he would also have to pay to each of 
his three adversaries a white counter. If he won it, making seven 
tricks, each of them would have to pay him two red and two white 
counters. 

Miseres, Spreads, and Slams pay no odd tricks. The moment a 
Misere player takes a trick, or a Slam player loses one, the hands 
are abandoned, and the stakes paid. 

The usual value attached to the counters in America is 25 cents 
for the red, and 5 cents for the white. In England the proportion 
is sixpence and a penny. 

POOL SOLO. When players wish to enhance the gam- 
bhng attractions of the game, a pool is introduced. For this pur- 
pose a receptacle is placed upon the table, in which each player 
puts a red counter at the beginning of the game. Any person 
playing alone against the three others, wins this pool if he is suc- 
cessful ; if he fails, he must double the amount it contains, be- 
sides paying each of his adversaries in the regular way. In some 
places it is the custom for each player to contribute a red counter 
when he deals. The proposals and acceptances do not touch the 
pool. 



' 148 (Solo Vhist.) METHOD OF PL A YING, 

METHOD OF PL A TING. If a proposal is accepted, and 
no one overcalls it, the proposer and acceptor are partners ; but 
make no change in their positions at the table. The eldest hand, 
sitting to the left of the dealer, begins by leading any card he 
pleases, and the play proceeds exactly as at Whist, the tricks being 
so stacked that they may be readily counted at any time. 

If a single pbyer has called solo, misere, or abundance, the eld- 
est hand still has the original lead, and there is no change in the 
positions of the players. The position of the lead is often a seri- 
ous consideration with a player calling a solo or a misere. 

In all calls except miseres and slams, the hands must be played 
out, in order to give each side an opportunity to make all the over- 
tricks they can. The moment a misere player takes a trick, or a 
slam player loses one, the hands are thrown up, and the stakes 
paid. 

When a spread is called, the trump is taken up, and the eldest 
hand leads. As soon as all have played to the first trick, the 
caller spreads his remaining twelve cards face upward on the 
table, so that each of his adversaries may see them ; but they have 
no control of the order in which they shall be played. The adver- 
saries play their hands in the usual manner, with no further guidance 
than that possible by inference from the play and the exposed hand. 
The caller plays according to his best judgment. 

When a slam is called, the player proposing it has the original 
lead ; but that does not alter the position of the deal for the next 
hand. 

MEVOKES. A revoke is a serious matter in Solo Whist. 
The penalty for it is the loss of three tricks, and the revoking 
players must pay the red counters involved in the call whether 
they win or lose ; but they may play the hand out to save over- 
tricks. For instance : A proposer and acceptor make 1 1 tricks ; 
their adversaries having claimed a revoke. After deducting the 
revoke penalty, 3 tricks, the callers still have 8 tricks left, enough 
to make good the call: They each lose a red counter ; but no 
white ones, having saved their over-tricks. Had they taken only 

8 tricks altogether, the penalty for the revoke would have left 
them only 5, and they would each have had to pay one red and 
three whites. If either adversary of the callers revokes, the indi- 
vidual player in fault must pay,for all the consequences of the error. 
If the player in fault can show that the callers would have won in 
spite of the revoke, his partners must pay their share ; but the re- 
voking player must settle for the three tricks lost by the revoke. 
For instance : Z calls solo ; A revokes ; Z makes 6 tricks, which it 
can be shown he must have done in spite of the revoke. A, Y, 
and B each pay Z i red and i white counter, and then A pays Z 

9 white counters in addition for the tricks taken as revoke penalty. 
If the single player revokes, either on solo or abundance, he 



CARDS PLAYED IN ERROR. (Solo Whist.) 149 

loses the red counters involved, and must pay whatever white 
counters are due after three of his tricks have been added to those 
of the adversaries as penalty for the revolce. For instance : A 
calls solo, and revokes, but wins 6 tricks in all. He pays two red 
counters to each adversary. They then take three of his tricks, 
leaving him three only, and demand two white counters each, for 
the two under-tricks. If a player revokes who has called a misere 
or a slam, he immediately loses the stakes. If a revoke is 
made by any adversary of a player who has called misere or slam, 
the player in fault must individually pay all the stakes. 

CARDS PLAYED IN ERROR. In the simple pro- 
posal and acceptance, the rules with regard to cards played in 
error, or led out of turn, are the same as at Whist. In the case 
of a single player against three adversaries, the caller is not liable 
to any penalty for cards played in error, or led out of turn ; but 
his adversaries are subject to the usual whist penalties for all such 
irregularities, such as having the cards laid on the table as exposed, 
oj a suit called, or the highest or lowest of a suit led demanded 
from an adversary who has followed suit out of turn. 

For the better protection of the single player, who is much more 
liable to be injured by irregularities than partners would be, he is 
allowed to prevent the use of an exposed trump for rufhng, and to 
demand or to prevent the play of any exposed card in plain suits. 
If a suit is led of which an adversary has an exposed card on the 
table, the single player may call upon him to play his highest or 
lowest of that suit. 

If any adversary of a misere player leads out of turn, or exposes 
a card, or plays before his proper turn in any trick, the caller may 
immediately claim the stakes, and the individual player in fault 
must pay for himself, and for his partners, 

METHODS OF CHEATING. While the practice of 
dealing three cards at a time gives a little more opportunity to the 
greek than would occur if they were dealt as at Whist, there is little 
to be feared if two packs are used, unless two greeks are in part- 
nership. When such partners sit next each other, there is more 
or less danger, if only one pack is used, that one may shufifle so 
that the other may cut understandingly ; or that a good shuffler 
may run up six cards for a dealer that is not embarrassed by the 
cards being cut. A shrewd greek can often help a silent partner 
who is playing under the disguise of a single caller, especially in 
misere. Persons who play in the many public cafes of Europe 
should be especially careful to avoid this style of partnership, 
where it is very common. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD PLAY. Apart from 
the general principles common to all forms of _ Whist, such 
as the play of high or low cards, trumps or plain suits, etc., 



150 (SoloWiust.) PROFOSINQ. 

there are several points peculiar to Solo Whist which require 
attention. 

Proposing. It is better to propose on two or three sure 
tricks, with strong probabilities of several more, than on a cer- 
tainty of four only. For instance : The two highest trumps, and 
two suits containing Aces, with no other trick probable, is not 
such a good hand for a proposal as one containing four average 
trumps, with one plain suit of K O J x x, and another of K Q x x. 
It is not improbable that the latter may be good for seven or eight 
tricks. Nothing but experience will teach a player what combina- 
tions of cards are " probably " good for tricks ; but K x x, or Q J 
ID X, or K Q, may be counted on. 

There should be some intelligible system of proposing, so that 
the players may understand each other. The eldest hand should 
not propose except on strong trumps, and this should be a warn- 
ing to other players not to accept him on trump strength alone. 

Four trumps with two or three honours may be called strong ; 
or five trumps, even without an honour. Five trumps with two 
or more honours is great strength. 

Any player other than the eldest hand should propose on 
general strength, and the player accepting him should do so on 
trump strength. Some such distinction should be clearly under- 
stood, in order that there may be no such contretemps as two 
players proposing and accepting on trumps alone, and finding 
themselves without a trick in the plain suits after the trumps are 
drawn. 

If the eldest hand is strong in trumps, but has not four sure 
tricks, he should pass, which will give him an excellent opportun- 
ity to accept a player proposing on general strength in the plain 
suits. If the proposal should be accepted before it comes to his 
turn, the eldest hand should be in a good position to defeat it. 

If any player, other than the eldest hand, has sufficient trump 
strength to justify a proposal, he will usually find that he can risk 
a solo ; or by passing, defeat any proposal and acceptance that 
may be made. 

Accepting. A proposal by the eldest hand should not be 
accepted by a player with only one strong suit. The probability 
of tricks in several suits is better than a certainty in one suit ; but 
if one strong suit is accompanied by a card of re-entry, or by four 
trumps, it should prove very strong, particularly in partnership 
with the eldest hand. 

When the partners will sit next each other, proposals may be 
accepted on slightly weaker hands than would be considered safe 
otherwise. 

Playing Proposals and Acceptances. If the eldest hand 
has proposed, and his partner sits next him on the left, the com- 



PLAYING PROPOSALS. (Solo Wfaist.) 151 

manding trumps should be first led, in order to secure as many 
rounds as possible. If the eldest hand has no high-card combina- 
tion in trumps, it is sometimes better to lead a small card from a 
weak suit, hoping to put the partner in. If successful, the part- 
ner will first show his suit, and then lead trumps through the 
adversaries. If the acceptor sits on the right of the proposing 
eldest hand, trumps should be led immediately, and the highest of 
them first, no matter what they are. The Q or J at the head of 
five trumps may be of great use to a partner with an honour. When 
the eldest hand has proposed, and his partner sits opposite him, 
trumps should be led at once, and all combinations played as at 
Whist. 

The foregoing principles equally apply when the eldest hand 
has accepted a proposal, if the player can be depended on to have 
proposed on general strength. 

When partners sit opposite each other, the general principles of 
leading, establishing, defending, and bringing in suits, are the 
same as at Whist, and the usual trump signals and echoes are 
made use of. The game is practically Whist, with the additional 
knowledge that both proposer and acceptor have strong hands. 

When partners sit next each other, there are many opportuni- 
ties for leading strengthening cards through the adversaries, 
especially in the partner's known or inferred strong suit. 

Finesse, If neither proposer nor acceptor is the eldest hand, 
they should make no finesses ; but get into the lead as soon as 
possible, and exhaust the trumps. The greatest danger of defeat 
for a proposal and acceptance is that the adversaries, w'ith the 
original lead, may establish a cross-ruff, or get six tricks with 
their winning cards before the calling players get a lead. 

It is a common artifice for the proposer and acceptor, after they 
have exhausted the adversaries' trumps, each to show a strong suit 
by leading it once, and then to lead the highest card of a weaker 
suit ; thus offering each other chances for successful finesse. 

If a partner sitting on the right leads a suit, there should be no 
finesse ; and, in general, finessing .should be avoided until the 
declaration is assured. It may then be used to secure probable 
over-tricks. 

Adversaries^ Play. The players opposed to the call are al- 
ways designated as the adversaries. 

Players opposed to a proposer and acceptor should make no 
finesses that they are not certain will win more tricks if successful 
than they will lose if they fail. If the adversaries sit together, and 
are the last to play on any trick, the third hand should not trust 
anything to his partner that he can attend to himself, unless he is 
very anxious to be the last player on the next trick. 

When the adversaries sit opposite each other, their play will 



152 (Solo Whist.) AD VEBS ARIES' PLAY. 

differ very little from that in Whist, except that they will make 
no efforts to establish long suits, and will not lead small cards from 
combinations containing an Ace. Every trick possible should be 
made sure of at once, before the calling players get any chance to 
discard. Weak suits should be protected, as they are in Whist 
when opposed to strong hands. 

If an adversary has the first lead, it is usually best for him to 
make what winning cards he has at once, unless he is pretty sure 
that the proposal will be defeated. 

It is very seldom right for the adversaries to lead trumps. 
Some exceptions will naturally present themselves, such as an eld- 
est hand leading to his partner's turned-up King. In the middle 
or end game, it may be advantageous to bring down the caller's 
trumps together, or to draw two for one. 

If an adversary finds himself with a pretty strong hand, he 
should utterly disregard his partner, and play as false as he can ; 
for if the callers have eight probable tricks between them, it is im- 
possible for the fourth player to have anything, unless there has 
been some mistake in the call. 

In General. There are one or two exceptions to the methods 
of playing sequences at Whist, dependent on the position of the 
players holding them. For instance : If first or second hand holds 
any sequence of high cards, he should play the highest if his 
partner sits next him on the left, and the adversaries are to play 
after him ; otherwise the partner might think the higher cards 
of the sequence were against the leader. If a caller should hold 
K Q X second hand, and play the Q as at Whist, his partner fol- 
lowing him, and holding Ace, would have to play it, thinking the 
King might be beyond. 

SOLO. In speaking of the players in a solo, misere, or abun- 
dance, it is usual to distinguish those opposed to the single player 
by calling them respectively, Left, Right, and Opposite. 



Opposite 
Left 



Right 



The Caller 

This arrangement does not affect the use of the letters A Y B Z, 
and the terms first, second, third, and fourth hand ; indicating the 
position of the deal, and of the lead. 

Calling, Those solos are easiest which are declared by the 
eldest hand, or by the dealer; the hardest being those called by 
second hand. The safest solos are those called on trump strength ; 



PLAYING SOLOS. (Solo Whist.) 153 

but average trumps and winning cards in the plain suits are more 
advantageous if the caller is not eldest hand. To call a solo on 
plain suits alone, with only one or two trumps, is extremely dan- 
gerous ; and a solo called on a single suit must have at least five 
or six, good trumps in order to succeed. 

PLAYINCr, When a call has been made entirely upon 
trump strength, it is much better to make tricks by ruffing, than by 
leading trumps. There is little use for a solo player to hold a 
tenace in trumps, hoping it will be led to him. If he has good 
suits, he should make sure of two rounds of trumps by leading the 
Ace. 

When the solo player is depending on the plain suits for tricks, 
and has one long suit, he should make what winning cards he has 
in the other plain suits in preference to leading trumps, for his 
only danger is that his long suit will be led often enough to give 
his adversaries discards in the other suits. 

If a proposal was made before the solo was called, it is better 
for the solo player to sit on the left of the player that proposed. 

The caller should never play single honours second hand, unless 
he has only one small card of the suit, or the honour is the Ace. 

With A Q X, second or third hand, the Q must be finessed if 
the caller has counted on both A and Q for tricks. If he can 
probably win without the finesse, he should play Ace. If he has 
tricks enough to win without either A or Q,, he should play neither 
of them. 

A solo player should be very sure of his call before finessing for 
over-tricks. 

Adversaries' Play, The player to the left of the caller 
should not lead trumps ; but if the solo player has had a lead, and 
has not led trumps himself, the player on his right should take the 
first opportunity to lead them through him. 

The player to the left of the caller should not lead from suits 
headed only by the King ; nor from those containing major or 
minor tenaces. The best leads are from suits headed by O J or 
ID, even if short. 

With such high-card combinations as can be used to force the 
command in one round, such as K O, or K Q J, the regular whist 
leads should be used. With suits headed by winning sequences, 
held by the player on the left, it is often right to lead them once, in 
order to show them, and then to lead a weaker suit to get rid of 
the lead. It is sometimes better to play winning sequences as 
long as it seems probable that the caller can follow suit. 

Many persons use the Albany lead to indicate a wish for trumps 
to be led through the caller. In response to such a signal the 
best trump should be led, whatever it is. 

When the adversary who leads in any trick is not on the left of 
the solo player, the caller will, of course, not be the last player, as 



154 (Solo Wliist.) FLAYING MISFIRES, 

at least one adversary must play after him. In such cases it is 
best to lead the longest suits. 

MISJ^RE. The great difficulty in Misere is not in playing it ; 
but in judging what hands justify such an undertaking. 

Calling. As a general proposition it may be stated that misere 
should not be called with a long suit not containing the deuce. 
But the longer the suit the less the danger there is for a player 
who is determined to risk it ; because the deuce is more likely to 
be found alone in some adversary's hand. Short suits may be 
risked, even with no card smaller than a 5 or 6, and it is of course 
a great advantage to have a suit altogether missing. 

Leading. The lead is a disadvantage to the caller, because 
he must begin with a small card, and the adversaries can play 
their highest. The only satisfaction tc the caller is that he can 
usually locate the high cards of the suit under such circumstances. 
For instance : Suppose he originally leads a 4 ; second hand play- 
ing the 9 ; third hand the Ace ; and fourth hand the 10. The 
third hand is marked with whatever cards of the sequence K Q J 
are not in the caller's hand. 

Many players fall into the error of leading the highest card of a 
losing sequence, such as a 6 from 6543. This accomplishes 
nothing, and only discloses to the adversaries the fact that the 
caller is safe in that suit. The three is the better lead. 

Following Suit. The caller should usually play a card as 
little inferior as he can to the highest already on the trick. When 
he has cards of equal value, such as the 5 and 2, the 3 and 4 being 
already on the table, he should play the lower card of the four- 
chette ; for although it may be said that the fourth player must 
take the trick, there is no certainty that he will follow suit. 

When second hand, if there is a choice between two cards, such 
as the 6 and 2, an intermediate card having been led, it is often a 
nice point to decide whether or not to risk covering, and keeping 
the deuce. If the deuce is played, it must be remembered that the 
adversaries will follow with their highest cards, leaving two cards 
out against the caller, both smaller than the 6. 

Discarding. The misere player should never discard from 
his long suits. The high cards of short suits, and single inter- 
mediate cards, such as 5's and 6's, should be got rid of at every 
opportunity 

Adversaries of the Mish^e. In playing against a misere 
the chief difficulty is to prevent the caller from discarding, and to 
place the lead with the player who can probably do him the most 
harm. 

It is an axiom with solo-whist players that every misere can be 
defeated, if the weak spot in it can be found ; because if the misere 



FLAYING AGAINST MISERES. (Solo Whist.) 155 

was absolutely safe, it would be played as a spread, whicTi would 
pay the caller twice as much. This is not true, however, for it 
often happens that the cards are so distributed in the other hands 
that the call cannot be defeated, however risky it may have been. 
The weak point in a misere is usually a short suit with one high 
card in it ; or a suit of intermediate length, without the deuce. 

As it is probable that the caller is short in suits in which the 
adversaries are long, and long in those in which they are short, he 
is less likely to get a discard if they lead their shortest suits first. 
If the misere player has overcalled a proposal or a solo, he is likely 
to be short in the trump suit, or at least safe in it. It is not good 
play to lead a single Ace ; but a King may be very effective ; for if 
no one plays the Ace on it, that card may be absolutely marked in 
the caller's hand. In such a case the adversary with the greatest 
number of that suit should keep it for the attack. If this player 
can get into the lead, he is not only sure of preventing the caller 
from discarding, but of allowing the other adversaries to discard 
to advantage. 

With an honour and one small card, a player on the left should 
lead the small card first ; if on the right, the honour should be led 
first. A long suit containing the deuce should be avoided as long 
as possible. 

The caller's cards may sometimes be inferred if there has been 
a previous call on the hand. For instance : A misere may be a 
forced call ; that is, the player first called a proposal, and not being 
accepted, was forced to amend his call, choosing misere in prefer- 
ence to solo. This would indicate a long weak suit of trumps. If 
the dealer calls misere, the turn-up trump should be carefully 
noted. 

It is useless to persevere in suits in which the caller is evidently 
safe. If he plays a very low card to a trick in which there is 
already a high card, that suit should be stopped. 

JMscarding, An adversary should get rid of some one suit, if 
possible ; for when that suit is afterwards led he will have free 
choice of his discards in the other suits. Short suits should be 
discarded in preference to high cards in long suits, unless the 
cards in the short suit are very low. Discards give great informa- 
tion to the adversaries if the rule is followed to discard the high- 
est of a suit ; because all cards higher than those discarded must 
be between the two other adversaries and the caller, and each ad- 
versary is thus furnished with a guide. It is useless to discard a 
suit of which the caller is void ; and it is best to keep discarding 
from one suit until it is exhausted, or only the deuce remains. 
The trump signal is frequently used in discarding to indicate that 
the signaller wishes to get into the lead. 

Returning Suits. Whether or not to return a partner's lead 
may often be decided by inferences from the fall of the cards. It 



156 (Solo Whist.) PLAYING AGAINST MISFIRES. 

is frequently an easy matter to locate the cards in the various suits, 
if it is borne in mind that adversaries who play after the caller get 
rid of their highest cards. For instance : Right leads the 9 ; 
caller plays the 5 ; left the 10; and the last player finds he holds 
K Q J 6 of the suit. He should know that the caller has nothing 
between the 5 and the 9, and must have the Ace ; so his cards 
were probably A 5 4 3 2. While it is manifestly impossible to 
(tatch him on that suit, it may still be led three times, in order to 
give the partners discards, as both of them must be short. If 
this estimate of the caller's cards is wrong in anything, it is not 
with regard to the Ace, so there is not the slightest danger in 
continuing the suit. 

As a general rule, the suit first led by an adversary should be 
returned, unless the player winning the trick has a singleton in 
another suit, when he should lead that. 

The suit led by the caller, if he was eldest hand, should not be 
returned. 

Some judgment of character must be used in playing on a cal- 
ler's own lead. An adventurous player will sometimes call a misere 
on a hand which contains a singleton 5 or 6, and will lead it at 
once ; trusting that second hand will imagine it to be safe, and 
cover it. Players should be aware of this trap, and never cover a 
misere player's own lead if they can help it, unless the card led is 
below a 4. 

ABUWDANCE. Very few persons will risk calling an 
abundance which they are not pretty certain of ; but a player may 
be forced to the call on a doubtful hand, especially if he is overcalled 
on his original proposal to play a solo. The lead is a great ad- 
vantage, because trumps can be exhausted immediately, and the 
suits protected. If the caller has not the lead he must calculate ia 
advance for trumping in, and if his plain suits are not quite estab- 
lished, he will require more trumps than would otherwise be 
necessary. The greatest danger to an abundance player who has 
not the original lead, is that "his best suit will be led through him, 
and trumped, either on the first or second round. The caller is 
often trapped into unnecessarily high trumping when suits are 
led through him a second or third time. 

T7ie Adversaries have little chance to defeat an abundance 
unless they can over-trump the caller, or ruff his good cards before 
he can exhaust the trumps. It is best for the Right to lead his 
longest suit, and for the Left to lead his shortest. A guarded 
King suit should not be led under any circumstances ; nor a short 
suit Ace high. If an adversary has a single trump of medium 
size, such as a J or 10, it is often good play to trump a partner's 
winning cards, so as to be sure of preventing the caller from mak- 
ing a small trump. If an adversary has trumped or over-trumped, it 
is very important to lead that suit to him again as soon as possible. 



ABUNDANCE, AND SPREADS. (Solo Whist.) 157 

The rules for discarding that are given in connection with Whist 
should he carefully observed ; especially in the matter of showing 
command of suits. 

SJPMEADS. These should not be called except with hands 
in which every suit contains the deuce, and all the cards are low 
enough to insure the player that nothing short of extraordinary 
circumstances will defeat him. Open sequences, or Dutch 
straights, as they are sometimes called, in which the cards are 
all odd or all even, such as 246 8 10, are quite as safe as 
ordinary sequences, provided the deuce is among the cards. 

The player calling a spread must remember that it will be 
impossible for him to get any discards after the first trick without 
the consent of the adversaries ; for they will not lead a suit of 
which they see he is void. In order to reduce the caller's chances 
of a discard on the opening lead, before his cards are exposed, the 
adversaries should select their shortest suits, unless they have a 
bottom sequence to the deuce. 

THE SLAM. This feature of Solo Whist is even rarer than 
the gratid coup at Whist. It is not very marvellous for an 
abundance player to make twelve or thirteen tricks; but to 
announce thirteen tricks before a card is played is something 
phenomenal. All the adversaries can do against such a call is to 
show each other, by their discards, in which of the suits they have a 
possible trick. It is very annoying to have a player succeed in mak- 
ing a slam just because two of his adversaries keep the same suit. 

SOLO WHIST FOR THREE PLAYERS. 

The best arrangement is to play with a pack of forty cards, de- 
leting the 2, 3, and 4 of each suit. The last card is turned up to 
determine the trump, but it is not used in play. 

There is no proposal and acceptance, solo being the lowest call. 
If all three players pass, the trump card is turned down, and each 
player in turn has the option of calling a six-trick abundance, 
naming his own trump suit. In some places it is the custom to 
allow the players to overcall each other, after the trump is turned 
down, each increasing the number of tricks he proposes to take. 
A misere overcalls eight tricks. 

Kimherly Solo is for four players, without any proposal and 
acceptance, solo being the lowest call. If all pass, a six-trick solo 
with a different trump is allowed. 

TEXT BOOKS. 

Solo Whist, by R. F. Green. 

How to Play Solo Whist, by Wilks & Pardon. 

For the Laws of Solo Whist, see Whist Family Laws. 



158 (Solo T^^Iiist.) ILL USTBATIVE HANDS. 



ILLUSTRATIVE SOLO WHIST HANDS. 

The dealer, Z, turns up the heart 3 in both hands, and A leads. 
The underlined card wins the trick, and the card under it is the 
next one led. 

u 



I 

2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 
II 
12 
13 





A Solo. 


1 


A Y B Z 1 


100 


sol QO 


1 KO 










3 


90 


A± 


20 


^ 6 


C? 2 


Q? A 


^3 


* 8 


(^^ 4 


^ Q 


<:? K 


♦ 9 


•» A 


♦ 4. 


♦ 7 


A « 


9 « 


K4» 


4 « 


« K 


♦ 2 


♦ 6 


♦ 5 


7 4k 


2 « 


2-L 


6 4k 


5 


♦ 3 


*Q 


^ 8 


60 


3 « 


(^^ 5 


J 


7 


(?io 


<y 9 


<J? J 


8 * 


5 ^ 


Q? 7 


40 


J ♦ 


±1 


♦ 10 


10 • 



Solo player wins. 





^ Jtf 


iskre. 




A 


Y B Z 


K« 


7 « 


J 4k 


10 4k 


Q ♦ 


5 « 


9 « 


8 4k 










QO 


50 


A± 


J 


90 


40 


JIL^ 


100 


C? 6 


3 « 


6 4k 


8 


(? 7 


2 4k 


4 ♦ 


*A 


«io 


« 8 


« 7 


♦ K 


* 9 


* 6 


7 


iL2. 


*5 


*4 


60 


* J 


(J? 8 


« 2 


^? K 


4k3 


"0 A 


(5 2 


^Q, 


(? 3 


2 


^-1 


<y 9 


^ 4 


^ J 


A 4k 


<5io 


<? 5 



Mis ere player loses. 



In the first example, A and Y pass, and B calls Solo. A follows 
the modern practice of leading the top of his long weak suit, as a 
card of warning and support for his partners. Z knows Y 'must 
have 9 or Ace of diamonds, or no more, and he avoids the error of 
opemng another suit, especially a weak one. B continues with 
the trump Queen, hoping to drop King and Jack together. At 
trick 5, Z cannot give up the command of trumps, and as A's lead 
and discard indicate that he wants spades led up to him Z's best 
chance is that Y has some clubs. Y leads to A. At trick 9, Z 
knows B cannot have 10 and 9 of trumps, or he would have led 
one of them to prevent the J and 8 both making, so Y must have 
one of those trumps. At trick 11, if B leads the club, he loses his 
call. He must again take the chance of bringing the trumps 
down together. ^ 

In the second example A proposes, or calls Solo, and Y over- 
calls him with Misere. The great point in playing against Mis^re 
IS to continue leading suits in which he is known to be long so as 
to give your partners discards. This B does with the two long 
spades, the caller being marked with the ace and others on the 
second trick. Then Z allows B to discard his high diamonds 
on the clubs. 



(Scotch VhisU) 159 

SCOTCH WHIST, 

OR CATCH THE TEN. 

CARDS. Scotch Whist is played with a pack of 36 cards, 
which rank in plain suits, AKQJ 10 9876; the Ace being 
highest both in play and in cutting. In the trump suit the Jack is 
the best card, the order being, JAKQ109876. 

U^IARJBiERS. There are no suitable counters for Scotch 
Whist, and the score is usually kept on a sheet of paper. 

PLAYERS. Any number from two to eight may play. 
When there are five or seven players, the spade 6 must be re- 
moved from the pack. In some places this is not done ; the 
thirty-fifth card being turned up for the trump, the thirty-sixth 
shown to the table, and then laid aside. 

CUTTINCi. Whatever the number of persons offering for 
play, the table is formed by cutting from the outspread pack for 
partners, seats, and deal. 

When two play, the one cutting the lowest card has the choice 
of seats and cards, (if there are two packs). 

When three play, the lowest deals, and chooses his seat and 
cards. The next lowest has the next choice of seats. 

When four play, partners are cut for ; the two lowest pairing 
against the two highest ; the lowest of the four is the dealer, and 
has the choice of seats and cards. 

When five play, each for himself, the lowest cut deals, and has 
the first choice of seats and cards. The ne.xt lowest has the next 
choice of seats, and so on. 

When six play, they cut for partners, the two lowest pairing to- 
gether ; the two highest together ; and the two intermediates to- 
gether. The player cutting the lowest card of the six has the 
choice of seats and cards, and deals the first hand. If the six play, 
three on a side, the three lowest play against the three highest ; 
the lowest cut of the six taking the deal, and choice of seats and 
cards. 

When seven play, each for himself, the lowest deals, and has the 
choice of seats and cards ; the others choosing their seats in the 
order of their cuts. 

When eight play, they may form two sets of four each, or four 
sets of two each. In either case the partnerships are decided by 
cutting, and the lowest cut of the eight has the deal, with choice of 
seats and cards. 

TIES are decided in the manner already described in connec- 
tion with Whist. 

POSITION OF THE FLAYERS. Two players sit 
opposite each other. Three, five or seven sit according to their 



160 (Scotch Wliist.) FLAYERS' POSITIONS. 

choice. Four sit as at Whist, the partners facing each other. Six, 
playing in two partnerships, sit alternately, so that no two partners 
shall be next each other. Six, playing in three partnerships of two 
each, sit so that two adversaries shall be between each pair of 
partners. Eight, playing in two sets of four each, or as four pairs 
of partners, arrange themselves alternately. If we distinguish the 
partners by the letters A, B, C, D, the diagram will show the ar- 
rangement of the tables. 









D 




c 


B 




A 


A 




A 


C 




D 


A 




B 


T] 


C B 
ttREE PaI 


RS. 


B A 

Four Pairs. 


B A 

Two Fours. 



The player to the left of the dealer is the original leader. 

DEALING. The method of dealing varies with the number 
of players engaged. When only one pack is used, any player may 
shuffle, the dealer last. The pack must be presented to the pone 
to be cut, and the entire pack is then dealt out, one card at a time. 

When two play, the dealer gives each six cards, one at a time. 
These two hands are kept separate, and two more are dealt in the 
same manner, and then a third two, the last card being turned up 
for the trump. When the deal is complete, there will be six hands 
on the table, three belonging to each player. 



D D D 

JT Hands. 2nd Hands. 3RD Hand 

D D D 




When three play, the cards are dealt in much the same manner; 
two separate hands of six cards being given to each player. 

When four, five, six, seven, or eight play, the cards are dealt in 
rotation from left to right until the pack is exhausted, the last card 
being turned up for the trump. When five or seven play, either 
the spade 6 must be thrown out of the pack, or the thirty-sixth 
card must be shown, after the dealer has turned the thirty-fifth for 
the trump. When eight play, all four sixes are deleted. 



METHOD OF PLAYING. (Scotch Whist.) 161 

The deal passes to the left, each player dealing in turn until the 
game is finished. 

The general rules with regard to irregularities in the deal are the 
same as at Whist. 

STAKES. When stakes are played for, they are for so much 
a game. Rubbers are not played. It is usual to form a pool, 
each player depositing the stake agreed upon, and the winner tak- 
ing all. In partnership games, each losing player pays the success- 
ful adversary who sits to his right. If three pairs were engaged, 
and A-A won, C and B would each pay the A sitting next him. 
Before play begins, it should be understood who pays for revokes ; 
the side or the player. 

METHOD OF FLAYING. The player on the dealer's 
left begins by leading any card he chooses, and the others must 
all follow suit if they can. Failure to follow suit when able is a re- 
voke, the penalty for which, if detected and claimed by the adver- 
saries, is the immediate loss of the game. When there are more 
than two players or two sets of partners, the revoking player or 
side must pay the two or more adversaries as if each had won the 
game. In some places the individual is made to pay, not the side. 
This should be understood before play begins. If seven are play- 
ing, and one is detected in a revoke, his loss is equal to six games. 
Any player having none of the suit led may either trump or dis- 
card. The dealer should take up the trump card when it is his 
turn to play to his first trick ; after which it must not be named, 
although a player may be informed what the trump suit is. If all 
follow suit, the highest card played of the suit led wins the trick, 
trumps win all other suits. The winner of the trick may lead any 
card he chooses for the next ; and so on, until all the cards have 
been played. 

It is not necessary to keep the tricks separate, as at Whist ; but 
one player should gather for his side. 

When two or three play, the hands must be played in the order 
in which they were dealt. For instance : If these are the 
hands : — 

Adversary's : — I 1 ^ I ^1 

1ST Set. 2ND Set. 3RD Set. 

Dealers:— 2 \ '^ \ \ ^ \ 




162 (Scotch WWst.) OBJECTS OF TKE GAME. 

The players first take up hands Nos. i and 2 ; a card is led from 
No. I, the dealer follows suit from No. 2, or trumps, or discards, 
and the play continues until these two hands are exhausted. The 
second set are then taken up and played in the same manner ; the 
player who won the last trick in one set having the first lead in 
the next. Finally, the third set are played in the same manner ; 
all the cards taken by each side being gathered into one pile by 
the player who has won them. The trump card must remain on 
the table until the dealer takes up the last hand. When three 
play, the set of hands first dealt must be first played, and then the 
second set taken up. 

The rules for cards played in error, leading out of turn, etc., 
are the same as at Whist. 

OBJECTS OF THE GAME. The side first scoring 41 
points wins the game ; and the chief object is to secure tricks 
containing cards to which a certain value is attached. These all 
belong to the trump suit, and are the following ; — 

The Jack of trumps counts 1 1 

The Ace of trumps counts 4 

The King of trumps counts 3 

The Queen of trumps counts .... 2 

The Ten of trumps counts.- 10 

The other trumps, and the plain suit-cards, have no counting 
value. 

The Jack of trumps, being the best, must be taken in by the 
player to whom it is dealt ; but any court card in trumps will 
wm the Ten, so that one of the principal objects in Scotch Whist 
!s to catch the fen. 

At the end of each hand the players count the number of cards 
they have taken m tricks, and they are entitled to score one point 
for each above the number originally dealt to them. For instance : 
If four play, nme cards were originally dealt to each, so each pair 
of partners held eighteen. If at the end of the hand they have 
taken m eight tricks, or thirty-two cards, they score 14 points 
toward game, in addition to any score they may have made by 
winning honours in trumps, or catching the Ten. If five play, 
beginning with seven cards each, and at the end of the hand one 
player has taken in fifteen, and another ten ; they score 8 and ^ 
respectively, for cards. 

SCOBIWG. At the end of each hand, each player or side 
should claim all honours won, and cards taken in. One player 
should keep the score, and announce it distinctly, in order that it 
may be known how many points each player or side requires to 
win the game. 

In the case of ties, the Ten counts out first ; then cards ; then 
A K Q of trumps in their order, and the Jack last. A revoke, if 



SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD FLA Y. (Scotch Whist) 163 

detected and claimed before the cards are cut for the next deal, 
immediately ends the game. 

METHODS OF CHEATING, When only one pack is 
used, the greek can often succeed in dealing himself the Jack of 
trumps, and usually loses no time in marking the Ten, so that he can 
at least distinguish the player to whom it is dealt. A player should 
be carefully watched who keeps his eyes on the pack while shuf- 
fling, or who rivets his attention on the backs of the cards as he 
deals. Two packs should be used in all round games of cards. 

SUGGESTIONS FOB GOOD PLAT. The chief count- 
ing elements that are affected by the play being the trump Ten and 
the cards, it is usual to devote particular attention to winning 
them. With J A of trumps, or A K, it is best to lead two rounds 
immediately ; but with a tenace, such as J K, or A O it is better 
to place the lead on your left if possible. The high cards in the 
plain suits are capable of being very skilfully managed in this mat- 
ter of placing the lead. It sometimes happens that a player with 
the Ten may be fourth hand on a suit of which he has none ; or 
he may catch the Ten with a small honour if it is used in trump- 
ing in. The partnership games offer many fine opportunities for 
playing the Ten into the partner's hand, especially when it is 
probable that he has the best trump, or a better trump than the 
player on the left. 

In calculating the probabilities of saving the Ten by trumping 
in, it must be remembered that the greater the number of players, 
the less chance there is that a suit will go round more than once, 
because there are only nine cards of each suit in play. 

Many players, in their anxiety to catch the Ten, overlook the 
possibilities of their hands in making cards, the count for which 
often runs into high figures. 

Close attention should be paid to the score. For instance: 
A wants 4 points to win ; B wants 10; and C wants 16. If A 
can see his way to win the game by cards or small honours, he 
should take the first opportunity of giving C the Ten ; or allowing 
him to make it in preference to B. As the Ten counts first, cards 
and honours next, B may be shut out, even if he has the Jack. 

LA WS. There are no special laws for Scotch Whist. The 
whist laws are usually enforced for all such irregularities as ex- 
posed cards, leading out of turn, etc. The most important matter 
is the revoke, and it should be clearly understood before play 
begins whether the revoke penalty is to be paid by the individual 
in fault, or by the side to which he belongs. Some players think 
there should be some regulation for penalties in such cases as that 
of a player taking up the wrong hand, when two or more are dealt 
to each player ; but as no advantage can be gained by the ex- 
change, it is hard to see what right the adversary would have to 
impose a penalty. 



164 (Scotch Whist.) 

ILLUSTRATIVE SCOTCH WHIST HAND. 

We give a simple example hand, as an illustration of the manner 
of playing with four persons ; two being partners against the 
other two. 



Z deals and turns heart 8. 





A Y B 


z 


I 


QO 


IL2. 


8 


9 


2 


♦ A 


h K 


« J 


4k 8 


3 


4> 7 


♦ 9 


« 6 


6 « 


4 


8 * 


J « 


K* 


A » 


5 


J 


9 * 


AO 


^^ 


6 


7 


lO* 


♦ Q 


7 4» 


7 


g> A 


lOO 


6 


^Q 


8 


^ 9 


«? 6 


P K 


(3? 7 


9 


*io 


c?io 


^ J 


<;? 8 



A-B win 30 3y honours. 
Y-Z win 2 ^ cards. 



Trick 1. Y plays King 
second hand, hoping it will 
be taken by the Ace, so that 
he may become third or 
fourth player, and perhaps 
save his Ten. B, with the 
minor tenace in trumps, plays 
to avoid the lead as long as 
possible. 

Trick 2. Y gets rid of 
another winning card ; B 
keeping a small card to avoid 
the lead. 

Trick 3. A returns the 
Club, reading J5 for the Q or 
no more. JB still avoids the 
lead, and Z is marked as not 
having the trump Ten, or he 
would have saved it. 



Trick d, Z plays to win what cards he can. 

Trick 5. B throws OA to avoid the lead, knowing Y has the 
trump Ten ; for A. would have made it on the second round of 
Spades. A also marks it with Y, as B does not save it. 

Trick 6. B is not sure whether Y has a Diamond or a Club 
left, and discards the winning card. 

Trick 7. Z plays Queen to shut out the Ten, if with A. A 
knows each player has two trumps left, and that as the turn-up is 
still with Zf B must have J or K ; for if he held only 7 and 6 he 
would have trumped in to make cards. 

Trick 8. A leads trumps. If Y does not play the Ten, and 
B has not the Jack, B must make four cards and the King by pass- 
ing. If B has the Jack, he must catch the Ten, no matter how Y 
and Z play. 



FMENCS WJETIST is the name giren to a variety of Scotch 
Whist in which the Ten of Diamonds counts ten to those winning 
it, whether it is a trump or not. 



(Boston.) 1G5 

BOSTON, 

CARDS. Boston is played with two packs of fifty-two cards 
each, Which rank as at Whist, both for cutting and playing. 

HAMKEMS are not used in Boston, every hand being im- 
mediately settled for in counters. These are usually of three 
colours ; white, red, and blue ; representing cents, dimes, and 
dollars respectively. At the beginning of the game each player 
should be provided with an equal number, the general proportion 
being 20 white, 18 red, and 8 blue for each. Some one player 
should be selected to act as the banker, selling and redeeming all 
counters. 

STAKES. The stakes in Boston depend upon the value of 
the counters. One cent for a white counter is considered a pretty 
stiff game ; because it is quite possible for a single player to win 
or lose a thousand white counters on one hand, and the payments 
very seldom fall short of fifty. 

THE POOL. In addition to the counters won and lost on 
each hand, it is usual for the players to make up a pool at the be- 
ginning of the game by each of them depositing one red counter 
in a small tray provided for the purpose. This pool may be in- 
creased from time to time by penalties ; such as one red counter 
for a misdeal ; four for a revoke, or for not having the proper 
number of cards, etc. The whole amount in the pool may be won 
or lost by the players, according to their success or failure in cer- 
tain undertakings, which will presently be described. When 
empty, the pool is replenished by contributions from each player, 
as at first. 

The pool proper is usually limited to 25 red counters. When it 
exceeds that amount, the 25 are set aside, and the surplus used to 
start a fresh pool. Any player winning a pool is entitled to 25 red 
counters at the most. It will often happen that several such pools 
will accumulate, and each must be played for in its turn. At the 
end of the game any counters remaining in the pool or pools must 
be divided among the players. 

JPLAYEMS. Boston is played by four persons. If more 
than four candidates offer for play, five or six may form a table ; 
if there are more than six, the selection of the table must be made 
by cutting, as at Whist. 

CUTTING. The four persons who shall play the first 
game are determined by cutting, and they again cut for the deal, 
with the choice of seats and cards. The player drawing the 
lowest card deals, and chooses his seat ; the next lower card sits 
on his left, and so on, until all are seated. Twelve deals is a 



166 (Boston.) 



DEALING. 



game, at the end of which the players cut to decide which shall go 
out, as at Whist. 

It is usual to count the deals by opening the blade of a pocket- 
knife, which is placed on the table by the player on the dealer's 
right. When it comes to his turn to deal, he partly opens one 
blade. When he deals again he opens it entirely, and the third 
time he closes it ; that being the third round, and the last deal of 
the game. 




Fourth Deal. 



Eighth Deal. 



POSITION OF THE PLAYEBS. The four players at 
Boston are distinguished by the letters A Y B Z. 



Z is the dealer, and A is known as the eldest hand. There 

are no partnerships in Boston, except that of three players com- 
bined against the fourth, who is always spoken of as the caller* 
The players having once taken their seats are not allowed to 
change them without the consent of all the others at the table. 

DEALING. At the beginning of the game the two packs 
are thoroughly shufHed; after which they must not again be 
shuffled during the progress of the game. If a hand is dealt 
and not played, each player must sort his cards into suits and 
sequences before they are gathered and dealt again. 

At the beginning of each deal, one pack is presented to the 
players to be cut ; each having the privilege of cutting once, the 
dealer last. Beginning on his left, the dealer gives four cards to 
each player, then four more, and finally five ; no trump being 
turned. 

The general rules with regard to irregularities in the deal are 
the same as at Whist, except that a misdeal does not lose the deal. 
The misdealer must deal again with the same pack, after the 
players have sorted their cards into suits. It is a misdeal if the 
dealer fails to present the pack to the other players to cut, or neg- 



ANNOUNCEMENTS. (Boston.) 167 

lects to cut it himself. Should the dealer expose any of his own 
cards in dealing, that does not invalidate the deal. The deal passes 
in regular rotation to the left, each pack being used alternately. 

MAKING THE THUMP. The deal being complete, 
the player opposite the dealer cuts the still pack, and the player on 
his right turns up the top card for the trump. The suit to which 
this card belongs is called First Preference, and the suit of the 
same colour is called Second Preference, or Colour. The 
two remaining suits are known as Plain Suits for that deal. 

The cards having been dealt, and the trump turned, each 
player carefully sorts and counts his cards, to see that he has the 
correct number, thirteen. A player having more or less than his 
right proportion should at once claim a misdeal; for if he plays 
with a defective hand he cannot win anything that deal, but must 
stand his proportion of all losses incurred, besides paying a forfeit 
of four red counters to the pool. 

OBJECTS OF THE GAME. In Boston, each player has 
an opportunity to announce that he is willing to undertake to win 
a certain number of tricks, if allowed the privilege of naming the 
trump suit ; or to lose a certain number, there being no trumps. 
In either case, he proposes to play single-handed against the three 
other players. The player proposing the undertaking which is 
most difficult of accomplishment is said to overcall the others, 
and must be allowed to try. If he is successful, he wins the pool, 
and is paid a certain number of counters by each of his adversa- 
ries. If he fails, he must double the amount in the pool, and pay 
to each of the other players a certain number of counters. 

ANNOUNCEMENTS. The bids rank in the following order, 
beginning with the lowest. The full-faced type shows the words 
used by the players in calling their bids : — 

To win five tricks ; Boston. 

To win Six Tricks. 

To win Seven Tricks. 

To lose twelve tricks, after having discarded a card which is 
not to be shown ; Little Misdre. 

To win Eight Tricks. 

To win Nine Tricks. 

To lose every trick ; Grand Mis&re, 

To win Ten Tricks. 

To win Eleven Tricks. 

To lose twelve tricks, after having discarded a card which is not 
to be shown ; the single player's remaining twelve cards being ex- 
posed face up on the table, but not liable to be called ; Little 
Spread. 

To win Twelve Tricks, 



168 (Boston.) METHOD OF BIDDING. 

To lose every trick ; the single player's cards exposed on the 
table, but not liable to be called ; Grand Spread. 
To win Thirteen Tricks ; Grand Slam, 

The object of the proposing player, if successful in his bid, is to 
win or lose the proposed number of tricks ; while that of his three 
adversaries is to combine to prevent him from so doing. There 
are no honours, and the only factor in the count is the number of 
tricks taken. The highest card played of the suit led wins the 
trick ; and trumps, if any, win against all other suits. 

METHOD OF BIDDING. The eldest hand has the first 
say, and after examining his cards, and estimating the number of 
tricks he can probably take, making the trump to suit his hand, 
he bids accordingly. It is not necessary for him to state which 
suit he wishes to make the trump ; but only the number of tricks 
he proposes to win. If he has no proposal to make, he says dis- 
tinctly ; " I pass,'' and the other players in turn have an oppor- 
tunity to bid. If any player makes a bid, such as six tricks, and 
any other player thinks he can make the same number of tricks 
with a trump of the same colour as the turn-up, that is, Second 
Preference, he overcalls the first bidder by saying *■'' I heep ; " 
or he may repeat the number bid, saying '^ Six here." This 
is simply bidding to win the number of tricks in colour. The 
original caller may hold his bid, or a third player may overbid 
both, by saying; *' I heep over you," or ^'^ Six here." 
This means that he will undertake to win the number of tricks 
already bid, with the turn-up suit for trumps. In order to over- 
call such a bid as this, any other player would have to announce a 
greater number of tricks. For instance ; Z deals, and turns a 
heart. A calls six tricks, intending to name hearts trumps ; but 
not saying so. B passes ; Y says " I Keep." This announces to 
the table that Y will play with a red trump, and A knows he is 
bidding on diamonds. Z passes, and A says ; " I keep over you," 
B then bids seven tricks, and if A will not risk seven tricks in 
hearts, B will be the successful bidder. If A should bid seven 
tricks by keeping over B, the latter must know that it is useless 
for him to bid again unless he can make more tricks in diamonds 
than A can in hearts ; for A's bid, being in first preference, will 
always outrank B's for the same number of tricks. 

A player once having passed cannot come into the bidding again, 
except to call one of the miseres. In the example just given, 
either Y or Z, after having twice passed, might have outbid the seven 
tricks by calling a little misere. Such a bid can, of course, be en- 
tertained only when it outranks any bid already made. 

A player is not compelled to bid the full value of his hand ; but 
it is to his interest to go as near to it as he can with safety ; be- 
cause, as we shall see presently, the more he bids the more he is 
paid. For instance ; If he can make ten tricks, but bids seven 



METHOD OF PLAYING (Boston.) 169 

only, he will be paid for the three over-tricks, if he makes them; 
but the payment for seven bid and ten taken, is only 22 counters ; 
while the payment for ten bid and ten taken is 42, As he receives 
from each adversary, a player who underbid his hand in this man- 
ner would lose 60 counters by his timidity. 

It sometimes happens that no one will make a proposal of any 
sort. It is very unusual to pass the deal. The trump is generally 
turned down, and a Chfand is played, without any trump suit. 
This is sometimes called a Mis^re JPartout, or " all-round pov- 
erty " ; and the object of each player is to take as few tricks as 
possible. 

METHOD OF PLAYING. No matter who is the suc- 
cessful bidder, the eldest hand always leads for the first trick, and 
the others must follow suit if they can, the play proceeding exactly 
as at Whist. The tricks should be carefully stacked, so that they 
can be readily counted by any player without calling attention to 
them. The laws provide a severe penalty for drawing attention to 
the score in this manner. Suppose a player has called eight tricks. 
An adversary hesitates in his play, and another reaches over and 
counts the tricks in front of the caller, finding he has seven. This is 
tantamount to saying to the player who hesitates : " If you don't win 
that trick, the call succeeds." In such a case, the single player may 
at once demand the play of the highest or lowest of the suit ; or 
that the adversaries trump or refrain from trumping the trick. 

In all calls except miseres and slams, the hands should be played 
out, in order to allow the players to make what over-tricks they 
can ; but the moment a misere player takes a trick, or a slam 
player loses one, the hands are thrown up, and the stakes paid. 
It is usual to show the cards to the board, in order to satisfy each 
player that no revoke has occurred. 

When Little Misere is called, each player discards one card, 
which must not be shown, and the hand is then played out with 
the remaining twelve cards. 

When Spreads are called, the caller's cards must be placed face 
upwards on the tible before a card is played. If it is a Little 
Spread, the discard of each player must remain unknown. The 
adversaries have no control of the manner of playing the exposed 
cards, which cannot be called, and may be played in any manner 
suited to the judgment of the single player, provided he follows 
suit when able. 

REVOKES. If a player opposed to the caller revokes, but 
discovers his mistake in time to save himself, he may be called 
upon by the single player for his highest or lowest of the suit led ; 
or the card played in error may be claimed as an exposed card. 
If the highest or lowest of the suit is called, the card played in 
error is taken up. 



170 (Boston.) REVOKES. 

If the caller revokes, and discovers his mistake in time, he is not 
liable to any penalty, unless an adversary has played to the next 
trick. In that case the revoking card must be left on the table, 
and is liable to be called. When the single player revokes, he 
loses the call in any case, and at least one trick besides. He must 
also double the pool, and add to it a revoke forfeit of four red 
counters. For instance : A bids eight tricks, and his adversaries 
detect and claim a revoke. As he is supposed to have lost his 
bid, and one trick more, he may be said to have bid eight, and 
taken only seven ; losing 23 vv^hite counters to each of his adver- 
saries, doubling the pool, and then paying a forfeit of four red 
counters. In some places the forfeit is omitted, and in others it 
takes the place of doubling the pool. It is not usual to play the 
hand out after a revoke is claimed and proved. 

If an adversary of the single player revokes, he and his partners 
must each pay the caller just as if he had been successful, and 
must also pay him for three over-tricks as forfeit, provided his bid 
was not more than nine tricks ; for the bid and the over-tricks 
together must not exceed thirteen tricks. In addition to this, the 
individual player in fault must pay four red counters as forfeit to 
the pool. In some places he is made to double the pool ; but this 
is manifestly unfair, as he could not win the amount in the pool in 
any case, and therefore should not lose it. 

In a Misere Partout, the revoking player pays five red counters 
to each adversary, and deposits a forfeit of four red counters in 
the pool. The hands are immediately thrown up if the revoke is 
claimed and proved. 

CARDS PLAYED IN ERItOIt. The single player is 
not liable to any penalty for cards played in error, or led out of 
turn, except those taken back to save a revoke ; but his adver- 
saries are liable to the usual whist penalties for all such irregular- 
ities. The single player can forbid the use of an exposed trump for 
ruffing, and can demand or prevent the play of an exposed card in 
plain suits, provided he does not ask the adversary to revoke. If 
a suit is led of which an adversary has an exposed card on the 
table, the single player may call upon him to play his highest or 
lowest of that suit. 

If a player has announced Little Misere, and one of the adver- 
saries leads before the others have discarded, the caller may im- 
mediately claim the pool and stakes. If any adversary of a 
misere plaj'er leads out of turn, or exposes a card, or plays 
before his proper turn in any trick, the bidder may at once claim 
the pool and stakes. In all such cases it is usual for the indi- 
vidual in fault to pay a forfeit of four red counters toward the next 
pool. 

In Misere Partout, there is no penalty for cards played in error, 
or led out of turn. 



PAYMENTS. 



(Boston.) 171 



PAYMENTS. If the caller succeeds in winning the pro- 
posed number of tricks, he is paid by each of his adversaries ac- 
cording to the value of his bid, and the number of over-tricks he 
wins, if any. The various payments are shown in this table : — 



Number of tricks bid by- 
player. 


Number actually taken by him. 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


II 


12 


13 


Five 


12 


12 
IS 


13 
16 
18 


20 
23 


14 
17 
21 

24 
32 


14 
18 
22 
26 

34 

42 


14 
19 
23 
28 
36 
45 
63 


IS 
20 
24 
29 

39 

48 

68 

106 


IS 
20 
26 
31 
41 
52 
72 
114 
166 


Six 


Seven 


Eight 


Nine 


Ten 


Eleven 


Twelve 


Thirteen 







The American system is not to pay the successful bidder for 
any over-tricks. This is to make him bid up his hand, and to save 
time ; as hands need not be played out when the bidder has made 
or can show the number of tricks bid. 



Tricks bid | 5 



TO I II I 12 I 13 



Amount. 



I 15 I 20 I 25 I 35 I 45 I 65 I 105 I 170 



If the caller fails in his undertaking, he must pay each adver- 
sary according to the number of tricks by which he failed to reach 
his bid. For instance : A player bidding eight, and taking only 
seven, is said to be '* put in for'' one trick, and he would have 
to pay each adversary 23 white counters. These payments are 
shown in this table : — 



Tricks bid 
by the 
player. 


Number of tricks by which the player falls short of 1 


lis declaration. 


I 


2 


3 


4 


S 


6 


7 


8 


9 


ID 


II 


12 


13 


Five 

Six 

Seven.. .. 
Eight. . . . 

Nine 

Ten ... . 
Eleven. . . 
Twelve . . 
Thirteen.. 


II 

IS 

19 
23 

33 
44 
67 

113 

177 


21 

24 
29 
34 
44 
56 
80 
130 
198 


31 
3S 
40 

46 

S7 
70 

95 
1 48 
222 


41 

45 

56 

68 

82 

109 

165 
241 


5° 
55 
60 

67 
82 

94 

Ml 

262 


66 

72 

78 

92 

107 

138 
200 
284 


82 

89 

103 

119 

151 

217 

305 


flO 

115 
132 

165 
234 
326 


127 

145 
180 
252 
348 


157 
194 
270 
369 


208 
286 
390 


304 
412 


433 



172 (Boston.) 



PAYMENTS. 



We give the same table reduced to the American decimal sys- 
tem, in which form it is commonly found in the clubs. It may 
be remarked in passing that the table is very illogical and in- 
consistent, the payments bearing no relation to the probabilities of 
the events. Some of them provide for impossibilities, unless the 
player has miscalled the trump suit, and is held to it, but we have 
no authority to change them. 



Tricks 


Number of tricks bidder is "put in for." 


bid. 


I 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


ID 1 II 


12 


13 


Five 

Six 

Seven.. . . 
Eight.... 

Nine 

Ten 

Eleven. . . 
Twelve . . 
Thirteen.. 


ID 

15 
20 

25 

35 

45 

70 

120 

180 


20 

25 

30 

35 

45 

^5 
80 

130 
200 


30 
35 
40 

45 
55 
70 

95 
145 
220 


40 
45 
50 

l\ 

80 

IlOf 

160 
240 


5° 

IJ 

70 

80 

95 

125 

180 

260 


65 

70 

85 

95 

no 

140 

200 
280 


80 
100 
no 
125 
155 
220 
300 


"5 
125 
140 
170 
240 
320 


140 
155 

260 
340 


170 
200 
280 
360 


220 
300 
390 


320 
420 


450 



If a misere is bid, the caller wins from, or loses to each adver- 
sary according to the following table, there being no over-tricks : — 



Little Misere, 
Grand Misere, 
Little Spread, 
Grand Spread, 



20 white counters. 

40 white counters. 

80 white counters. 

160 white counters. 



It may be observed that each of these is twice the amount of the 
next lower. 

When misere partout is played, the person winning the largest 
number of tricks is the only loser, and he must pay each of the 
other players the difference between the number of his tricks and 
theirs in red counters. The number of red counters lost will al- 
ways be found to be three times the number of tricks taken, minus 
the number of tricks not taken. For instance : A wins 4 tricks, 
three times which is 12 ; from which he deducts 9, the number he 
did not take, and finds his loss to be 3 red counters. Again ; A 
wins 7 tricks ; three times which is 21 ; minus 6 tricks not taken, a 
net loss of 15. No matter in what proportion the other tricks may 
be divided between the three other players, this total payment will 
always be found correct. For instance : A wins 6 tricks ; Y 2 ; 
B 5 ; and Z none. A loses 6 x 3 = 18 — 7 = 11, of which he 
gives 4 to Y ; 1 to B ; and 6 to Z. 



WINNING THE POOL. (Boston.) 173 

If two players tie for the greatest number of tricks taken, they 
calculate their losses in the same manner ; but each pays only half 
the total. For instance : A and Y each take 5 tricks ; B taking i, 
and Z 2. The 7 red counters lost by A and Y being divided, 
shows a loss of 35 white counters for each of them. If three 
players take four tricks apiece, they each pay the fourth man a 
red counter. 

WINNING THE FOOL. Besides the white counters 
won and lost by the players individually, the successful caller 
takes the pool, provided he has made a bid of seven tricks or bet- 
ter, which is called a pool hid. Any lower bid does not entitle 
him to the pool, unless the other players compel him to play the 
hand out. In order to save the pool, it is usual for the adver- 
saries, before playing to the second trick, to say : "I pay." If 
all agree to pay, the bidder must accept the amount of his bid 
without any over-tricks, and the pool is not touched. If a player 
has made a pool bid, and the adversaries, before playing to the 
second trick, agree to pay, they cannot prevent the caller from 
taking the pool; but they save possible over-tricks. The agree- 
ment of the adversaries to pay must be unanimous. 

Misere Partout does not touch the pool. 

If the hand is played out, and the caller fails, he must double 
the pool, whether he has made a pool bid or not. If there is more 
than one pool, he must double the first one, which will of course 
contain the limit. This will simply have the effect of forming an 
additional pool to be played for. 

When there are several pools on the table, a successful caller 
takes any of those that contain the limit. When there is only one 
pool on the table, he must be satisfied with its contents, however 
small. 

At the end of the game, after the twelfth hand has been settled 
for, it is usual to divide the pool or pools equally among the 
players. But sometimes a grand is played without trumps, mak- 
ing a thirteenth hand, and the pool is given to the player winning 
the last trick, 

METHODS OF CHEATING. There being no shuf- 
fling at Boston, and each player having the right to cut the pack, 
the greek must be very skilful who can secure himself any advan- 
tage by having the last cut, unless he has the courage to use 
wedges. But Boston is usually played for such high stakes that it 
naturally attracts those possessing a high degree of skill, and the 
system adopted is usually that of counting down._ The greek will 
watch for a hand in which there is little changing of suits, and 
will note the manner of taking up the cards. The next hand does 
not interest him, as he is busy studying the location of the cards 
in the still pack. When this comes into play on the next deal, he 
will follow every cut, and finally cut for himself so that the de- 



174 (Fontainebleao.) BOSTON. 

sired distribution of the suits shall come about. Even if he fails 
to secure an invincible hand for bidding on himself, he knows so 
nearly the contents of the other hands that he can bid them up, 
and afterwards play against them to great advantage. 

It is unnecessary to say that if a greek can mark the cards, the 
game becomes a walkover, even if he can recollect only the hand 
on his left. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD FLAY. Boston so 
closely resembles Solo Whist in such matters as bidding, and play- 
ing single-handed against three others, that the reader may be 
referred to that game for the outlines of the principles that should 
guide him in estimating the probable value of his hand, playing 
for tricks or for miseres, and combining forces with his partners 
for the purpose of defeating the single player. 

For laws, see Whist Family Laws. 



BOSTON DE FONTAINEBLEAU. 

This game is sometimes, but incorrectly, called French Bostoa 
The latter will be described in its proper place. 

CARDS. Boston de Fontaineblean is played with a full pack 
of fifty-two cards. Two packs are generally used. The cards 
rank as at Whist, both for cutting and playing. 

MARKERS are not used, counters taking their place. 
These are usually of the colours and values, and are distributed 
among the players as already described in Boston. 

STAKES. As a guide in settling upon the unit value, it may 
be noted that the largest amount possible to win or lose on a 
single hand is 2,400 white counters ; the smallest amount being 
30, The average is about 300. 

THE FOOL. In addition to the counters won or lost on 
each hand, a pool is formed by each dealer in his turn placing five 
counters in a small tray provided for the purpose. This pool may 
be increased by penalties, etc., and the whole amount may be won 
under certain conditions, as at Boston. There is no limit to the 
amount of a single pool. 

FLAYERS. The number of players, methods of Cutting, 
Dealing f etc., are the same as those already described in connec- 
tion with Boston, except that no trump is turned for first prefer- 
ence, the suits always having a determined rank ; diamonds being 
first, hearts next, then clubs, and last spades. No-trump, or 
"grand," outranks diamonds. 

Twelve deals is a game ; after which the players cut out if there 



ANNOUNCEMENTS. (Fontainebleau.) 175 

are more than four belonging to the table, or if other candidates 
are waiting to play. 

PENALTIESf for playing with more or less than the proper 
number of cards, etc., are the same as at Boston. 

OBJECTS OF THE GAME. These are identical with 
Boston, but instead of doubling the pool, the player who is unsuc- 
cessful in his undertaking pays into the pool the same amount that 
he loses to each of the other players. 

ANNOUNCEMENTS. The bids rank in the order fol- 
lowing ; beginning with the lowest. The full-faced type show the 
words used by the players in calling their bids. It will be noticed 
that the order is not the same as in Boston, and that an additional 
bid is introduced, called Piccolissimo. 

To win 5 tricks, Boston. 

To win Six Tricks. 

To lose 12 tricks, after having discarded a card which is not to 
be shown ; Little Mls^re. 

To win Seven Tricks, 

To win one trick, neither more nor less, after having discarded 
a card which is not to be shown, there being no trump suit ; JPic- 
colissinio. 

To win Eight Tricks. 

To lose every trick, no trump suit. Grand 3Iis^re. 

To win Nine Tricks. 

To lose 12 tricks, after having discarded a card which is not to 
be shown ; the single player's remaining twelve cards being ex- 
posed face up on the table, but not liable to be called ; Little 
Spread. 

To win Ten Tricks. 

To lose every trick, no trump suit, the single player's cards being 
exposed on the table, but not liable to be called ; Grand 
Spread. 

To win Eleven Tricks, 

To win Twelve Tricks, 

To win 13 tricks ; Slam, 

To win 1 3 tricks, the single player's cards exposed face up on 
the table, but not liable to be called ; Spread Slam. 

The object of the bidder, if successful in securing the privilege 
of playing, is to win or lose the proposed number of tricks, against 
the combined efforts of his adversaries. Having once made a bid, 
he must play it unless he is over-called. 

METHOD OF BIDDING. The eldest hand has the 
first say, and after examining his hand, and deciding on the bid 
most appropriate to it, if any, he makes his announcement. If 
his proposal is to win a certain number of tricks with a certain 



176 (Fontainebleau.) METHOD OF BIDDING. 

suit for trumps, he must name the suit, saying, " Eight Spades," 
or " Seven Diamonds," as the case may be. If he proposes to 
play without any trump suit, he announces, " Seven Grand," or 
whatever the number may be. Such a bid overcalls one of the 
same number in diamonds. If the eldest hand has no proposal to 
make, he says, " I pass," and the others in turn have an opportu- 
nity to bid. The bids outrank one another according to their order 
in the foregoing table, and the rank of the suits in which they are 
made. The players bid against one another, until all but one de- 
clare to pass, he then becomes the single player against the three 
others. 

A player having once passed cannot come into the bidding 
again, even to call a misere. In this respect the game differs 
from Boston. A player is not compelled to bid the full value 
of his hand, but it is to his interest to do so, and he should 
make the full announcement the first time he bids ; because if 
he has had a good hand for ten tricks, and begins with a bid 
of seven, he cannot increase his proposal unless some player bids 
over him. 

PARTNERS. Before playing, the successful bidder may 
call for a partner if he chooses to do so. The player accepting 
him undertakes that the two together shall win three tricks more 
than the number bid. For instance : A has successfully bid seven 
in diamonds, and asks for a partner. If Y accepts him, they make 
no change in their positions at the table, but play into each other's 
hands, just as at Solo Whist, B and Z being partners against them. 
A and Y together must win ten tricks, with diamonds for trumps. 

If no one makes a proposal of any sort, Misere Partoiit is 
played ; there being no trump suit. The player or players taking 
the least number of tricks win or divide the pool. There are no 
other losses or gains in Misere Partout. 

HONOURS. In any call in which there is a trump suit, the 
A K Q and J of trumps are honours, and may be counted by the suc- 
cessful bidder if he carries out his proposal. If the single player, 
or a caller and his partner have all four honours dealt them, they 
score as for four over-tricks ; if three, as for two over-tricks. 
Honours do not count for the adversaries under any circumstances. 

In bidding on a hand, it must be remembered that although 
honours will count as over-tricks in payments, they cannot be bid 
on. If a player has nine tricks and two by honours in his hand, he 
cannot bid eleven. If he bids nine and fails to make so many, he 
cannot count the honours at all. It is growing less and less the 
custom to count honours in America. 

A player making a bid can be compelled to play it ; but it is 
usual to allow him to pay instead of playing, if he proposes to do 
so, either because he has overbid his hand or for any other 
reason. 



PA YMENTS. 



(Fontainebleau.) 177 



METHOD OF PLAYIN^G. No matter who is the 
successful bidder, the eldest hand always leads for the first trick, 
and the others must follow suit if they can, the play proceeding 
exactly as in Whist. Tricks should be carefully stacked, there 
being the same penalties as in Boston for calling attention to the 
ecore. The methods of playing miseres and spreads have already 
been described in connection with Boston. When piccolissimo is 
played, the moment the single player takes more than one trick 
the hands are thrown up, and the stakes paid. 

REVOKES. The rules governing these and cards played in 
error, are the same as at Boston. In piccolissimo, the penalties 
are the same as in misere. 

PAYMENTS, If the caller succeeds in winning the pro- 
posed number of tricks, he is paid by each of his adversaries 
according to the value of his bid, as shown in Table No. i. Over- 
tricks, if any, and honours, if played, are always paid at the uniform 
rate of five white counters each. If the caller fails, he must pay 
each adversary the amount he would have won if successful, with 
the addition of five white counters for every trick that he falls 
short of his proposal. For instance : He bids nine hearts, and 
wins six tricks only. He must pay each adversary 115 white 
counters. 





TABLE 


No. I. 










No 
trump. 


The trump being 


Extra 
tricks. 




«^ 


^ 





Boston, five tricks 




10 
30 

50 

70 

90 

no 

130 
150 
400 
600 


20 

40 

60 

80 

100 

120 

140 
160 
450 
700 


30 
50 

70 

90 

1 10 

130 

150 
170 
500 
800 




Six tricks 




Little misere 

Seven tricks 


75 


Piccolissimo 

Eight tricks 


100 


Grand misere 

Nine tricks 


150 


Little spread 

Ten tricks 


200 


Grand spread 

Eleven tricks 


250 


Twelve tricks 




Slam, thirteen tricks. . . . 




Spread slam 





178 (Fontainebleau,) THE POOL. 



TABLE No. 2. 
In America, the last two items are usually reduced, and are 
given as follows : — 



Slam, thirteen tricks . 
Spread slam 



4k 4k 

250 
350 



300 
400 



350 
450 



Why a player should be paid more for spreads than for eleven 
or twelve tricks while the trick bid outranks the spreads, is diffi- 
cult to understand ; but we have no authority to change the tables. 

Misere Partout wins nothing but the pool. 

If partners play, it is usual for the losers to pay the adversaries 
on their right ; or, if partners sit together, to pay the adversary 
sitting next. 

THE POOL. Besides the white counters won and lost by 
the players individually, the successful player takes the pool. Suc- 
cessful partners divide it equally, regardless of the number of 
tricks bid or taken by each. If the partners fail, they must con- 
tribute to the pool an amount equal to that which they pay to one 
adversary. For instance : A calls seven diamonds, and asks for 
a partner. Y accepts him, and the pair win only nine tricks. 
Each pays 135 counters to the adversary sitting next him, and then 
they make up 135 more between them for the pool. 

Asking for a partner is not a popular variation of the game, 
and is seldom resorted to unless the successful bid is very low, or 
has been made on a black suit. 

If the adversaries of the caller declare to pay, before playing to 
the second trick, they can save nothing but possible overtricks. 
The pool goes with every successful play. 

If the single player is unsuccessful, he does not double the pool, 
as in Boston, but pays into it the same amount that he loses to 
each adversary, overtricks and all ; so that he really loses four 
times the amount shown in the table. 

At the end of the game, or on the twelfth hand, if the caller 
does not succeed, he pays the pool as usual, and his adversaries 
then divide it amongst themselves. 

The Suggestions for Good Play, etc., are given in connec- 
tion with Solo Whist and need no further amplification for 
Boston de Fontainbleau. 

The Laws vary so little from those used in the regular game 
of Boston that it is not necessary to give an additional code, either 
for Fontainbleau or for French Boston, which follows. 



(French Boston.) 179 

FRENCH BOSTON. 

CARDS* French Boston is played with a full pack of fifty- 
two cards, which rank as at Whist, both for cutting and playing ; 
except that the diamond Jack is always the best trump unless dia- 
monds are turned up, in which case the heart Jack becomes the 
best trump, and the diamond Jack ranks next below the diamond 
Queen. 

COUNTERS are used as in Boston, their value being a 
matter of agreement before play begins. 

THE POOL is made up by the dealer's contributing ten 
counters for the first eight rounds, and twenty for the last two. It 
is increased from time to time by penalties, and is won or lost by 
the players, just as in Boston. There is no limit to the pool. If 
any player objects to dividing it at the end of the game, it must 
be played for until some player wins it. 

PLAYERS. The number of players, their arrangement at 
the table, etc., is precisely the same as at Boston. 

CUTTING. Instead of cutting for the first deal, any one of 
the players takes a pack of cards, and gives thirteen to each player 
in succession, face up. The player to whom he gives the diamond 
Jack deals the first hand, and has the choice of seats and cards. 
The others sit as they please. 

DEALING, The cards are shuffled before every deal. The 
player on the left of the dealer cuts, and cards are given first to 
the player on the dealer's right, dealing from right to left. The 
cards may be dealt one at a time, or three at a time, or four at a 
time, always dealing the last round singly, and turning up the 
last card. A misdeal loses the deal. Other irregularities are 
governed by the same laws as in Boston. 

The deal passes to the right, and the next dealer is indicated by 
the position of the tray containing the pool, which the dealer al- 
ways passes to the player on his right, after putting in his ten or 
twenty counters. 

Forty deals is a game ; the first thirty-two of which are called 
"simples," and the last eight " doubles." In the doubles, all stakes 
and contributions to the pool are doubled. If anything remains in 
the pool at the end, it is divided equally, unless a player demands 
that it shall be played for until won. Such extra deals are simples. 

RANK OF THE SUITS. The suit turned on the first 
deal is called " belle " for that game. The suit turned on each 
succeeding deal is called " petite." If belle turns up again, there 
is no petite for that deal. The suits are not first and second 
preference, as in Boston, but are used only to determine the value 
of the payments, and to settle which suits partners must name for 
trumps-. The rank of the suits is permanent, as in Boston de Fon.« 



180 (French Boston.) ANNOUNCEMENTS. 

tainbleau, but the order is, hearts, diamonds, clubs, and spades ; 
hearts being highest. In France, the suits rank in this order in 
Boston de Fontainbleau, but in America diamonds outrank hearts. 

OBJECTS OF THE GAME. Each player in turn has 
an opportunity to announce that he is willing to undertake to win 
a certain number of tricks, if allowed the privilege of naming the 
trump suit ; or to lose a certain number, there being no trump 
suit. If he proposes to play alone, he may select any suit for 
trumps ; but if he takes a partner the trump suit must be belle or 
petite. The announcements outrank each other in certain order, 
and the player making the highest must be allowed to play. If he 
succeeds in his undertaking, he wins the pool, and is also paid a 
certain number of counters by each of his adversaries. If he fails, 
he must double the pool, and pay each of his adversaries. The 
table of payments will be given later. 

ANNOUNCEMENTS. The proposals rank in the order 
following, beginning with the lowest. The French terms are 
given in italics : — 

Five tricks ; or eight with a partner, in petite. Simple in 
petite. 

Five tricks ; or eight with a partner, in belle. Simple in belle. 

Six tricks solo, in any suit. Petite independence. 

Little misere. Petite misere. 

Eight tricks solo in any suit. Grand independence. 

Grand misere. Grand misere, or inisdre sans ecarf, 

Misere with four aces. Misere des quatre as. 

Nine tricks in any suit. Neiif. 

Nine tricks in petite. Neiif en petite. 

Nine tricks in belle. Neiif en beUe. 

Little spread. Petite misere sur table. * 

Grand spread. Grand misdre sur table, 

METHOD OF BIDDING. The player to the right of 
the dealer has the first say. If he proposes to take a partner as in 
Solo Whist, he says, " Je demande," at the same time placing one 
of his cards face downward on the table. This card must not be 
shown or named, but must be of the suit which he proposes to 
make the trump. He is not allowed to announce the suit, so that 
any player accepting him as a partner does so in ignorance as to 
whether he will play in belle or in petite. If the demand is accepted, 
the proposer and his partner make no change in their positions 
at the table, but must make eight tricks, just as in Solo Whist. 

If a player cannot propose, he says : " Je passe," and -each of 
the others in turn from right to left have the opportunity to make 
aproposal. When any player proposes, any player in turn after 
him may accept, although such a one may have already passed. 
If the fourth player proposes, the three others having passed, and 
no one will accept him he is bound to play solo against three such 



METEOD OF BIDDING. (French Boston.) 181 

weak adversaries, and must make five tricks, either in belle or in 
petite. He is not allowed to play in a plain suit if he has made a 
simple " demand." 

The only solo bids allowed are those for six, eight, or nine tricks, 
which outrank one another, A player cannot bid seven to overcall 
six ; he must go to eight ; and a player cannot hid five tricks with- 
out a partner, although, as we have just seen, he may be forced to 
play in that manner. 

When six, eight, or nine tricks are bid, the suits outrank one 
another for equal numbers of tricks ; but as the suit called need not 
be the bidder's true intention, nor the same as the card laid on the 
table, the proposer must be careful that his play will be as good as 
his bid. For instance : He intends nine tricks in spades, but pro- 
poses eight in diamonds. He cannot bid nine in diamonds, for 
that would be a better bid than he intends to play ; but the ruse 
may succeed in inducing a player not to bid against him, hoping 
diamonds is the true suit. It is a common artifice to bid the 
true suit, because few will believe it to be such. 

If clubs are belle, and diamonds petite, and a player who 
" demands " is over-called by a demand in belle, or a call of six 
tricks, the first caller cannot advance his bid to six tricks except in 
the suit which he has already laid on the table ; but he may accept 
the player over-calling him, instead of bidding against him. After 
a player has once accepted or passed, he cannot bid misere. 

If no one makes a proposition of any kind, the hands are thrown 
up ; the next dealer contributes to the pool, and a fresh hand is dealt. 

METHOD OF FLAYING. As in Boston, the eldest 
hand has the first lead, and the others must follow suit if they can, 
except in the misere des quatre as. When this is played, the bid- 
der may renounce at pleasure for the first ten tricks. 

GATHERING TMICKS, When a partnership is formed, 
each gathers the tricks he takes. If the partnership loses, the one 
who has not his complement of tricks must pay the adversaries 
and double the pool. If the demander has not five, and the ac- 
ceptor has three, the demander pays. If the proposer has five, 
and the acceptor has not three, the acceptor pays ; but they both 
win if they have eight tricks between them, no matter in what 
proportion. If neither has taken his proper share, they must both 
pay. When they are successful, they divide the pool. 

SLAMS. If a player has demanded, and not been accepted, 
and has been forced to play alone for five tricks, but wins eight, it 
is called a slam. But as he did not wish to play alone, his only 
payment, besides the pool, is 24 counters from each player if he 
played in petite ; 48 if in belle ; double those amounts if the deal 
was one of the last eight in the game. 

If two partners make a slam, thirteen tricks, they take the pool, 
and receive from each adversary 24 counters if they played in 



182 (French Boston.) PAYMENTS. 



petite ; 48 if in belle ; double if in one of the last eight hands in the 
game, 

EXPOSED CABnS. The laws governing these are al- 
most identical with those in Boston, with the additional rule that a 
player allowing a card to fall upon the table face up before play 
begins, can be forced to play independence in that suit. 

REVOKES. The individual player who is detected in a re- 
voke must double the pool, and pay both adversaries. 

PAYMENTS. Payments are made according to the table. 
The player holding diamond Jack receives two counters from each 
of the other players in a simple ; four in a double ; except in 
miseres, in which the card has no value. 

Miseres are paid for according to the trump turned in the deal 
in which they are played. If a heart is turned, and little misere is 
played, the payment is 64 counters to or from each player. If a 
spade was turned, the payment would be 16 only. 

Three honours between partners count as three ; four as four. 
Being all in one hand does not increase their value. 



The Bid. 


♦ 


« 





^ 


S Five tricks alone, ) 

( or partners' 8. \ 

Three honours 


4 

3 
4 

I 


8 

6 
8 

2 


12 

9 
12 

3 


16 

12 

16 

4 


Four honours 


Each extra trick 


^ Six tricks, or petite ) 
\ independence. ] 
Three honours 


6 

4 
6 
2 


12 

8 
12 

4 


18 

12 

18 

6 


24 

16 

24 
8 


Four honours 


Each extra trick 




S Eight tricks, or grand ) 
\ independence. f * 
Three honours 


8 

6 
8 

4 


16 

12 

16 

8 


24 

18 

24 
12 


32 
24 
32 
16 


Four honours 


Each extra trick 




Petite misere 


16 

32 
32 
64 

50 
100 
200 


32 
64 
64 
128 
100 
200 
400 


48 
96 
96 
192 
150 
300 
600 


64 
128 
128 
256 
200 
400 
800 


Grand misere 


Misere de quatre as 

Misere sur table 

Slam k deux (partners). . . 

Slam seul (alone) 

Slam sur table 





(German Whist.) 183 

RUSSIAN BOSTON. 

This is a variation of Boston de Fontainbleau. A player hold- 
ing carte blanche declares it before playing, and receives ten 
counters from each of the other players. Carte blanche is the 
same thing as chicane in Bridge, no trump in the hand. But in 
Bridge the player is penalized for announcing it until after the 
hand is played. 

The order of the suits is the same as in American Boston de 
Fontainbleau ; diamonds, hearts, clubs, and spades. 

When a player bids six, seven, or eight tricks, he is supposed to 
be still willing to take a partner, unless he specifies solo. When a 
partner accepts him, the combination must make four tricks more 
than the original proposal. 

Four honours are paid for as four over-tricks ; three honours as 
two over-tricks. 

Piccolissimo is played, and comes between the bids of seven and 
eight tricks. 



GERMAN WHIST. 

CARDS. German Whist is played with a full pack of fifty- 
two cards, which rank as at Whist, both for cutting and playing. 

PLAYEjRS. Two persons play. They cut for the first 
deal, and the choice of seats. 

DEALING. The dealer presents the pack to his adversary 
to be cut, and then gives thirteen cards to each player, one at a 
time, turning up the twenty-seventh card for the trump, and lay- 
ing it on the talon, or remainder of the pack. 

PLAYING. The non-dealer begins by leading any card he 
pleases, and his adversary must follow suit if he can. The 
winner of the first trick takes the trump card into his hand, and 
his adversary takes the card immediately under it, but without 
showing or naming it. Each player thus restores the number of 
cards in his hand to thirteen. The card which is now on the top 
of the talon is turned up, and the winner of the next trick must 
take it, his adversary taking the one under it, as before, and turn- 
ing up the next. In this manner it will be seen that the winner of 
each trick must always get a card which is known to his adver- 
sary, while the loser of the trick gets one which remains unknown. 

When the talon is exhausted, the thirteen cards in each hand 
should be known to both players if they have been observant, and 
the end game becomes a problem in double dummy. 



184 (Chinese Wliist.) GERMAN WHIST. 

STAKES. The game is usually played for so much a point 
the player having won the majority of the tricks receiving the dif. 
ference betw^een the number of his tricks and those of his adver- 
sary. Each game is complete in one hand. 

In many respects the game resembles single-handed Hearts, ex- 
cept that in Hearts none of the cards drawn are shown. 



CHINESE WHIST. 

CARDS* Chinese Whist is played with a full pack of fifty- 
two cards, which rank as at Whist, both for cutting and playing. 

MAMKERS. Ordinary whist markers are used for scoring 
the points. 

PLAYERS. Two, three or four persons can play Chinese 
Whist. When three play, the spade deuce is thrown out of the 
pack. Partners and deal are cut for from an outspread pack, as 
at Whist, 

POSITION OF THE PLA TERS. When four play, the 
partners sit opposite each other. When three play, the one cut- 
ting the lowest card chooses his seat, and dictates the positions of 
the two other players, 

DEALINCr, When four play, the pack is shuffled and cut 
as at Whist. The dealer then gives six cards to each player, one 
at a time, beginning on his left. These six cards are then spread 
face down on the table in front of the players to whom they have 
been dealt, but without being looked at. Six more are then dealt 
to each, one at a time, and these are turned face up, and sorted 
into suits. They are then laid face up on the top of the six cards 
which are lying on the table face down, so as to cover them. The 
last four cards are then dealt, one to each player, These last are 
retained in the hand, and must not be shown or named ; they are 
usually called the ^^ down cards." 

MAKING THE TRUMP. After examining the cards 
exposed on the table, and the down card in his own hand, the 
dealer has the privilege of naming any suit he pleases for trumps. 
No consultation with partner is allowed. 

METHOD OF PLAYING. The player to the left of 
the dealer begins by leading any one of his exposed cards, 
and the others must follow suit if they can ; either with one of 
their exposed cards, or with their down cards. A player having 
none of the suit led may either discard or trump. The highest 
card played of the suit led wins the trick, and trumps win all other 



SUGGESTIONS. (Chinese Whist.) 185 

suits. The side winning the trick takes it in and arranges it just 
as at Whist. Before leading for the next trick all cards which 
have been uncovered are turned face up. If any person has 
played his down card he will have no card to turn up, none having 
been uncovered. The cards cannot under any circumstances be 
shifted from their original positions. If a player has five cards 
face up, covering five cards face down, he cannot shift one of the 
exposed cards to the empty sixth place, and uncover another card. 
All covering cards must be got rid of in the course of play. 

PENALTIES for revokes, cards led out of turn, etc., are 
the same as at Whist. 

OBJECTS OF THE GAME. As in Whist, the object is to 
win tricks, all above six counting one point toward game. Five, 
seven, or ten points may be made the game, at the option of the 
players, but ten is the usual number. Honours are not counted 
except by agreement. 

STAKES. It is usual to play for so much a point or a game. 
If points are played, the loser's score must be deducted from the 
winner's, and the difference is the value of the game won. 

WHEN THREE PLA Y, eight cards are dealt to each per- 
son, and arranged face down ; then eight more, arranged face up, 
and then one to each for down cards. There are no partnerships ; 
each plays for himself against the others. 

WHEN TWO PLAT, twelve cards are dealt to each player, 
and arranged face down ; then twelve more, arranged face up, and 
then two down cards to each. It is usual to deal all the cards two 
at a time. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD PLAY. Chinese Whist 
very closely resembles Dummy, and the chief element of success is 
the skilful use of tenace. Memory also plays an important part, it 
being especially necessary to remember what cards are still un- 
played in each suit. While the down cards are held a player can- 
not be sure of taking a trick by leading a card higher than any his 
adversary has exposed, because one of the down cards may be 
better. If a player is short of trumps, but has as many and better 
than those of his adversary, it is often good play to lead and draw 
the weaker trumps before the adversary turns up higher ones to 
protect them. For instance : One player may have lo 8, and his 
adversary the 9 alone. If the 10 is led the 9 will probably be 
caught, unless one of the adverse down cards is better. If the 10 
is not led the adversary may turn up an honour, and will then have 
major tenace over the 10 and 8. 

The end game always offers some interesting problems for 
solution by the exper.t in tenace position, and in placing the lead. 



186 (Whist.) 

WmST FAMILY LAWS. 

While the code of laws drawn up by the American Whist 
League, and hnally approved and adopted at the Third Con- 
gress, [in Chicago, June 20th to 24th, 1893,] refers exclusively to 
the parent game of Whist, its general provisions equally apply to 
all members of the whist family of games. The author believes it 
will save much repetition and confusion to interlineate the excep- 
tions which are necessary in order to cover the special features of 
such important variations as Boston, Cayenne, and Solo Whist. 
Where no exceptions are made, the law apphes equally to these 
games and to Whist. The unnumbered paragraphs show the in- 
serted laws. 

It is a common practice for the framers of laws to insert rules 
which are simply descriptive of the manner of play. The author 
believes in adhering to the proper definition of a law, which is a 
rule carrying with it some penalty for its infraction, or defining the 
rights of individual players. Such a statement as that the Dummy 
player may not overlook his adversary's hand is not a law, because 
there is no penalty if he does so. 

The author is not responsible for the peculiar grammar employed 
in both the American and English Laws. 

THE GAME. 

I. A game consists of seven points, each trick above six count- 
ing one. The value of the game is determined by deducting the 
k iers' score from seven. 

In Boston, the game is finished in twelve deals. 

In Cayetitie, a game consists of ten points, each trick 
above six counting towards game according to the table of 
values. Honours and Slams also count towards game. Every 
hand must be played out, and all points made in excess of 
the ten required to win the game are counted on the next 
game ; so that it is possible to win two or three games in 
one hand. In Nullo, every trick over the book is counted by 
the adversaries. Players cannot count out by honours alone ; 
they must win the odd trick or stop at the score of nine. 
If one side goes out by cards, the other cannot score honours. 
The rubber is won by the side that first wins four games of 
ten points each. The value of the rubber is determined by 
adding 8 points to the winners' score for tricks, honours, and 
slams, and then deducting the score of the losers. 

In Solo Whist, the game is complete in one deal, and 
the value of it is determined by the player's success or failure 
in his undertaking, and must be settled for at the end of the 
hand, according to the table of payments. 



AMERICAN LAWS. (Whist.) 187 

FORMING THE TABLE, 

2. Those first in the room have the preference. If, by reason 
of two or more arriving at the same time, more than four assem- 
ble, the preference among the last comers is determined by cutting, 
a lower cut giving the preference over all cutting higher. A com- 
plete table consists of six ; the four having the preference play. 
Partners are determined by cutting ; the highest two play against 
the lowest two ; the lowest deals and has the choice of seats and 
cards. 

In Soston and in Solo Whist, a table is complete with 
four players. In cutting for positions at the table, the lowest 
has the choice of seats and cards, and the two highest sit op- 
posite each other. 

3. If two players cut intermediate cards of equal value, they 
cut again ; the lower of the new cut plays with the original lowest. 

4. If three players cut cards of equal value, they cut again. If 
the fourth has cut the highest card, the two lowest of the new cut 
are partners, and the lowest deals. If the fourth has cut the low- 
est card, he deals, and the two highest of the new cut are partners. 

5. At the end of a game, if there are more than four belonging 
to the table, a sufficient number of the players retire to admit those 
awaiting their turn to play. In determining which players remain 
in, those who have played a less number of consecutive games 
have the preference over all who have played a greater number ; 
between two or more who have played an equal number, the 
preference is determined by cutting, a lower cut giving the prefer- 
ence over all cutting higher. 

In Boston, Cayenne, and Solo Whist, at the end of a 
game a new table must be formed, those already in having no 
preference over fresh candidates. 

6. To entitle one to enter a table, he must declare his intention 
to do so before any one of the players has cut for the purpose of 
commencing a new game or of cutting out. 

In Boston, Cayenne, and Solo Whist, this rule does 
not apply. 

CUTTING. 

7. In cutting, the ace is the lowest card. All must cut from 
the same pack. If a player exposes more than one card, he must 
iut again. Drawing cards from the outspread pack may be re- 
sorted to in place of cutting. 

SHUFFLING. 

8. Before every deal, the cards must be shuffled. When two 
packs are used, the dealer's partner must collect and shuffle the 
cards for the ensuing deal and place them at his right hand. In 
all cases the dealer may shuffle last. 



188 (Whist.) AMERICAN LAWS. 

In Boston and in Cayenne, two packs must be used ; 
and in Boston there must be no shuffling of either pack after 
the first deal. 
9. A pack must not be shuffled during the play of a hand, nor 
so as to expose the face of any card. 

CUTTING TO THE DEALER. 

ID. The dealer must present the pack to his right hand adver- 
sary to be cut ; the adversary must take a portion from the top of 
the pack and place it toward the dealer ; at least four cards must 
be left in each packet ; the dealer must reunite the packets by 
placing the one not removed in cutting upon the other. 

11. If, in cutting or reuniting the separate packets, a card is 
exposed, the pack must be reshuffled by the dealer, and cut again ; 
if there is any confusion of the cards, or doubt as to the place where 
the pack was separated, there must be a new cut. 

In Boston, the pack must be cut again ; but not shuffled. 

12. If the dealer reshuffles the pack after it has been properly 
cut, he loses his deal. 

In Boston, Cayenne, and Solo Whist, the misdealer 
must deal again. 

DEALING. 

13. When the pack has been properly cut and reunited, the 
dealer must distribute the cards, one at a time, to each player in 
regular rotation, beginning at his left. The last, which is the 
trump card, must be turned up before the dealer. At the end of 
the hand, or when the deal is lost, the deal passes to the player 
next to the dealer on his left, and so on to each in turn. 

In Solo Whist, the cards are distributed three at a time 
until only four remain in the pack. These are dealt one at 
a time, and the last turned up for trump. 

In Boston and in Cayenne, the cards are dealt four at a 
time for two rounds, and then five at a time. No trump is 
turned. After the cards have been dealt the player opposite 
the dealer presents the still pack to be cut by the player on 
the dealer's left, and the top card of the portion left on the 
table is turned up. 

In Boston, Cayenne, or Solo Whist, the deal is never 
lost. The same dealer deals again with the same pack. 

14. There must be a new deal by the same dealer : — 

I. If any card except the last is faced in the pack. 

II. If, during the deal or during the play of the hand, the 

pack is proved incorrect or imperfect; but any prior 
score made with that pack shall stand. 



AMERICAN LAWS. (Wfiist.) 189 

15. If, during the deal, a card is exposed, the side not in fault 
may demand a new deal, provided neither of that side has touched 
a card. If a new deal does not take place, the exposed card is not 
liable to be called. 

16. Any one dealing out of turn, or with his adversaries' pack, 
may be stopped before the trump card is turned, after which the 
deal is valid, and the packs, if changed, so remain. 

In Boston and Cayenne^ the dealer must be stopped be- 
fore the last card is dealt. 

MISDEALING. 

17. It is a misdeal : — 

I. If the dealer omits to have the pack cut, and his adver- 

saries discover the error before the trump card is 
turned, and before looking at any of their cards. 

II. If he deals a card incorrectly, and fails to correct the 

error before dealing another. 

III. If he counts the cards on the table or in the re- 

mainder of the pack . 

IV. If, having a perfect pack, he does not deal to each 

player the proper number of cards, and the error is 
discovered before all have played to the first trick. 

V. If he looks at the trump card before the deal is com- 

pleted. 

VI. If he places the trump card face downward upon 

his own or any other player's cards. 
A misdeal loses the deal, unless, during the deal, either of the 
adversaries touches a card or in any other manner interrupts the 
dealer. 

In Boston, Cayenne, and Solo Whist, the misdealer 
deals again with the same cards. In Boston he forfeits a red 
counter to the pool for his error. 

THE TRUMP CARD. 

18. The dealer must leave the trump card face upward on the 
table until it is his turn to play to the first trick ; if it is left on the 
table until after the second trick has been turned and quitted, it is 
liable to be called. After it has been lawfully taken up, it must 
not be named, and any player naming it is liable to have his high- 
est or his lowest trump called by either adversary. A player may, 
however, ask what the trump suit is. 

This law does not apply to Boston, or Cayenne. 

In Boston and in Cayenne, no trump is turned, but a 
card is cut from the still pack to determine the rank of the 
suits. See Law 13. 

In Cayenne, the trump suit must be named by the dealer 
or his partner after they have examined their cards. The 



190 (Whist.) AMERICAN LAWS. 

dealer has the first say, and he may select any of the four suits, 
or he may announce " grand," playing for the tricks without 
any trump suit. In Cayenne, he may announce "nullo," play- 
ing to take as few tricks as possible, there beiiig no trump suit. 
If the dealer makes his choice, his partner must abide by it; 
but if the dealer has not a hand to justify him in deciding, he 
may leave the choice to his partner, who must decide. A 
declaration once made cannot be changed. 

IRREGULARITIES IN THE HANDS. 

19. If, at any time after all have played to the first trick, the 
pack being perfect, a. player is found to have either more or less 
than his correct number of cards and his adversaries have their 
right number, the latter, upon the discovery of such surplus or de- 
ficiency, may consult and shall have the choice : — 

I, To have a new deal ; or 

II. To have the hand played out, in which case the sur- 

plus or missing card or cards are not taken into 
account. 
If either of the adversaries also has more or less than his correct 
number, there must be a new deal. 

If any player has a surplus card by reason of an omission to 
play to a trick, his adversaries can exercise the foregoing privilege 
only after he has played to the trick following the one in which 
such omission occurred. 

In jBoston, if at any time it is discovered that a player 
opposed to the bidder has less than his proper number of 
cards, whether through the fault of the dealer, or through 
having played more than one card to a trick, he and his part- 
ners must each pay the bidder for his bid and all over-tricks. 
If the bidder has less than his proper number of cards, he is 
put in for one trick at least, and his adversaries may demand 
the hand to be played out to put him in for over-tricks. 
In Misere Partout, any player having less than his proper 
number of cards forfeits five red counters to each of the other 
players, and the hands are abandoned. If any player has 
more than the proper number of cards, it is a misdeal, and 
the misdealer deals again, after forfeiting one red counter to 
the pool. 

In Solo Whist., the deal stands good. Should the player 
with the incorrect number of cards be the caller or his partner, 
the hand must be played out. Should the caller make good 
his proposition, he neither receives nor pays on that hand. If 
he fails, he must pay. Should the player with the defective 
hand be the adversary of the caller, he and his partners must 
pay the stakes on that hand, which may then be abandoned. 



AMERICAN LAWS. (Whist.) 191 

Should two players have an incorrect number of cards, one of 
them being the caller, there must be a new deal. 

CARDS LIABLE TO BE CALLED. 

20. The following cards are liable to be called by either adver- 
sary : — 

I. Every card faced upon the table otherwise than in the 

regular course of play, but not including a card led 
out of turn. 

II. Every card thrown with the one led or played to the 

current trick. The player must indicate, the one 
led or played. 

III. Every card so held by a player that his partner sees 

any portion of its face. 

IV. All the cards in a hand lowered or shown by a player 

so that his partner sees more than one card of it. 

V. Every card named by the player holding it. 

In Boston and Solo Whist there are no penalties for cards 
exposed by the single player, because he has no partner to take 
advantage of the information. 

21. All cards liable to be called must be placed and left face 
upwards on the table. A player must lead or play them when 
called, provided he can do so without revoking. The call may be 
repeated at each trick until the card is played. A player cannot 
be prevented from leading or playing a card liable to be called ; if 
he can get rid of it in the course of play, no penalty remains. 

In Boston and in Solo Whist, if the exposed card is a 
trump, the owner may be called upon by his adversary not 
to use it for ruffing. If the suit of the exposed card is led, 
whether trump or not, the adversary may demand that the 
card be played or not played ; or that the highest or lowest of 
the suit be played. If the owner of the exposed card has no 
other of the suit, the penalty is paid. 

Penalties must be exacted by players in their proper turn, or 
the right to exact them is lost. For instance : In Solo Whist, 
A is the proposer, B the acceptor, and B has an exposed card 
in front of him. When Y plays he should say whether or 
not he wishes to call the exposed card. If he says nothing, B 
must await Z's decision. 

22. If a player leads a card better than any his adversaries hold 
of the suit, and then leads one or more other cards without wait- 
ing for his partner to play, the latter may be called upon by either 
adversary to take the first trick, and the other cards thus improp- 
erly played are liable to be called ; it makes no difference whether 
he plays them one after the other, or throws them all on the table 



192 (Wliist.) AMEBICAN LAWS. 

together, after the first card is played , the others are liable to be 
called. 

23. A player having a card liable to be called must not play 
another until the adversaries have stated w^hether or not they wish 
to call the card liable to the penalty. If he plays another card 
vi^ithout awaiting the decision of the adversaries, such other card 
also is liable to be called. 

LEADING OUT OF TURN. 

24. If any player leads out of turn, a suit may be called from 
him or his partner, the first time it is the turn of either of them to 
lead. The penalty can be enforced only by the adversary on the 
right of the player from whom a suit can be lawfully called, 

If a player, so called on to lead a suit, has none of it, or if all 
have played to the false lead, no penalty can be enforced. If all 
have not played to the trick, the cards erroneously played to such 
false lead are not liable to be called and must be taken back. 

In Boston, if the adversary of the bidder leads out of turn, 
and the bidder has not played to the trick, the latter may call 
a suit from the player whose proper turn it is to lead : or, if 
it is the bidder's own lead, he may call a suit when next the 
adversaries obtain the lead ; or he may claim the card played 
in error as an exposed card. If the bidder has played to the 
trick the error cannot be rectified. Should the bidder lead out 
of turn, and the player on his left follow the erroneous lead, 
the error cannot be corrected. 

In Miseres, a lead out of turn by the bidder's adversary im- 
mediately loses the game, but there is no penalty for leading 
out of turn in Misere Partout. 

PLAYING OUT OF TURN. 

25. If the third hand plays before the second, the fourth hand 
also may play before the second. 

26. If the third hand has not played, and the fourth hand plays 
before the second, the latter may be called upon by the third hand 
to play his highest or lowest card of the suit led or, if he has none, 
to trump or not to trump the trick. 

In JBoston, and in Solo Whist, should an adversary of 
the single player play out of turn, the bidder may call upon 
the adversary who has not played to play his highest or low- 
est of the suit led, or to win or not to win the trick. If the 
adversary of a Misdre player leads or plays out of turn, the 
bidder may immediately claim the stakes. In Solo Whist, 
the individual player in fault must pay for himself and for his 
partners. 

ABANDONED HANDS. 

27. If all four players throw their cards on the table, face up- 
wards, no further play of that hand is permitted. The result of 



AMERICAN LAWS. (Whist.) 193 

the hand, as then claimed or admitted, is established, provided 
that, if a revoke is discovered, the revoke penalty attaches. 

In Solo Whist, should the bidder abandon his hand, he 
and his partner, if any, must pay the stakes and settle for all 
over-tricks as if they had lost all the remaining tricks. If 
a player, not the bidder, abandons his hand, his partner or 
partners may demand the hand to be played out with the 
abandoned hand exposed, and liable to be called by the ad- 
versary. If they defeat the call they win nothing, but the 
player who abandoned his hand must pay the caller just as if 
he had been successful. If the partner or partners of the 
exposed hand lose, they must pay their share of the losses. 

REVOKING, 

28. A revoke is a renounce in error, not corrected in time. A 
player renounces in error, when, holding one or more cards of the 
suit led, he plays a card of a different suit. 

A renounce in error may be corrected by the player making it, 
before the trick in which it occurs has been turned and quitted, un- 
less either he or his partner, whether in his right turn or otherwise, 
has led or played to the following trick. 

29. If a player corrects his mistake in time to save a revoke, 
the card improperly played by him is liable to be called ; any player 
or players, who have played after him, may withdraw their cards 
and substitute others ; the cards so withdrawn are not liable to be 
called. 

In Boston, if the bidder revokes and corrects himself in 
time, there is no penalty unless an adversary has played after 
him, in which case the bidder's card may be claimed as ex- 
posed. The player who followed him may then amend his 
play. If a player opposed to the bidder discovers and cor- 
rects a revoke made by himself or any of his partners, the bid- 
der may either claim the card played in error as exposed, or 
may call on the revoking player for his highest or lowest of 
the suit led. 

30. The penalty for revoking is the transfer of two tricks from 
the revoking side to their adversaries ; it can be enforced for as 
many revokes as occur during the hand. The revoking side can- 
not win the game in that hand ; if both sides revoke, neither can 
win the game in that hand. 

In Cayenne and Solo Whist, as a penalty for a revoke, 
the adversaries of the revoking player may take from him three 
tricks ; or may deduct the value of three tricks from his score ; 
or may add the value of three tricks to their own score- 
The revoking players cannot score slams or game that hand. 
All slams must be made independently of the revoke penalty. 



194 (Whist.) Aj\i:erican laws. 

In JBoston, the penalty for a revoke on the part of the 
bidder is that he is put in for one trick, and must pay four 
red counters into the next pool. Should an adversary of the 
bidder revoke, he must pay four red counters into the next 
pool, and he and his partners must pay the bidder as if he had 
been successful. On the discovery of a revoke in Boston the 
hands are usually abandoned ; but the cards should be shown 
to the table, in order that each player may be satisfied that no 
other revoke has been made. A player revoking in Misere 
Partout pays five red counters to each of his adversaries and 
the hands are then abandoned. 

31. The revoking player and his partner may require the hand 
in which the revoke has been made, to be played out, and score 
all points made by them up to the score of six. 

In Boston, the hands are abandoned after the revoke is 
claimed and proved. 

In Cayenne^ the revoking players must stop at nine. 

In Solo Whist, the revoking players must pay all the red 
counters involved in the call, whether they win or lose, but 
they may play the hand out to save over-tricks. If the caller 
or his partner revokes they must jointly pay the losses in- 
volved ; but if an adversary of the caller revokes, he must 
individually pay the entire loss unless he can show that the 
callers would have won in spite of the revoke. Should he be 
able to do this, his partners must stand their share of the 
losses, but the revoking player must individually pay for the 
three tricks taken as the revoke penalty. If the single player 
revokes, either on solo or abundance, he loses the red counters 
involved in any case, but may play the hand out to save over- 
tricks. If the single player in a misere or a slam revokes, the 
hand is abandoned and he must pay the stakes. If an ad- 
versary of a misere or a slam revokes, he must individually 
pay the whole stakes. 

32. At the end of a hand, the claimants of a revoke may search 
all the tricks. If the cards have been mixed, the claim may be 
urged and proved, if possible ; but no proof is necessary and the 
revoke is established, if, after it has been claimed, the accused 
player or his partner mixes the cards before they have been exam- 
ined to the satisfaction of the adversaries. 

33. The revoke can be claimed at any time before the cards 
have been presented and cut for the following deal, but not there- 
after. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

34. Any one, during the play of a trick and before the cards 
have been touched for the purpose of gathering them together, 
may demand that the players draw their cards. 

35. If any one, prior to his partner playing, calls attention in 
any manner to the trick or to the score, the adversary last to play to 



AMERICAN LAWS. (Whist.) 195 

the trick may require the offender's partner to play his highest or 
lowest of the suit led or, if he has none, to trump or not to trump 
the trick. 

36. If any player says " I can win the rest," " The rest are 
ours," " We have the game," or words to that effect, his partner's 
cards must be laid upon the table and are liable to be called. 

37. When a trick has been turned and quitted, it must not again 
be seen until after the hand has been played. A violation of this 
law subjects the offender's side to the same penalty as in case of a 
lead out of turn. 

In Boston, Cayenne, and Solo Whist, it is still the 
custom to permit looking at the last trick, except in Miseres. 
The penalty in a misere game is the same as for a lead out of 
turn. 

38. If a player is lawfully called upon to play the highest or 
lowest of a suit, or to trump or not to trump a trick, or to lead a 
suit, and unnecessarily fails to comply, he is liable to the same 
penalty as if he had revoked. 

39. In all cases where a penalty has been incurred, the offender 
must await the decision of the adversaries. If either of them, 
with or without his partner's consent, demands a penalty to which 
they are entitled, such decision is final. If the wrong adversary de- 
mands a penalty, or a wrong penalty is demanded, none can be 
enforced. 



The following rules belong to the established code of Whist 
Etiquette. They are formulated with a view to discourage and re- 
press certain improprieties of conduct, therein pointed out, which 
are not reached by the laws. The courtesy which marks the inter- 
course of gentlemen will regulate other more obvious cases. 

1. No conversation should be indulged in during the play, ex- 
cept such as is allowed by the laws of the game. 

2. No player should in any manner whatsoever give any inti- 
mation as to the state of his hand or of the game, or of approval 
or disapproval of a play. 

3. No player should lead until the preceding trick is turned 
and quitted. 

4. No player should, after having led a winning card, draw a 
card from his hand for another lead until his partner has played to 
the current trick. 

5. No player should play a card in any manner so as to call 
particular attention to it, nor should he demand that the cards be 
placed in order to attract the attention of his partner. 

6. No player should purposely incur a penalty because he is 
willing to pay it, nor should he make a second revoke in order to 
conceal one previously made. 



196 (Whist.) ENGLISH LAWS. 

7. No player should take advantage of information imparted by 
his partner through a breach of etiquette. 

8. No player should object to referring a disputed question of 
fact to a bystander who professes himself uninterested in the re- 
sult of the game, and able to decide the question. 

9. Bystanders should not in any manner call attention to, or 
give any intimation concerning the play or the state of the game, 
during the play of a hand. They should not look over the hand of 
a player without his permission ; nor should they walk round the 
table to look at the different hands. 

ERRONEOUS SCORES. 
Any error in the trick score may be corrected before the 
last card has been dealt in the following deal ; or if the error 
occurs in the last hand of a game or rubber, it may be cor- 
rected before the score is agreed to. Errors in other scores 
may be corrected at any time before the final score of the 
game or rubber is agreed to. 

BIDDING. 
In Boston, or Solo Wliist, any player making a bid must 
stand by it, and either play or pay. Should he make a bid in 
error and correct himself, he must stand by the first bid unless 
he is overcalled, when he may either amend his bid or pass. 



ENGLISH WHIST LAWS. 

THE RUBBER. 

li The rubber is the best of three games. If the first two 
games are won by the same players, the third game is not played. 

SCORING. 

2. A game consists of five points. Each trick, above six, 
counts one point. 

3. Honours, /. <?., Ace, King, Queen, and Knave of trumps, are 
thus reckoned : 

If a player and his partner, either separately or conjointly, hold— 

I. The four honours, they score four points. 

II. Any three honours, they score two points. 

III. Only two honours, they do not score. 



ENGLISH LAWS. (Whist.) 197 

4. Those players who, at the commencement of a deal, are at 
the score of four, cannot score honours. 

5. The penalty for a revoke (see Law 72) takes precedence of 
all other scores. Tricks score next. Honours last. 

6. Honours, unless claimed before the trump card of the fol- 
lowing deal is turned up, cannot be scored. 

7. To score honours is not sufficient ; they must be called at 
the end of the hand ; if so called, they may be scored at any time 
during the game. 

8. The winners gain — 

I. A treble, or game of three points, when their adver- 

saries have not scored. 

II. A double, or game of two points, when their adver- 

saries have scored less than three. 

III. A single, or game of one point, when their adversaries 

have scored three or four. 

9. The winners of the rubber gain two points (commonly called 
the rubber points), in addition to the value of their games. 

10. Should the rubber have consisted of three games, the value 
of the losers' game is deducted from the gross number of pomts 
gained by their opponents. 

11. If an erroneous score be proved, such mistake can be cor- 
rected prior to the conclusion of the game in which it occurred, 
and such game is not concluded until the trump card of the fol- 
lowing deal has been turned up. 

12 If an erroneous score, affecting the amount of the rubber, 
be proved, such mistake can be rectified at any time dunng the 
rubber. 

CUTTING. 

13. The Ace is the lowest card. 

14. In all cases, every one must cut from the same pack. 

15. Should a player expose more than one card, he must cut 
again. 

FORMATION OF TABLE. 

r6 If there are more than four candidates, the players are 
selected by cutting ; those first in the room having the preference. 
The four who cut the lowest cards play first, and cut again to 
decide on partners ; the two lowest play against the two highest ; 
the lowest is the dealer, who has choice of cards and seats, and, 
having once made his selection, must abide by it. u f 

17 When there are more than six candidates, those who cut 
the two next lowest cards belong to the table, which is complete 
with six players ; on the retirement of one of those six Players, 
the candidate who cut the next lowest card has a prior right to 
any aftercomer to enter the table- 



198 (Whku) ENGLISH LAWS. 

CUTTING CARDS OF EQUAL VALUE. 

1 8. Two players cutting cards of equal value, unless such 
cards are the two highest, cut again ; should they be the two 
lowest, a fresh cut is necessary to decide which of those two deals. 

19. Three players cutting cards of equal value cut again; 
should the fourth (or remaining) card be the highest, the two 
lowest of the new cut are partners, the lower of those two the 
dealer ; should the fourth card be the lowest, the two highest are 
partners, the original lowest the dealer. 

CUTTING OUT. 

20. At the end of a rubber, should admission be claimed by 
any one, or by two candidates, he who has, or they who have, 
played a greater number of consecutive rubbers than the others 
is, or are, out ; but when all have played the same number, they 
must cut to decide upon the outgoers ; the highest are out. 

ENTRY AND RE-ENTRY. 

21. A candidate wishing to enter a table must declare such in- 
tention prior to any of the players having cut a card, either for 
the purpose of commencing a fresh rubber or of cutting out. 

22. In the formation of fresh tables, those candidates who 
have neither belonged to nor played at any other table have the 
prior right of entry ; the others decide their right of admission by 
cutting. 

23. Any. one quitting a table prior to the conclusion of a rubber 
may, with consent of the other three players, appoint a substitute 
in his absence during that rubber. 

24. A player cutting into one table, whilst belonging to 
another, loses his right of re-entry into that latter, and takes his 
chance of cutting in, as if he were a fresh candidate. 

25. If any one break up a table, the remaining players have 
the prior right to him of entry into any other, and should there 
not be sufficient vacancies at such other table to admit all those 
candidates, they settle their precedence by cutting. 

SHUFFLING. 

26. The pack must neither be shuffled below the table nor so 
that the face of any card be seen. 

27. The pack must not be shuffled during the play of the hand. 

28. A pack, having been played with, must neither be shuffled 
by dealing it into packets, nor across the table. 

_ 29. Each player has a right to shuffle, once only, except as pro- 
vided by Rule 32, prior to a deal, after a false cut [see Law 34], or 
when a new deal [see Law 37] has occurred. 

30. The dealer's partner must collect the cards for the ensuing 
deal, and has the first right to shuffle that pack. 



ENGLISH LAWS. (Whist.) 199 

31. Each player after shuffling must place the cards properly- 
collected, and face downwards, to the left of the player about 
to deal. 

32. The dealer has always the right to shuffle last ; but should 
a card or cards be seen during his shuffling, or whilst giving the 
pack to be cut, he may be compelled to re-shuffle. 

THE DEAL. 

33. Each player deals in his turn ; the right of dealing goes to 
the left. . 

34. The player on the dealer's right cuts the pack, and, m divid- 
ing it, must not leave fewer than four cards in either packet ; if in 
cutting, or in replacing one of the two packets on the other, a card 
be exposed, or if there be any confusion of the cards, or a doubt as 
to the exact place in which the pack was divided, there must be a 
fresh cut. 

35. When a player, whose duty it is to cut, has once separated 
the pack, he cannot alter his intention ; he can neither re-shuffle 
nor re-cut the cards. 

36. When the pack is cut, should the dealer shuffle the cards, he 
loses his deal. 

A NEW DEAL. 

37. There must be a new deal — 

I. If during a deal, or during the play of a hand, the 

pack be proved incorrect or imperfect. 

II. If any card, excepting the last, be faced in the pack. 

38. If, whilst dealing, a card be exposed by the dealer or his 
partner, should neither of the adversaries have touched the cards, 
the latter can claim a new deal ; a card exposed by either adver- 
sary gives that claim to the dealer, provided that his partner has 
not touched a card ; if a new deal does not take place, the ex- 
posed card cannot be called. 

39. If, during dealing, a player touch any of his cards, the 
adversaries may do the same, without losing their privilege of 
claiming a new deal, should chance give them such option. 

40. If, in dealing, one of the last cards be exposed, and the 
dealer turn up the trump before there is reasonable time for his 
adversaries to decide as to a fresh deal, they do not thereby lose 
their privilege. j ■>■ 

41. If a player, whilst dealing, look at the trump card, his 
adversaries have a right to see it, and may exact a new deal. 

42. If a player take into the hand dealt to him a card belong- 
ing to the other pack, the adversaries, on discovery of the error, 
may decide whether they will have a fresh deal or not. 

A MISDEAL, 

43. A misdeal loses the deal. 



200 (Whist.) ENGLISH LA TVS. 

44- It is a misdeal — 

I. Unless the cards are dealt into four packets, one at 

a time m regular rotation, beginning with the 
player to the dealer's left, 

II. Should the dealer place the last (/. e., the trump) card, 

face downwards, on his own, or any other pack. 

III. Should the trump card not come in its regular order 

to the dealer ; but he does not lose his deal if the 
pack be proved imperfect. 

IV. Should a player have fourteen cards, and either of 

the other three less than thirteen. 

V. Should the dealer, under an impression that he has 

made a mistake, either count the cards on the 
table or the remainder of the pack. 
IV. Should the dealer deal two cards at once, or two 
cards to the same hand, and then deal a third; 
but if, prior to dealing that third card, the dealer 
can, by altering the position of one card only, 
rectify such error, he may do so. except as pro- 
vided by the second paragraph of this Law. 
VII. Should the dealer omit to have the pack cut to him, 
and the adversaries discover the error, prior to the 
trump card being turned up, and before lookinj? 
at their cards, but not after having done so 
45- A misdeal does not lose the deal if, during the dealing, 
either of the adversaries touch the cards prior to the dealer's part- 
ner having done so ; but should the latter have first interfered with 
the cards, notwithstanding either or both of the adversaries have 
subsequently done the same, the deal is lost. 

46. Should three players have their right number of cards— the 
fourth have less than thirteen, and not discover such deficiency 
until he has played any of his cards, the deal stands good ; should 
he have played, he is as answerable for any revoke he may have 
made as if the missing card, or cards, had been in his hand • he 
may search the other pack for it, or them. 

_ 47- If a pack, during or after a rubber, be proved incorrect or 
imperfect, such proof does not alter any past score, game, or rubber • 
that hand in which the imperfection was detected is null and void : 
the dealer deals again. 

48. Any one dealing out of turn, or with the adversary's cards 
may be stopped before the trump card is turned up, after which 
the game must proceed as if no mistake had been made 

49- A player can neither shuffle, cut, nor deal for his partner 
without the permission of his opponents. 

50. If the adversaries interrupt a dealer whilst dealing, either 
by questioning the score or asserting that it is not his deal," and fail 
to establish such claim, should a misdeal occur, he may deal again 



ENGLISH LAWS. (W&isU 201 

51. Should a player take his partner's deal and misdeal, the 
latter is liable to the usual penalty, and the adversary next in rota- 
tion to the player who ought to have dealt then deals. 

THE TRUMP CARD. 

52. The dealer, when it is his turn to play to the first trick, 
should take the trump card into his hand ; if left on the table after 
the first trick be turned and quitted, it is liable to be called ; his 
partner may at any time remind him of the liability. 

53. After the dealer has taken the trump card into his hand, it 
cannot be asked for ; a player naming it at any time during the 
play of that hand is liable to have his highest or lowest trump 
called. 

54. If the dealer take the trump card into his hand before it is 
his turn to play, he may be desired to lay it on the table ; should 
he show a wrong card, this card may be called, as also a second, 
a third, etc., until the trump card be produced. 

55. If the dealer declare himself unable to recollect the trump 
card, his highest or lowest trump may be called at anytime during 
that hand, and unless it cause him to revoke, must be played ; the 
call may be repeated, but not changed, t. <?., from highest to low- 
est, or vice versa, until such card is played. 

CARDS LIABLE TO BE CALLED. 

56. All exposed cards are liable to be called, and must be left 
on the table ; but a card is not an exposed card when dropped on 
the floor, or elsewhere below the table. The following are exposed 
cards :^ 

I. Two or more cards played at once. 
IL Any card dropped with its face upward, or in any way 
exposed on or above the table, even though snatched 
- up so quickly that no one can name it. 

57. If any one play to an imperfect trick the best card on the 
table, or lead one which is a winning card as against his adversa- 
ries, and then lead again, or play several such winning cards, one 
after the other, without waiting for his partner to play, the latter 
may be called on to win, if he can, the first or any other of those 
tricks, and the other cards thus improperly played are exposed 
cards. 

58. If a player, or players, under the impression that the game 
is lost — or won — or for other reasons — throw his or their cards on 
the table face upward, such cards are exposed, and liable to be 
called, each player's by the adversary ; but should one player alone 
retain his hand, he cannot be forced to abandon it. 

59. If all four players throw their cards on the table face up- 
ward, the hands are abandoned; and no one can again take up 
his cards. Should this general exhibition show that the game 



202 (Whist.) ENGLISH LA WS. 

might have been saved, or w^on, neither claim can be entertained, 
unless a revoke be established. The revoking players are then 
liable to the following penalties : they cannot under any circum- 
stances win the game by the result of that hand, and the adversa- 
ries may add three to their score, or deduct three from that of 
the revoking players. 

60. A card detached from the rest of the hand so as to be 
named is liable to be called ; but should the adversary name a 
wrong card, he is liable to have a suit called when he or his part- 
ner have the lead. 

61. If a player who has rendered himself liable to have the 
highest or lowest of a suit called, fail to play as desired, or if when 
called on to lead one suit he lead another, having in his hand one 
or more cards of that suit demanded, he incurs the penalty of a 
revoke. 

62. If any player lead out of turn, his adversaries may either 
call the card erroneously led, or may call a suit from him or his 
partner when it is next the turn of either of them to lead. 

63. If any player lead out of turn, and the three others have fol- 
lowed him, the trick is complete, and the error cannot be rectified ; 
but if only the second, or the second and third, have played to the 
false lead, their cards, on discovery of the mistake, are taken back ; 
there is no penalty against any one, excepting the original offender, 
whose card may be called, or he, or his partner, when either of 
them has next the lead, may be compelled to play any suit de- 
manded by the adversaries. 

64. In no case can a player be compelled to play a card which 
would oblige him to revoke. 

65. The call of a card maybe repeated until such card has been 
played. 

66. If a player called on to lead a suit have none of it, the 
penalty is paid. 

CARDS PLAYED IN ERROR, OR NOT PLAYED TO A TRICK. 

67. If the third hand play before the second, the fourth hand 
may play before his partner. 

68. Should the third hand not have played, and the fourth play 
before his partner, the latter may be called on to win, or not to 
win the trick. 

69. If any one omit playing to a former trick, and such error be 
not discovered until he has played to the next, the adversaries 
may claim a new deal ; should they decide that the deal stand 
good, the surplus card at the end of the hand is considered to have 
been played to the imperfect trick, but does not constitute a re- 
voke therein. 

70. If any one play two cards to the same trick, or mix his 
trump, or other card, with a trick to which it does not properly 



ENGLISH LA WS. (Whist.) 203 

belong, and the mistake be not discovered until the hand is played 
out, he is answerable for all consequent revokes he may have 
made. If, during the play of the hand, the error be detected, the 
tricks may be counted face downward, in order to ascertain 
whether there be among them a card too many ; should this be 
the case, they may be searched, and the card restored ; the player 
is, however, liable for all revokes which he may have meanwhile 
made. 

THE REVOKE, 

71. Is when a player, holding one or more cards of the suit led, 
plays a card of a different suit. 

72. The penalty for a revoke — 

I. Is at the option of the adversaries, who at the end of 

the hand may either take three tricks from the 
revoking player or deduct three points from his 
score, or add three to their own score ; 

II. Can be claimed for as many revokes as occur during 

the hand ; 

III. Is applicable only to the score of the game in which 

it occurs ; 

IV. Cannot be divided, z. e., a player cannot add one or 

two to his own score and deduct one or two from 
the revoking player ; 

V. Takes precedence of every other score — e. g., the 

claimants two, their opponents nothing ; the former 
add three to their score, and thereby win a treble 
game, even should the latter have made thirteen 
tricks, and held four honours. 

73. A revoke is established if the trick in which it occur be 
turned and quitted, /. e., the hand removed from that trick after it 
has been turned face downward on the table, or if either the re- 
voking player or his partner, whether in his right turn or otherwise, 
lead or play to the following trick. 

74. A player may ask his partner whether he has not a card of 
the suit which he has renounced ; should the question be asked be- 
fore the trick is turned and quitted, subsequent turning and quit- 
ting does not establish the revoke, and the error may be corrected, 
unless the question be answered in the negative, or unless the re- 
voking player or his partner have led or played to the following 
trick. 

75. At the end of the hand, the claimants of a revoke may 
search all the tricks. 

76. If a player discover his mistake in time to save a revoke, the 
adversaries, whenever they think fit, may call the card thus 
played in error, or may require him to play his highest or lowest 
card to that trick in which he has renounced ; any player or 



204 (Whist.) ENGLISH LAWS. 

players who have played after him may withdraw their cards and 
substitute others : the cards withdrawn are not liable to be called. 
"jy. If a revoke be claimed, and the accused player or his part- 
ner mix the cards before they have been sufficiently examined by 
the adversaries, the revoke is established. The mixing of the 
cards only renders the proof of a revoke difficult; but does not 
prevent the claim and possible establishment of the penalty. 

78. A revoke cannot be claimed after the cards have been cut 
for the following deal. 

79. The revoking player and his partner may, under all circum- 
stances, require the hand in which the revoke has been detected 
to be played out. 

80. If a revoke occur, be claimed and proved, bets on the odd 
trick or on amount of score, must be decided by the actual state of 
the latter, after the penalty is paid. 

81. Should the players on both sides subject themselves to the 
penalty of one or more revokes, neither can win the game ; each is 
punished at the discretion of his adversary. 

82. In whatever way the penalty be enforced, under no circum- 
stances can a player win the game by the result of the hand during 
which he has revoked ; he cannot score more than four. {See Law 
61.) 

CALLING FOR NEW CARDS. 

83. Any player (on paying for them) before, but not after, the 
pack be cut for the deal, may call for fresh cards. He must call 
for two new packs, of which the dealer takes his choice. 

GENERAL RULES. 

84. Where a player and his partner have an option of exacting 
from their adversaries one of two penalties, they should agree who 
is to make the election, but must not consult with one another 
which of the two penalties it is advisable to exact; if they do so 
consult, they lose their right ; and if either of them, with or with- 
out consent of his partner, demand a penalty to which he is en- 
titled, such decision is final. 

[This rule does not apply in exacting the penalties for a revoke ; 
partners have then a right to consult.] 

85. Any one during the play of a trick, or after the four cards 
are played, and before, but not after, they are touched for the pur- 
pose of gathering them together, may demand that the cards be 
placed before their respective players. 

86. If any one, prior to his partner playing, should call atten- 
tion to the trick — either by saying that it is his, or by naming his 
card, or, without being required so to do, by drawing it toward 
him — the adversaries may require that opponent's partner to play 
the highest or lowest of the suit then led, or to win or lose the trick 



ENGLISH LAWS. (Wliist.) 205 

87. In all cases where a penalty has been incurred, the offender 
is bound to give reasonable time for the decision of his adversaries. 

88. If a bystander make any remark which calls the attention 
of a player or players to an oversight affecting the score, he is 
liable to be called on, by the players only, to pay the stakes and all 
bets on that game or rubber. 

89. A bystander, by agreement among the players, may de- 
cide any question. 

90. A card or cards torn or marked must be either replaced by 
agreement, or new cards called at the expense of the table. 

91. Any player may demand to see the last trick turned, and 
no more. Under no circumstances can more than eight cards be 
seen during the play of the hand, viz.: the four cards on the table 
which have not been turned and quitted, and the last trick turned. 

ETIQUETTE OF WHIST. 

The following rules belong to the established Etiquette of Whist. 
They are not called laws, as it is difficult — in some cases im- 
possible — to apply any penalty to their infraction, and the only 
remedy is to cease lo play with players who habitually disregard 
them : 

Two packs of cards are invariably used at Clubs ; if possible, 
this should be adhered to. 

Any one, having the lead and several winning cards to play, 
should not draw a second card out of his hand until his partner 
has played to the first trick, such act being a distinct intimation 
that the former has played a winning card. 

No intimation whatever, by word or gesture, should be given by 
a player as to the state of his hand, or of the game. 

A player who desires the cards to be placed, or who demands to 
see the last trick, should do it for his own information only, and 
not in order to invite the attention of his partner. 

No player should object to refer to a bystander who professes 
himself uninterested in the game, and able to decide any disputed 
question of facts ; as to who played any particular card — whether 
honours were claimed though not scored, or vice versd — etc., etc. 

It is unfair to revoke purposely ; having made a revoke, a player 
is not justified in making a second in order to conceal the first. 

Until the players have made such bets as they wish, bets should 
not be made with bystanders. 

Bystanders should make no remark, neither should they by word 
or gesture give any intimation of the state of the game until con- 
cluded and scored, nor should they walk round the table to look 
at the different hands. 

No one should look over the hand of a player against whom he 
is betting, 



206 (\rhist.) ENGLISH LAWS, 

DUMMY. 

Is played by three players. 

One hand, called Dummy's, lies exposed on the table. 
The laws are the same as those of Whist, with the following 
exceptions : 

I. Dummy deals at the commencement of each rubber. 

II. Dummy is not liable to the penalty for a revoke, as his ad- 
versaries see his cards ; should he revoke, and the error not be 
discovered until the trick is turned and quitted, it stands good. 

III. Dummy being blind and deaf, his partner is not liable to 
any penalty for an error whence he can gain no advantage. Thus, 
he may expose some or ail of his cards — or may declare that he 
has the game, or trick, etc., without incurring any penalty ; if, 
however, he lead from Dummy's hand when he should lead from 
his own, or vz'c^ versa, a suit may be called from the hand which 
ought to have led. 

DOUBLE DUMMY. 

Is played by two players, each having a Dummy o' exposed 
hand for his partner. The laws of the game do not difi^r from 
Dummy Whist, except in the following special Law : There ;s na 
misdeal, as the deal is a disadvantager 



THE POKER FAMILY. 



Properly speaking, Poker is not the founder, but simply the most 
famous representative of a very ancient and always very popular 
family of games, all of which can be traced to one source, the old 
French game of Gilet, which was undoubtedly of Italian origin, 
perhaps a variety of Primero. Gilet we find changed to Brelan in 
the time of Charles IX., and although Brelan is no longer played, 
the word is still used in all French games to signify triplets, and 
" brelan-carre " is the common French term for four of a kind in 
le i)oker Aniericai7i. From Brelan we trace the French games 
of Bouillotte, and Ambigu, and the English game of Brag ; but the 
game of poker, as first played in the United States, five cards to 
each player from a twenty-card pack, is undoubtedly the Persian 
game of as nas. 

The peculiar and distinguishing characteristic of Poker we find 
well described by Seymour, in his chapter on " Brag," in the 
"Court Gamester," 1719: "The endeavour to impose on the 
judgment of the rest who play, and particularly on the person who 
chiefly offers to oppose you, by boasting or bragging of the cards 
in your hand. Those who by fashioning their looks and gestures, 
can give a proper air to their actions, as will so deceive an un- 
skilful antagonist, that sometimes a pair of lives, trays or deuces, 
in such a hand, with the advantage of his composed countenance, 
and subtle manner of over-awing the other, shall out-brag a much 
greater hand, and win the stakes, with great applause and laughter 
on his side from the whole company." 

Quite a number of card games retain the feature of pairs, triplets, 
sequences, and flushes, but omit the element of brag or bluff, and 
can therefore hardly be considered full-blooded members of the 
poker family. Whiskey Poker, for instance, has really little or 
nothing in common with the true spirit of poker, and is simply the 
very ancient game of Commerce, played with five cards instead of 
three. The descriptions of this game in the earliest Hoyles betray 
its French origin ; particularly in the use of the piquet pack ; the 
French custom of cutting to the left and dealing to the right ; and 
the use of the words " brelan," and " tricon." In later descriptions 
of the " new form " of Commerce, about 1835, we find 52 cards 
are used, and dealt from left to right, and the names of the com- 
binations are changed to "pairs-royal," "sequences," and 
"flushes." 

There appears to be little or nothing modern in the game of 



203 (Poker.) THE POKER FAMILY. 

Poker but the increased number of cards dealt to each player, 
which makes it possible for one to hold double combinations, such 
as two pairs, triplets with a pair, etc. The old games were all 
played with three cards only, and the " brelan-carre," or four of a 
kind, could be made only by combining the three cards held by the 
player with the card which was sometimes turned up on the talon, 
or remainder of the pack. The blind, the straddle, the raise, the 
bluff, table stakes, and freeze-out, are all to be found in Bouil- 
lotte, which flourished in the time of the French Revolution, and 
the " draw " from the remainder of the pack existed in the old 
French game of Ambigu. 

The first mention we have of poker in print is in Green's Re- 
formed Gambler, which contains a description of a game of poker 
played on a river steamer in June, 1834. The author undertook 
a series of investigations with a view to discovering the origin of 
poker, the results of which were published in the N. Y. Sun, May 
22, 1904. It would seem that poker came from Persia to this coun- 
try by way of New Orleans. The French settlers in Louisiana, 
recognizing the similarity between the combinations held in the 
newcomer from the East, as nas, and those with which they were 
already familiar in their own game of poque, called the Persian 
game poque, instead of as nas, and our present word, "poker," 
seems to be nothing Iiut a mispronunciation of the French term, 
dividing it into two syllables, as if it were "po-que." 

There is no authoritative code of laws for the game of Poker, 
simply because the best clubs do not admit the game to their 
card rooms, and consequently decry the necessity for adopting any 
laws for its government. In the absence of any official code, the 
daily press is called upon for hundreds of decisions every week. 
The author has gathered and compared a great number of these 
newspaper rulings, and has drawn from them and other sources to 
form a brief code of poker laws, which will be found amply suffi- 
cient to cover all irregularities for which any penalty can be en- 
forced, or which interfere with the rights of any individual player. 



DRAW POKER 

CARDS. Poker is played with a full pack of fifty-two cards, 
ranking: AKQJ 1098765432; the ace being the highest or 
lowest in play, according to the wish of the 
holder, but ranking below the deuce in cutting. 
In some localities a special pack of sixty cards 
is used, the eight extra cards being elevens and 
twelves in each suit, which rank above the ten, 
and below the Jack. It is very unusual to play 



*♦* 
♦♦* 




4«4k 




«J|k« 




«4« 


♦** 




4«* 



Poker with two packs. 



CUTTING. 



(Poker.) 209 



COUNTEBS, or CHIPS. Although not absolutely neces- 
sary, counters are much more convenient than money. The most 
common are red, white, and blue circular chips, which should 
" stack up " accurately, so that equal numbers may be measured 
without counting them. The red are usually worth five whites, 
and the blue worth five reds, or twenty-five whites. At the begin- 
ning of the game one player should act as banker, and be respon- 
sible for all counters at the table. It is usual for each player to 
purchase, at the beginning of the game, the equivalent of loo 
white counters in white, red, and blue. 

PLAYERS. Poker may be played by any number of persons 
from two to seven. When there are more than seven candidates 
for play, two tables should be formed, unless the majority vote 
against it. In some localities it is the custom for the dealer to take 
no cards when there are eight players, which is thought to make a 
better game than two tables of only four players each. When the 
sixty-card pack is used, eight players may take cards. 

CUTTING. The players who shall form the table, and their 
positions at the beginning of the game, must be decided by throw- 
ing round a card to each candidate, face up, or by drawing cards 
from an outspread pack. If there are more than eight candidates, 
the four cutting the highest cards should play together at one table, 
and the others at another table. If there are an even number of 
candidates, the tables divide evenly, but if the number is odd, th° 
smaller table is formed by those cutting the highest cards. 

The table formed, the pack must be shuffled and spread, and 
positions drawn for. The player cutting the lowest card has the 
choice of seats, and must deal the first hand. The player cutting 
the next lowest has the next choice, and so on, until all are seated. 

TIES. If the first cut does not decide, those tying must cut 
again. Should two or more players cut cards of equal value, the 
new cut will decide nothing but the tie ; for even should one of 
those cutting to decide a tie draw a card lower than one previously 
cut by another player, the original low cannot be deprived of his 
right. For instance : there are six players. 



First cut is : — 



Second cut is : — 



^ 4 




4.** 










<9 S? 



^ 


^ 




<^ 


9? 


^ 


9 


^ 



i 





0% 









The 5 and 7 have the first and second choice of seats ; the 2 
and 4 the third and fourth choice. 



210 (Poker.) STAKES. 

FLAYJEBS' POSITIONS. There are only three distinc- 
tive positions at the poker table : the dealer ; the pone; and the 
age. The pone is the player on the dealer's right, and the age is 
the one on his left. 

STAKES. Before play begins, or a card is dealt, the value of 
the counters must be decided, and a liiivit must be agreed upon. 
There are four limitations in Draw Poker, and they govern or fix 
the maximum of the four principal stakes : the blind ; the straddle ; 
the ante ; and the bet or raise. 

The blind is the amount put up by the age before he sees 
anything, and should be limited to one vi^hite counter, as the blind 
is the smallest stake in the game. In some places it is permis- 
sible for the age to make the blind any amount he pleases within 
half the betting limit ; but such a practice is a direct violation of 
the principles of the game, which require that the amount of the 
blind shall bear a fixed proportion to the limit of the betting. 

The straddle is a double blind, sometimes put up by the player 
to the left of the age, and like the blind, without seeing anything. 
This allows the player on the left of the straddler to double again, 
or put up four times the amount of the original blind. This strad- 
dling process is usually limited to one-fourth of the betting limit ; 
that is, if the betting limit is fifty counters, the doubling of the 
blind must cease when a player puts up sixteen, for another double 
would carry it to thirty-two, which would be more than half the 
limit for a bet or raise. 

The ante is the amount put up by each player after he has 
seen his cards, but before he draws to improve his hand. The 
terms "ante" and "blind" are often confused. The blind is a com- 
pulsory stake, and must be put up before the player has seen any- 
thinp-. He does not even know whether or not he will be dealt a 
foul hand, or whether it will be a misdeal. He has not even seen the 
cards cut. The ante, on the other hand, is a voluntary bet, and is 
a sort of entrance fee, which is paid before the hand is complete, 
but after the first part of it has been seen. The ante is always 
twice the amount of the blind, whatever that may be. If the blind 
has been increased by the process of straddling, the ante must be 
twice the amount of the last straddle, but must not exceed the 
betting limit. This is why the straddles are limited. 

The largest bet, or raise, which a player is allowed to make is 
generally known as the limit. This limit is not the greatest 
amount that may be bet on one hand, but is the maximum amount 
by which one player may increase his bet over that of another 
player. For instance : If no one has bet, A may bet the limit on 
his hand ; B may then put up a similar amount, which is called 
seeing him, and may then raise him any further sum within the 
limit fixed for betting. If B raises the limit, it is obvious that he 
has placed in the pool twice the amount of the betting limit ; but 



DEALING. (Poker.) 211 

bis raise over A's bet is within the betting limit. If another player 
should raise B again, he would be putting up three times the limit ; 
A's bet, B's raise, and his own raise. 

In the absence of any definite arrangement, it is usual to make 
the betting limit fifty times the amount of the blind. That is, if 
the value of the blind, or one white counter, is five cents, the limit 
of a bet or raise will be two dollars and a half, or two blue count- 
ers. This fixes the ante at two white counters, or ten cents, in the 
absence of straddles, and limits the straddling to the fourth player 
from the age, or sixteen white counters. This proportion makes a 
very fair game, and gives a player some opportunity to vary his 
betting according to his estimate of the value of his hand. 
Where the blind is five cents, the ante ten, and the limit twenty- 
five, the game ceases to be Poker, and becomes a species of show- 
dotviu It is universally admitted by good judges that a player 
can lose more money at twenty-five cent show-down than he will 
at two-and-a-half Poker. 

There are several other variations in the manner of arranging 
the stakes and the betting limits, but they will be better under- 
stood after the game itself has been described. 

DEALING. The age having put up the amount of the blind, 
and the cards having been shuffled by any player who chooses to 
avail himself of the privilege, the dealer last, they are presented to 
the pone to be cut. The pone may either cut them, or signify 
that he does not wish to do, so by tapping the pack with his 
knuckles. Should the pone decline to cut, no other player can 
insist on his so doing, nor do it for him. Beginning on his left, 
the dealer distributes the cards face down one at a time in rotation 
until each player has received five cards. The deal passes to the 
left, and each player deals in turn. 

IBBEGUL AMI TIES IN THE DEAL. The follow- 
ing rules regarding the deal should be strictly observed : — 

If any card is found faced in the pack the dealer must deal 
again. Should the dealer, or the wind, turn over any card, the 
player to whom it is dealt must take it ; but the same player can- 
not be compelled to take two exposed cards. Should such a com- 
bination occur, there must be a fresh deal by the same dealer. If 
the player exposes his cards himself, he has no remedy. 

Should any player receive more or less than his correct number 
of cards, and discover the error before he looks at any card in his 
hand, or lifts it from the table, he may demand a fresh deal if no 
bet has been made ; or he may ask the dealer to give him another 
from the pack if he has too few ; or to draw a card if he has too 
many. Cards so drawn must not be exposed, but should be 
placed on the bottom of the pack. 

If the number of the hands dealt does not agree with the num- 
ber of players, there must be a new deal. 



212 (Poker.) STRADDLING. 

If two or more cards are dealt at a time, the dealer may take 
back the card or cards improperly dealt if he discovers the error 
before dealing to the next player; otherwise there must be a new 
deal. 

A misdeal does not lose the deal. The misdealer must deal 
again. 

Should a player take up his hand, or look at any card in it, he is 
not entitled to any remedy. If he has more or less than the proper 
number of cards, his hand is foul, and must be abandoned, the 
player forfeiting any interest he may have in that deal, and any 
stake he may have put up on that hand. In all gambhng houses, 
the invariable rule is to call a short hand foul; although there 
should be no objection to playing against a man with only four 
cards, which cannot be increased to five, even by the draw. ' 

STRADDLING. During the deal, or at any time before he 
looks at any card in his hand, the player to the left of the age may 
straddle the blind by putting up double the amount put up by 
the age. The only privilege this secures to the straddler is that 
of having the last say as to whether or nor he will make good his 
ante and draw cards. Should he refuse to straddle, no other 
player can do so ; but if he straddles, the player on his left 
can straddle him again by doubling the amount he puts up, which 
will be four times the amount of the blind. This will open 
the privilege to the next player on the left again, and so on until 
the limit of straddling is reached ; but if one player refuses to 
straddle, no other following him can do so. Good players seldom 
or never straddle, as the only effect of it is to increase the amount 
of the ante. 

METHOD OF FLAYING. The cards dealt, the players 
take up and examine their hands. The careful poker player 
always " spreads " his cards before taking them up, to be sure 
that he has neither more nor less than five, and he lifts them in 




Spreading. Squeezing. 

such a way that the palm and fingers of his right hand conceal the 
face of the first card, while the thumb of the left hand separates 
the others just sufficiently to allow him to read the index or 
" squeezer " marks on the edges. 



TEE HANDS. 



(Poker.) 213 



The object of this examination is to ascertain the value of the 
hand dealt to him, and to see whether or not it is worth while try- 
ing to improve it by discarding certain cards and drawing others 
in their place. The player should not only be thoroughly familiar 
with the relative value of the various combinations which may be 
held at Poker, but should have some idea of the chances for and 
against better combinations being held by other players, and should 
also know the odds against improving any given combination by 
drawing to it. 

The value of this technical knowledge will be obvious when it is 
remembered that a player may have a hand dealt to him which he 
knows is comparatively worthless as it is, and the chances for 
improving which are only one in twelve, but which he must bet on 
at odds of one in three, or abandon it. Such a proceeding would 
evidently be a losing game, for if the experiment were tried 
twelve times the player would win once only, and would lose 
eleven times. This would be paying eleven dollars to win three ; 
yet poker players are continually doing this. 

BANK OF THE HANDS. The various combinationsat 
Poker outrank one another in the following order, beginning with 
the lowest. Cards with a star over them add nothing to the 
value of the hand, and may be discarded. The figures on the 
right are the odds against such a hand being dealt to any individ- 
ual player. 



Five cards of various 
suits ; not in sequence, 
and without a pair. 



4. A 
4.^4. 





9 <? 


♦ 
♦ 



Even 



One Pair. Two cards 
of one kind and three use- 
less cards. 



9 V *r* ^ 
T T V T* 

<^ 4. 




<9 s? 



q? c? 



34 
to 

25 



Two Pairs, Two of 

one kind ; two of another 
kind ; and one useless 
card. 



4. 





20 

to 

I 



Threes. Three of one 
kind, and two useless 
cards. 









0, 


.0 


o^ol 





-0\ 



9 q? 



4. 4. 



46 

to 
I 



214 (Poker.) 



BANDS. 



Straight, All five 
cards in sequence, but 
of various suits. 

Flush. All five 
cards of one suit, but 
not in sequence. 

Ftdl Hand. Three 
of one kind, and two 
of another kind ; no 
useless cards. 

Fours. Four cards 
of one kind, and one 
useless card. 

Straight Flush. 

Five cards of the same 
suit, in sequence with 
one another. 

Royal Flush. A 

straight flush which is 
ace high. 



o 





4. 4. 
4. 4. 










« ♦ 

♦ 
* * 











254 

to 

I 

S08 

to 

I 



O O 


O 



<^ 9 4> 4* 

«i» ♦ •?• 4. 







* « 


4. 4. 





* * 


4. 4. 





♦ 4 


4. 4. 





i 




0% 






<> 

















4164 

to 
I 



72192 
to 
I 

649739 

to 
I 



When hands are of the same rank, their relative value is de- 
termined by the denomination of the cards they contain. For 
instance : A hand without a pair, sequence, or flush is called by 
its highest card ; " ace high," or " Jack high," as the case may 
be. As between two such hands, the one containing the high- 
est card would be the better, but either would be outclassed by 
a hand with a pair in it, however small. A hand with a pair 
of nines in it would outrank one with a pair of sevens, even 
though the cards accompanying the nines were only a deuce, 
three and four, while those with the sevens were an ace. King and 
Queen. But should the pairs be alike in both hands ; such as 
tens, the highest card outside the pair would decide the rank of 
the hands, and if those were also alike, the next card, or perhaps 
the fifth would have to be considered. Should the three odd cards 
in each hand be identical, the hands would be a tie, and would 
divide any pool to which each had a claim. Two flushes would 
decide their rank in the same manner. If both were ace and Jack 
high, the third card in one being a nine, and in the other an eight, 
the nine would win. In full hands the rank of the triplets decides 
the value of the hand. Three Queens and a pair of deuces will 



HANDS. 



(Poker.) 215 



beat three Jacks and a pair of aces. In straights, the highest card 
of the sequence wins ; not necessarily the highest card in the 
hand, for a player may have a sequence of A 2 3 4 5, which is 
only five high, and would be beaten by a sequence of 23456. 
The ace must either begin or end a sequence, for a player is not 
allowed to call such a combination as O K A 2 3 a straight. 

It was evidently the intention of those who invented Poker that 
the hands most difficult to obtain should be the best, and should 
outrank hands that occurred more frequently. A glance at the 
table of odds will show that this principle has been carried out as 
far as the various denominations of hands go ; but when we come 
to the members of the groups the principle is violated. In hands 
not containing a pair, for instance, ace high will beat Jack high, 
but it is much more common to hold ace high than Jack high. 
The exact proportion is 503 to 127. A hand of five cards only 
seven high but not containing a pair, is rarer than a flush ; the 
proportion being 408 to 510. When we come to two pairs, we 
find the same inversion of probability and value. A player will 
hold " aces up," that is, a pair of aces and another pair inferior to 
aces, twelve times as often as he will hold "threes up." In the 
opinion of the author, in all hands that do not contain a pair, 
" seven high " should be the best instead of the lowest, and ace 
high should be the lowest. In hands containing two pairs, 
"threes up" should be the highest, and "aces up" the lowest. 

ECCENTRIC HANDS. In addition to the regular poker 
hands, which are those already given, there are a few combinations 
which are played in some parts of the country, especially in the 
South, either as matter of local custom or by agreement. When 
any of these are played, it would be well for the person who is not 
accustomed to them to have a distinct understanding in advance, 
just what combinations shall be allowed and what hands they will 
beat. There are four of these eccentric hands, and the figures on 
the right are the odds against their being dealt to any individual 
player : 

Slaze. Five picture 
cards. Beat two pairs ; 
but lose to three of a 
kind. 

Tiger. Must be seven 
high and deuce low ; with- 
out a pair, sequence or 
flush. It beats a straight; 
but loses to a flush. 




"0" 





^ ^ 

* ^ 

♦ « 


4> <^ 




-if 



636 

to 
I 



216 (Pokcf.) 



JOKER POKER. 



Skip, or Dutch 
Straight. Any se- 
quence of alternate cards, 
of various suits. Beats 
two pairs and a blaze. 

Mound-tJie-Corner. 

Any straight in which the 
ace connects the top and 
bottom. Beats threes ; 
but any regular straight 
will beat it. 













4. 4. 

4. 4" 









<0 





4. 4. 

4. 4. 



423 

to 
I 



to 
I 



The rank of these extra hands has evidently been assigned by 
guess-work. The absurdity of their appraised value will be evident 
if we look at the first of them, the blaze, which is usually played 
to beat two pairs.. As it is impossible to have a blaze which does 
not contain two pairs of court cards, all that they beat is aces up 
or kings up. If it were ranked, like other poker hands, by the 
difficulty of getting it, a blaze should beat a full hand. 

All these hands are improperly placed in the scale of poker 
values, as will be seen by comparing the odds against them. In 
any games to which these eccentric hands are admitted, the rank 
of all the combinations would be as follows, if poker principles 
were followed throughout : — 

Denomination. Odds against. 

One pair 1% to i 

Two pairs 20 to i 

Three of a kind 46 to i 

Sequence or straight 254 to i 

Skip or Dutch straight 423 to i 

Flush 508 to I 

Tiger [Big or Little Dog] 636 to i 

Full hand 693 to i 

Eound-the-corner straight 848 to i 

Blaze 3008 to 1 

Four of a kind 4164 to i 

Straight flush 72192 to i 

Royal Flush [Ace high] 649739 to i 

When the true rank of these eccentric hands is not allowed, local 
custom must decide what they will beat. 

JOKER rOKER, or MISTIGBIS. It is not uncommon 
to leave the joker, or blank card, in the pack. The player to whom 
this card is dealt may call it anything he pleases. If he has a pair 
of aces, and the joker, he may call them three aces. If he has 
four clubs, and the joker, he may call it a flush ; or he may make 



THE ANTE. (Poker.) 217 

the joker fill out a straight. If he has four of a kind, and the joker, 
he can beat a royal flush by calling his hand five of a kind. In 
case of ties, the hand with the mistigris wins ; that is to say, an 
ace and the joker will beat two aces. 

A player holding the joker may even call it a duplicate of a card 
already in his hand. For instance ; he might hold the A J 8 5 of 
hearts and the joker against the A K Q 7 3 of clubs. If he calls 
the joker the king of hearts, the club flush still beats him as it is 
queen next. He must call it the ace, which makes his flush ace- 
ace high. 

PROBABILITIES. In estimating the value of his hand 
as compared to that of any other player, before the draw, the 
theory of probabilities is of little or no use, and the calculations 
will vary with the number of players engaged. For instance : If 
five are playing, some one should have two pairs every fourth 
deal, because in four deals twenty hands will be given out. If 
seven are playing, it is probable that five of them will hold a pair 
of some kind before the draw. Unfortunately, these calculations 
are not of the slightest practical use to a poker player, because 
although three of a kind may not be dealt to a player more than 
once in forty-five times on the average, it is quite a common oc- 
currence for two players to have threes dealt to each of them at the 
same time. The considerations which must guide the player in 
judging the comparative value of his hand, both before and after 
the draw, must be left until we come to the suggestions for good 
play. 

THE ANTE. The player to the left of the age is the one 
who must make the first announcement of his opinion of his hand, 
unless he has straddled, in which case the player on the left of the 
last straddler has the first ^' say.'' If he considers his hand good 
enough to draw to, let us say a pair of Kings, he must place in 
the pool, or toward the centre of the table, double the amount of 
the blind, or of the last straddle, if any. This is called the ante, 
because it is made before playing the hand, whereas the blind is 
made before seeing it. The player is not restricted to double the 
amount of the blind or straddle ; he may bet as much more as he 
pleases within the limit fixed at the beginning of the game. For 
instance : If there has been only one straddle he must put up 
four white counters or pass out of the game for that deal. But if 
he puts up the four, he may put up as many more as he pleases 
within the limit, which is two blues, or fifty whites. This is called 
raising the ante. If he does not care to pay twice the amount 
of the blind or straddle for the privilege of drawing cards to im- 
prove his hand, he must throw his cards face downward on the 
table in front of the player whose turn it will be to deal next. 
Reasonable time must be allowed for a player to make his de- 
cision ; but having made it, he must abide by it ; a hand oncq 



218 (Poker.) THE ANTE. 

/ 

thrown down cannot be taken up again, and counters once placed 
in the pool, and the hand removed from them, cannot be taken 
out again, even though placed in the pool by mistake. 

The player who has the first say having made his decision, the 
player next him on the left must then decide. He must put into 
the pool an amount equal to that deposited by the first player, oi 
abandon his hand. Suppose there has been no straddle, and that 
all conclude to stay, as it is called. They each in turn put up two 
white counters until it comes to the age. The one white counter 
he has already put up as a blind belongs to the pool, but by add- 
ing one to it he can make his ante good, and draw cards, always 
provided no player has raised the ante. If any player has put 
more counters into the pool than the amount of the ante, all the 
other players must put up a like amount, or throw down their 
hands. Suppose five play, and A has the age. B antes two 
counters, and C puts up seven, the ante and a raise of five. If D 
and E come in, they must put up seven counters also ; and the age, 
A, must put up six to make his ante good. It now comes to B, who 
must either lose the two he has already put up, or add five more 
to them. Let us suppose that D puts up the seven, and that E, 
the dealer, puts up twelve. This will force the age to put up 
eleven ; B to put up ten ; and C to put up five more. This will 
make each player's ante an equal amount, twelve counters, and 
they will then be ready to draw cards. No one can now raise the 
ante any further, because it is no one's turn to " say." 

It will thus be seen that every player in his turn can do one of 
three things, which are sometimes called the a b c oi Poker : He 
can Abdicate; by throwing down his hand, and abandoning 
whatever money he has already placed in the pool. He can Set- 
ter ; by putting up more money than any player before him, which 
is sometimes called "going better." Or, he can Call, by making 
his amount in the pool equal to the highest bet already made. 

Should any player increase the ante to such an extent that none 
of the others care to call him, they must of course throw down 
their hands, and as there is no one to play against him, the one 
who made the last increase in the ante takes down all the counters 
in the pool. This is called talcing the pot, and the cards are 
gathered, shuffled, and dealt again, the deal passing to the player 
who was the age. 

DRA WING CAJRBS. All those who have made the ante 
good have the privilege of discarding, face downward, as many 
cards as they please, in the place of which they may draw others. 
The age has the first draw, and can take any number of cards 
from one to five, or he may stand pat, refusing to draw any. 
A player cannot receive from the dealer more or less cards than 
he discards ; so that if a person is allowed to play with a short 
hand, of four cards only, he will still have only four cards after 



THE DBA W. 



(Poker.) 219 







V K> 


♦ 




♦ 







^ 










^ 










9 <p 


•^ 




* 




^ 



the draw. If his hand was foul, it will remain so after the draw. 
In drawing, a player may keep or discard what cards he pleases. 
There is no rule to prevent his throwing away a pair of aces and 
keeping three clubs if he is so inclined ; but the general practice is 
for the player to retain whatever pairs or triplets he may have, 
and to draw to them. Four cards of a straight or a flush may be 
drawn to in the same way, and some make a practice of drawing 
to one or two high cards, such as an ace and a king, when they 
have no other chance. Some hands offer opportunities to vary 
the draw. For instance : A player has dealt to him a small pair ; 
but finds he has also four 
cards of a straight. He 
can discard three cards and 
draw to the pair ; or one 
card, and draw to the 
straight ; or two cards, keeping his ace in the hope of makmg two 
good pairs, aces up. The details of the best methods of drawing 
to various combinations will be discussed when we come to sug- 
gestions for good play. 

In drawing cards, each player in turn who has made good his 
ante, beginning with the age, must ask the dealer for the number 
of cards he wants. The demand must be made so that every 
player can hear, because after the cards have been delivered by 
the dealer no one has the right to be informed how many cards 
any player drew. When the dealer comes to his own hand, he 
must distinctly announce the number of cards he takes. He must 
also inform any player asking him how many cards he took, pro- 
vided the question is put before the player asking it has made a 
bet, and it is put by a player who has made good his ante to draw 
cards. 

In dealing the cards for the draw, the pack is not cut again, the 
cards being dealt from the top, beginning where the deal before 
the draw left off. As each player asks for his cards he must dis- 
card those he wants replaced, and he must receive the entire num- 
ber he asks for before the next player is helped. In some places it 
is the custom for all those who have made good the ante to discard 
before any cards are given out. This is not good poker, as it pre- 
vents the dealer from seeing that the number discarded is equal to 
the number asked for. Should any card be found faced in the 
pack, it must be placed on the table among the discards. Should 
any card be exposed by the dealer in giving out the cards, or be 
blown over by the wind before the player has touched it, such 
card must not be taken by the player under any circumstances, 
but must be placed with the discards on the table. A player whose 
card is exposed in this manner does not receive a card to take its 
place until all the other players have been helped. [The object of 
this rule is to prevent a dealer from altering the run of the cards 
in the draw,] 



220 (Poker.) THE DRAW. 

Should a player ask for an incorrect number of cards and they 
be given him, he must take them if the next j)layer has been 
helped. If too many, he must discard before seemg them. If too 
few, he must play them. If he has taken them up and has too 
many, his hand is foul, and shuts him out of that pool. If the 
dealer gives himself more cards than he needs he is compelled to 
take them. For instance : He draw^s three cards to a pair ; but on 
taking up his hand he finds he had triplets, and really wanted only 
two cards. He cannot change his draw, and must take the three 
cards he has dealt off. There is a penalty for not following the 
strict rule of the game, which is for each player, including the 
dealer, to discard before he draws. 

Should the dealer give any player more cards than he asked for, 
and the player discover the error before taking them up or look- 
ing at any of them, the dealer must withdraw the surplus card, 
and place it on the top of the pack. Should the dealer give a 
player fewer cards than he asks for, he must supply the deficiency 
when his attention is called to it, without waiting to supply the 
other players. If a player has more or less than five cards after 
the draw, his hand is foul, and he must abandon it, together with 
all he may have already staked in the pool. 

The dealer may be asked how many cards he drew; but he is 
not allowed to say how many cards he gave to any other player. 
Each player must watch the draw for himself. 

The last card of the pack must not be dealt. When only two 
cards remain, the discards and abandoned hands must be gathered, 
shuffled, and presented to the pone to be cut,;^and the deal then 
completed. 

BETTING UP THE HANDS. All those who made 
good the ante having been supplied with cards, the next player 
who holds cards on the left of the age must make the first bet. 
Should the age have declined to make good his ante, or have 
passed out before the draw, that does not transfer the privilege of 
having the last say to any other player ; because the peculiar privi- 
lege of the age, — having the last say,— is given in consideration of 
the blind, which he is compelled to pay, and no other player can 
have that privilege, because no other player is obliged to play. 
Even if a player has straddled the blind, he must still make the 
first bet after the draw, because he straddled of his own free will, 
and knew at the time that the only advantage the straddle would 
give him was the last say as to whether or not he would make 
good his ante and draw cards. 

If the player next to the age has passed out before the draw, 
the next player to the left who still holds cards must make the 
first bet. The player whose turn it is to bet must either do so, or 
throw his hand face downward in front of the player whose turn 
it will be to deal next. If he bets, he can put up any amount from 



BETTING. (Pokcf.) 221 

one white counter to the limit, two blues. It then becomes the turn 
of the player next on his left who still holds cards to abdicate, 
better, or call. If he calls, he does so by placing in the pool an 
amount equal to that staked by the last player, and it then becomes 
the turn of the next player on the left to say what he will do. But 
if he goes better, he adds to the amount staked by the player on 
his right any further sum he sees fit, within the limit of two blues. 
Each player in turn has the same privilege, the age having the last 
say. 

Suppose five play, and that A has the age. B has straddled, 
and all but the dealer have made good the ante and drawn cards. 
There are sixteen white counters in the pool, B's straddle having 
made the ante four instead of two. Suppose B bets a red counter, 
and C then throws down his hand. D sees B, by putting up a 
red counter ; and he then raises him, by putting up two blues, 
increasing his bet as much as the limit will allow him. The age 
must now abandon his hand or put up one red and two blues to 
call D, without knowing what B proposes to do. Let us suppose 
he sees D, and raises another two blues. B must now retire, or 
put up four blues to call A, without knowing what D will do. He 
can raise the bet another two blues, or one blue, or a red, or a 
white even, if he is so minded. If he declines to raise, he cannot 
prevent D from so doing, because D still has the privilege of re- 
plying to A's raise, and as long as a player has any say about 
anything, whether it is to abdicate, better, or call, he can do any 
one of the three. It is only when there is no bet made, or when 
his own bet is either not called or not raised, that a player has 
nothing to say. Let us suppose B puts up the four blues to call A. 
It is now D's turn. If he puts up two blues, each will have an 
equal amount in the pool, and as no one will have anything more 
to say, the betting must stop, and the hands must be shown. But 
if D raises A again, by putting up four blues instead of two, he 
gives A another say, and perhaps A will raise D in turn. Although 
B may have had quite enough of this, he must either put up four 
more blues, the two raised by D and the further raise by A, or he 
must abandon his hand. If B throws down his cards he loses all 
claim to what he has already staked in the pool, four blues and a 
red, besides his straddle and ante. Let us suppose he drops out, 
and that D just calls A, by putting up two blues only, making the 
amount he has in the pool exactly equal to A's, eight blues and a 
red, besides the antes. This prevents A from going any further, 
because it is not his turn to say anything. He is not asked to 
meet any one's raise, nor to make any bet himself, but simply to 
show his hand, in order to see whether or not it is better than D's. 

SHOWING HANDS. It is the general usage that the 
hand called must be shown first. In this case A's hand is called. 
for D was the one who called a halt on A in the betting, and 



222 (Poker.) SHOWING HANDS. 

stopped him from going any further. The strict laws of the game 
require that both hands must be shown, and if there are more than 
two in the final call, all must be shown to the table. The excuse • 
generally made for not showing the losing hand is that the man 
with the worse hand paid to see the better hand ; but it must 
not be forgotten that the man with the better hand has paid ex- 
actly the same amount, and is equally entitled to see the worse 
hand. There is an excellent rule in some clubs that a player re- 
fusing to show his hand in a call shall refund the amount of the 
antes to all the other players, or pay all the antes in the next jack 
pot. The rule of showing both hands is a safeguard against col- 
lusion between two players, one of whom might have a fairly good 
hand, and the other nothing ; but by mutually raising each other 
back and forth they could force any other player out of the pool. 
The good hand could then be called and shown, the confederate 
simply saying, " That is good, " and throwing down his hand. Pro- 
fessionals call this system of cheating, " raising out." 

When the hands are called and shown, the best poker hand 
wins, their rank being determined by the table of values already 
given. In the example just given suppose that A, on being called 
by D, had shown three fours, and that D had three deuces. A 
would take the entire pool, including all the antes, and the four 
blues and one red staked by B after the draw. It might be that B 
would now discover that he had laid down the best hand, having 
held three sixes. This discovery would be of no benefit to him, 
for he abandoned his hand when he declined to meet the raises of 
A and D. 

If the hands are exactly a tie, the pool must be divided among 
those who are in at the call. For instance : Two players show 
aces up, and each finds his opponent's second pair to be eights. 
The odd card must decide the pool ; and if that card is also a tie 
the pool must be divided. 

If no bet is made after the draw, each player in turn throwing 
down his cards, the antes are won by the last player who holds his 
hand. This is usually the age, because he has the last say. If 
the age has not made good his ante, it will be the dealer, and so 
on to the right. There is no necessity for the fortunate player to 
show his hand ; the mere fact that he is the only one holding any 
cards is prima facie evidence that his hand is the best. On the same 
principle, the player who has made a bet or raise which no other 
player will see, wins the pool without showing his hand, as he must 
be the only one with cards in his hand ; for when a player refuses to 
see a bet he must abandon his hand, and with it all pretensions to 
the pool. If he wishes to call, but has not money enough, he 
must borrow it. He cannot demand a show of hands for what 
counters he has, except in table stakes. 

During the betting, players are at liberty to make any remarks 



MAKING JACK POTS. (Poker.) 223 

they see fit, and to tell as many cheerful lies about their hands as 
they please. A player may even miscall his hand when he shows 
it ; the cards speak for themselves, just as the counters do, and 
what a player says does not affect either in the slightest. If a 
player says : " I raise you two blues," the statement amounts to 
nothing until the blues have been placed in the pool, and the 
owner's hand removed from them. There is no penalty if a player, 
during the betting, tells his adversaries exactly what he holds ; nor 
is he likely to lose anything by it, for no one will believe him. 

JACK POTS. The addition of jack pots has probably done 
more to injure Poker than the trump signal has injured Whist. In 
the early days, when poker parties were small, four players being a 
common number, it was frequently the case that no one had a pair 
strong enough to draw to, and such a deal was regarded as simply 
a waste of time. To remedy this, it was proposed that whenever 
no player came in, each should be obliged to ante an equal amount 
for the next deal, and just to demonstrate that there were some 
good hands left in the pack no one was allowed to draw cards un- 
til some one had Jacks or better to draw to. 

The result of this practice was to make jack pots larger than the 
other pools, because every one was compelled to ante, and this 
seems to have prompted those who were always wanting to in- 
crease the stakes to devise excuses for increasing the number of 
jack pots. This has been carried so far that the whole system has 
become a nuisance, and has destroyed one of the finest points in 
the game of Poker, — the liberty of personal iudgment as to every 
counter put into the pool, except the blind. The following ex- 
cuses for making jack pots are now in common use : 

After a, Misdeal some parties make it a jack ; but the prac- 
tice should be condemned, because it puts it in the power of any 
individual player to make it a jack when he deals. 

The Buck is some article, such as a penknife, which is placed 
in the pool at the beginning of the game, and is taken down with 
the rest of the pool by whichever player wins it. When it comes 
to his deal, it is a jack pot, and the buck is placed in the pool with 
the dealer's ante, to be won, taken down, and make another jack 
in the same way. 

The usual custom is to fix the amount of the ante in jack pots, 
a red, or five whites, being the common stake. In some places it 
is at the option of the holder of the buck to make the ante any 
amount he pleases within the betting limit. Whichever system is 
adopted, every player at the table must deposit a like amount in 
the pool. Players are sometimes permitted to pass a jack ; 
that is, not to ante nor to take any part in the game until the jack 
is decided. If this is to be allowed, it should be so understood at 
the beginning of the game. 



224 (Polar.) MAKING JACK POTS. 

The Migh Sand jack pot is played whenever a hand of an 
agreed value, such as a flush or a full, is shown to the board ; that 
is, called. In some places four of a kind calls for a round of 
jacks, every player in turn making it a jack on his deal. 

Only Two In, It is a common custom in large parties, say six 
or seven players, to make it a jack when no one but the dealer 
will ante. Instead of allowing the blind to make his ante good, 
and draw cards against the dealer, each player contributes two 
white counters, the age adding one to his blind, and the cards are 
redealt for a jack pot. Another variety of this custom is when 
the blind is opposed by only one ante, to allow the age to make 
this player take down his two counters, and to pay two counters 
for him, to make it a jack. For instance : Five play, and A has 
the age. B and C pass, and D antes two counters. The dealer, 
E, says : " I pass for a jack." A then puts up three counters, one 
of which is added to his blind, the other two paying D's ante in 
the ensuing jack. D takes down his two counters, and the cards 
are redealt. This cannot be done if more than one player has 
anted, nor if the ante has been raised or the blind straddled. In 
the example just given, had D raised the ante to five counters 
and E passed, the age would have had to put up four more white 
counters and draw cards, or allow D to win his blind. 

Progressive Jacks. In some localities it is the custom to 
make the pair necessary to open a jack pot progress in value ; 
Jacks or better to open the first round ; Queens the next ; then 
Kings ; then Aces ; and then back to Kings, Queens, and Jacks 
again. This is very confusing, and is not popular. 

Fattening Jacks. When the original ante is two counters 
only, and no one holds Jacks or better on the first deal, each 
player must contribute another white counter to " fatten," and the 
cards are dealt again. This continues until the pot is opened ; 
that is, until some player holds a hand as good or better than a 
pair of Jacks. The fattening process is followed when the dealer 
can make the original ante what he pleases ; but if the ante for 
jacks is a fixed sum, such as a red counter, it is not usual to fat- 
ten the pot at all. This saves all disputes as to who is shy, 
one of the greatest nuisances in Poker. 

Opening Jacks. As there is no age or straddle in any form 
of jack pot, the player to the left of the dealer has the first say, 
and must examine his hand to see if he has Jacks or better ; that 
is to say, either an actual pair of Jacks, or some hand that would 
beat a pair of Jacks if called upon to do so, such as two pairs, a 
straight, or triplets. In some localities it is allowed to open jacks 
with a bobtail; that is, four cards of a flush or straight. If the 
player on the dealer's left has not openers, or does not care to 
open the pot if he has, he says : " I pass ; " but he does not aban- 



OPENING JACKS. (Poker.) 225 

don his hand. The next player on his left must then declare. In 
some places players are allowed to throw down their cards when 
they pass ; but in first-class games a penalty of five white coun- 
ters must be paid into the pool by any player abandoning his hand 
before the second round of declarations, as it gives an undue 
advantage to players with medium hands to know that they have 
only a limited number of possible opponents. For instance : If 
six play, and the first three not only pass, but throw down and 
abandon their cards, a player with a pair of Jacks will know that 
he has only two possible adversaries to draw against him, which 
will so increase his chances that it may materially alter his betting. 

If no one acknowledges to holding Jacks or better, the pot is 
fattened, and the cards are re-shuffled and dealt. The best prac- 
tice is for the same dealer to deal again until some one gets Jacks 
or better. This is called dealing off the jack. If any player 
has forfeited his right in one deal, such as by having a foul hand, 
that does not prevent him coming into the pot again on the next 
deal with rights equal to the other players. 

If any player holds Jacks or better, he can open the pot, or 
" the jack," for any amount he pleases within the betting limit. 
The expression " open " is used because after one player has 
declared that he holds Jacks or better, all restrictions are removed, 
and the pool is then open to any player to come in and play for it, 
regardless of what he may hold. Each player in turn, beginning 
on the left of the opener, must declare whether or not he will 
stay. If he stays, he must put up an amount equal to that bet 
by the opener, and has the privilege of raising him if he sees fit. 
If he passes, he throws his cards face downward on the table in 
front of the player whose turn it will be to deal next. Should the 
opener be raised, and not care to see that raise, he must show his 
hand to the table before abandoning it, in order to demonstrate 
that he had openers. Some players show only the cards neces- 
sary to open, but the strict rules require the whole hand to be 
shown before the draw. When once the jack is opened, the bet- 
ting before the draw proceeds exactly as in the ordinary pool. 
Any player on the right of the opener, who passed on the first 
round, may come in after the pot is opened. For instance : E 
deals. A and B pass, but hold their hands. C opens, and D 
throws down his hand. E sees the opener's bet, and it then be- 
comes the turn of A and B, who have passed once, to say whether 
or not they will play, now that the pot is opened. 

When all those who have declared to stay have deposited an 
equal amount in the pool, they draw cards to improve their hands, 
just as in the ordinary pool, the player on the dealer's left being 
helped first. All those who draw cards, except the opener, throw 
their discards into the centre of the table as usual ; but the opener 
is obliged always to place his discard under the chips in the pool. 



226 (Pokef.) SPLITTING OPENMBS. 

This is in order that he may be able to show what he held origi- 
nally, in case he should conclude to split his openers in order 
to try for a better hand. For instance : He has opened with a 
pair of Jacks, but has four of one suit in his hand. Four other 
players have stayed, perhaps the bet has been raised, and he knows 
that his Jacks will probably be worthless, even if he gets a third. 
So he breaks the pair, and draws for a flush. As the opener always 
places his discard under the chips in the pool, it is not necessary 
for him to betray his game by telling the whole table that he is 
drawing to a bobtail. 

False Openers, Should a player open a jack without the 
hand to justify it, and discover his error before he draws, the best 
usage demands that his hand is foul, and that he forfeits to the 
pool whatever amount he may have opened for, and any raises 
that he may have stood. There are then three ways to play : 
First. Those who have come in under the impression that the 
pot had been legitimately opened but who have not openers them- 
selves, can withdraw their n'joney, and allow any one to open it 
who has openers. This is very unfair to those on the left of the 
false opener who have abandoned their hands. Second. Those 
who have come into the pot after the false opening are allowed to 
stay in, and play for it, no matter what their hands are. Third, 
On discovery of the false opening, each player is allowed to take 
down whatever amount he may have paid into the pool, including 
his original ante and all fatteners, and the false opener must then 
make the entire amount good. The cards are then dealt afresh. 
This is a very harsh punishment for a very trifling and common 
error. 

The second method is the most popular, and probably the fairest, 
and is now the universal rule. 

If the false opener does not discover his mistake until he has 
drawn cards, his action is at least suspicious, and he should be 
compelled to put up the total amount in the pool, as in case three. 
In some localities such a player is barred from playing the next 
two jacks, but compelled to ante his share in each. 

Setting Jaclis. When a jack pot has been properly opened, 
and all have declared whether or not they will stay, and have 
drawn cards, the players proceed to bet on their hands. As there 
is no age in jack pots, the rule is for the opener to make the first 
bet ; or, if he has been raised out before the draw, the player next 
on his left who still holds cards. The opener may decline to bet 
if he pleases ; but if he does so, he must show his openers, and 
then abandon his hand. If no bet is made, the last player hold- 
ing cards takes the pool without showing his hand. If a bet is 
made, each player in turn on the left must abdicate, better, or call, 
just as in the ordinary pool. At the conclusion of the betting, if 
there is a call, the best poker hand wins, of course. If there is no 



TABLE STAKES. (Poker.) 227 

call, the player making the last bet or raise takes the pool without 
showing his hand, unless he is the opener, when the whole hand 
need not be shown, as it is no one's business what the opener got 
in the draw, no one having paid to see it. AH he need show is 
openers. But should the opener be one of those in the final call, 
he must show his whole hand. Should it then be discovered that 
he has not openers, the false opener is compelled to ante for all 
the players at the table for another Jack. This is usually called 
giving them a " free ride." 

The Kitty is now an almost universal adjunct to the pool. In 
clubs, it pays for the cards, and for an occasional round of re- 
freshments ; in small poker parties it defrays the expense of the 
weekly supper. When the amount is excessive, or accumulates 
too rapidly, it is often used to give the players a " free ride " by 
paying all their antes in a " kitty jack pot.'' 

The kitty is usually kept by the banker, who takes a white 
counter out of every pool in which triplets or better are shown to 
the board, and a red counter out of every jack pot. These 
counters must be kept apart from the other chips, and must be 
accounted for at the end of the game by paying the kitty so much 
in cash, just as if it was one of the players. 

Gambling houses and poker rooms are supposed to derive their 
entire revenue from this source, and those of the lowest class in- 
vent endless excuses for taking out for the kitty. In many houses 
there is a sliding scale for various hands ; one counter being taken 
for two pairs ; two counters for triplets ; three for straights or 
flushes ; and a red for fours, jack pots, and misdeals. It is not 
uncommon for the proprietors of such games to find thirty or forty 
dollars in the kitty after a night's play with five-cent chips. 

TABLE STAKES. This is one of several variations in ar- 
ranging the stakes and the betting limit. In some localities it is 
the custom to allow each player to purchase as many counters as 
he pleases ; in others it is the rule to compel each to buy an equal 
number at the start, usually two hundred times the amount of the 
blind. In table stakes the betting limit is always the amount that 
the player has in front of him ; but no player is allowed either 
to increase or diminish that amount while he has any cards in 
front of him. Before the cards are dealt for any pool he may an- 
nounce that he wishes to buy counters, or that he has some to sell 
to any other player wishing to purchase ; but for either transac- 
tion the consent of all the other players must be obtained. No 
player is allowed under any circumstances to borrow from another, 
nor to be " shy " in any pot ; that is, to say, " I owe so many." If 
he has any counters in front of him, his betting is limited to what 
he has ; if he has none, he is out of the game, for that hand at 
least. As a player cannot increase the amount he has in front of 
him during the play of a hand, it is best to keep on the table at all 
times as much as one is likely to want to bet on any one hand. 



228 (Pokcf.) TABLE STAKES. 

It is the usual custom, and an excellent one, to fix upon a defi- 
nite hour for closing a game of table stakes, and to allow no player 
to retire from the game before that hour unless he is decavSf 
(has lost all his capital). Should he insist on retiring, whatever 
counters he has must be divided among the other players, and if 
there are any odd ones after the division, they must be put into the 
current pool. 

In table stakes, any player may call a sight for what money or 
counters he has in front of him, even should another player have 
bet a much larger amount. For instance : A has bet three dollars, 
and B has only two dollars in front of him, but wishes to call A. 
B calls for a sight by putting his two dollars in the pool, and A 
must then withdraw his third dollar from the pool, but leave it on 
the table to be called or raised by any other player. Should C 
wish to call A, or even to raise him, A and C may continue the 
betting independently of B's part of the pool. Should C have even 
less money than B, say one dollar, he may still further reduce the 
original pool, leaving the two dollars aside for settlement between 
A and B, and A's third dollar still aside from that again for the 
decision of any other player. 

Let us suppose that A and C continue the betting until one calls. 
When the hands are shown, if either A's or C's is better than B's, 
B loses his interest; but if B's hand is better than either A's hand 
or C's hand, he takes the part of the pool for which he called a 
sight, while A and C decide the remainder between them. For 
instance : A calls C, and C shows three tens. Neither A nor B 
can beat it, and C takes everything. But if B had three Jacks, 
and A only three fives, B would take the part of the pool for which 
he called a sight, and C would take the remainder. 

Should C have raised and bluffed A out, or have bet so much 
that A finally refused to call, A would have no interest in either 
pool, and C would take all the money outside the pool for which 
B called a sight. Should it then transpire, on the show of hands 
between B and C, that A had laid down a better hand than either 
of them, that would not entitle A to claim the sight pool from B, 
because in laying down his hand he has practically acknowledged 
that C's hand is better, and has retired from the game. If B's 
hand is better than C's, B takes the sight pool. 

FREEZE OUT. This might be called a variety of table 
stakes. At the start, each player is supplied with an equal num- 
ber of counters ; but no one is allowed to replenish his stock, or to 
withdraw or loan any part of it. As soon as any player has lost 
his capital he is decave, or frozen out, and must permanently 
retire from the game. The other players continue until only one 
remains, who must of course win ever3'^thing on the table. This is 
not a popular form of Poker, because it is sometimes a long time 
before a player who is frozen out can get into a game again. 



FLAT POKEB. (Poker.) 229 

SHO W-nOWK POKER. This is a variety of draw poker, 
in which each player takes the five cards dealt to him and turns 
them face up so that all the other players can see them. Each 
player discards and draws in turn, eldest hand first. As soon as a 
hand is beaten it is thrown into the deadwood, all the cards drawn 
being dealt face up. 

FLAT JPOKEB. In this variety of the game, before the 
cards are dealt, the age puts up, for a blind, any amount he pleases 
within the limit. Those who are willing to bet a similar amount 
on the possibilities of their hands put up a similar amount. Those 
who decline are not given any cards. There are no straddles, 
raises, or antes. Immediately after the deal each player who is in 
the pool draws cards, the age first. There are then two ways to 
play : The hands are shown and the best wins ; or, beginning with 
the age, each player may say if he will back his hand against the 
field ; z. e., all the others in the pool. If he will, he must put up as 
much as their combined stakes. He cannot be raised ; but if any 
one player or combination of players call him, and one of them 
can beat his hand, the field divide the pool. For instance : Age 
makes it a blue, and three others stay with him. After the draw 
C puts up three blues against the field. D and A call it, and all 
show hands. If any of the three. A, B or D can beat C they 
divide the pool, B getting his third, although he did not contribute 
to the call. This game is a pure gamble ; except that a bold 
player may occasionally bluff the field off. 

METHODS OF CHEATING, Poker and its congeners 
have received more attention from the greeks than any other 
family of card games. In fact it is generally believed that the 
term greek, as appHed to a card sharper, had its origin in the 
Adam of the poker family, which was a gambHng game intro- 
duced by the Greeks in Italy. 

So numerous and so varied are the methods of cheating at 
Poker that it is an axiom among gamblers that if a pigeon will not 
stand one thing he will another. The best informed make it a 
rule never to play Poker with strangers, because they realize that it 
is impossible for any but a professional gambler to know half the 
tricks employed by the poker sharp. It is a notorious fact that 
even the shrewdest gamblers are continually being taken in by 
others more expert than themselves. What chance then has the 
honest card player ? 

There are black sheep in all flocks, and it may be well to give a 
few hints to those who are in the habit of playing in mixed com- 
panies. 

Never play with a man who looks attentively at the faces of the 
cards as he gathers them for his deal ; or who stands the pack on 
edge, with the faces of the cards towards him, and evens up the 
bunch by picking out certain cards, apparently because they are 



230 (Poker.) METHODS OF CHEATING. 

sticking up. Any pack can be straightened by pushing the cards 
down with the hand. The man who lifts them up is more than 
probably a cheat. 

Never play with a man who looks intently at the pack and 
shuffles the cards slowly. If he is not locating the cards for the 
ensuing deal he is wasting time, and should be hurried a little. 

Never play with a person who leaves the cut portion of the pack 
on the table, and deals off the other part. In small parties this is 
a very common way of working what is known as the top stock. 
If such a dealer is carefully watched it will usually be found that 
he seizes the first opportunity to place the part cut off on the top 
of the part dealt from. The top stock is then ready for the draw, 
and the judicious player should at once cash his chips and retire 
from the game. 

Never play with a man who continually holds his cards very close 
to his body, or who completely conceals his hand before the draw, 
or who takes great care to put his discard among previous discards, 
so that the exact number of cards put out cannot be counted. He 
is probably working a vest or sleeve hold-out. Some clumsy or 
audacious sharpers will go so far as to hold out cards in their lap, or 
stick them in a " bug " under the table. One of the most successful 
poker sharps ever known, " Eat-um-up Jake " Blackburn, who 
had a hand like a ham, could hold out five cards in his palm while 
he carried on all the operations of shuffling, dealing, and playing 
his hand. Such men require great dexterity and nerve to get rid 
of their "deadwood," or surplus cards, without detection. Hold- 
ing out is regarded by the professional as a most dangerous ex- 
periment, but it is very common. 

Never play with a man who keeps his eyes rivetted on the cards 
as he dea:ls, and who deals comparatively slowly. He is probably 
using marked cards, or has marked the important ones himself dur- 
ing the play. Poker sharps who mark cards by scratching them 
with a sharp point concealed in a ring are obliged to hold the cards 
at a certain angle to the light in order to see the scratches. Those 
who dig points in the cards with the thumb nail depend on touch 
instead of sight. If you find such points on the cards, either dig 
other points on other cards, or retire from the game. 

Against the hold-out or marked cards there is no protection, be- 
cause the dealer does not care how much the cards in the pack are 
shuffled or cut ; but every method of running up hands, or stock- 
ing cards, can be made ineffective if the pone will not only cut the 
cards, but carefully re-unite the packets. If the two parts are 
straightened after the cut, it will be impossible for the dealer to 
shift the cut, and bring the cards back to their original position. 
The dealer will sometimes bend the top or bottom card so as to 
form a bridge, which will enable him to find the place where the 
cards were cut. This can only be overcome by shuffling the carda 



GOOD PLAY. (Poker.) 231 

Instead of cutting them, which every player has the right to do. If 
you insist on shuffling, the greek will do the same in his turn, and 
•will run up hands to be dealt to himself. It is perfectly useless 
to endeavour to protect yourself against a poker sharp ; the only 
remedy is to leave the game. 

Many persons have a strong prejudice against playing with a 
man who shuffles his chips. The mere fact of his being an expert 
at chip shuffling has nothing to do with the game of poker, the 
accomplishment usually being the result of long experience at the 
faro table. The reason for the prejudice is that a chip shuffler is 
usually cold blooded, courageous, and seldom a loser at any game 
that requires nerve. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD FLAT. Volumes might 
be written for the guidance of the poker player without improving 
his game a particle, unless he possesses at least one of four quali- 
fications : Control over his features and actions ; judgment of 
human nature ; courage ; and patience. The man whose face or 
manner betrays the nature of his hand, or the effect of an oppo- 
nent's bet or raise, will find everyone to beat his weak hands, and 
no one to call his strong ones. Unless he is a fair judge of human 
nature he will never be able to estimate the strength or peculiari- 
ties of the players to whom he is opposed, and will fail to dis- 
tinguish a bluff from an ambuscade. Without courage he cannot 
reap the full benefit of his good hands ; and without patience he 
cannot save his money in the time of adversity. 

Of one thing every player may rest assured, and that is that 
Poker cannot be played by mathematical formulas. Beyond the 
most elementary calculations of the chances in favour of certain 
events the theory of probabilities is of no assistance. It is not 
necessary to call in a mathematician to prove that a player who 
habitually discards a pair of aces to draw to three cards of a suit 
will lose by the operation in the long run. Nor will any amount 
of calculation convince some players that they are wasting their 
money to stay in a jack pot in order to draw to a pair of tens, 
although such is the fact. 

The various positions occupied by the player at the poker table 
may be briefly examined, and some general suggestions offered 
for his guidance in each of them. In the first place he should 
look out for his counters. It is always best for each player to place 
the amount of his ante or his bet immediately in front of him, so 
that there need be no dispute as to who is up, or who is shy. 
Above all it should be insisted that any player who has once put 
counters in the pool, and taken his hand from them, should not 
again take them down. 

T7ie Age is the most valuable position at the table, but it is 
seldom fully taken advantage of. The age should never look at 



232 (Poker,) GOOD PLAY. 

his hand until it is his turn to make good his blind. He may pick 
up his cards, but he should use his eyes in following the manner 
and facial expression of the other players as they sort their cards. 
One of the greatest errors made by the age is in thinking that he 
must save his blind. The player who draws to nothing because 
he can do so cheaply, will usually have nothing to draw at the end 
of the game. The age can usually afford to draw to four-card 
flushes, and to straights open at both ends, but should not do so 
when there are less than three who have paid to draw cards, or 
when the ante has been raised. 

If the age holds Kings or better before the draw, he should in- 
variably raise the ante unless there are five players in the pool be- 
sides himself, or unless some other player has already raised. If 
he holds two pairs, he should do all his betting before the draw. 
If any other player has raised, or his own raise is re-raised, the age 
must use his judgment of the player and the circumstances. It is 
useless for the age to disguise his hand by such manoeuvres as 
holding up an odd card to a pair, unless he raises the blind at the 
same time. If he draws one or two cards only, and has not raised 
the blind, every one will credit him for a small pair and an ace, or 
for a bobtail, and will inevitably call any bluff he may make. The 
age is the poorest position at the table for a bluff, but it is decid- 
edly the best in which to win large pots with moderate hands. 

The Dealer has the next best position to the age, and in large 
parties there is very little difference in the way in which the two 
positions should be played. 

T\\& first bettor has the worst position at the table and he 
should seldom come in on less than Queens. He should seldom 
raise the ante, even with two pairs, as he will only drive others 
out. In this position very little can be made out of good hands, 
because every one expects to find them there ; but it offers many 
excellent opportunities for successful bluffing. A player in this 
position should never straddle. Many players endeavour to force 
their luck in this way, but it is a losing game, and the best players 
seldom or never straddle. Having to make the first bet after the 
draw, it is usualfor the player in this position, if he has an average 
hand, to chip along, by simply betting a single counter, and 
waiting for developments. With a strong hand, it is best to bet 
its full value at once, on the chance that the bet may be taken for 
a bluff, and called. 

Other Positions, As the positions go round the table from 
the first bettor to the age, they become more desirable, and little 
need be said of them beyond the consideration of the average 
strength necessary for a player to go in on. 

GOING J-2V". There is a great difference of opinion as to the 
minimum value of a hand which should justify a player in draw- 



QOOB PLAY. (Poker.) 233 

I'nj^ cards if he can do so for the usual ante. In close games 
many players make it a rule not to go in on less than tens, while 
in more liberal circles the players will draw to any pair. In 
determining which course to follow, the individual must be guided 
by his observation and judgment. Suppose five play, and A 
observes that B and C constantly draw to small pairs, while D 
and E never come in on less than tens. If A has the age, B, D, 
and E having anted, A may be sure that there are at least two 
good hands against him, and will guide himself accordingly. But 
if B and C are the only players in, A may safely draw to a small 
pair. It can be mathematically demonstrated that what is called 
an average go-in hand should be at least a pair of tens ; but 
a player who waits for tens in a liberal game, in which others are 
drawing to ace high, will ante himself away if there are many jack 
pots, and will get no calls when he gets a hand. 

HETTING. Good players are guided by the general charac- 
ter of the game in which they take part. Some parties play a 
very liberal game, and the players bet high on medium hands, and 
give every one a good fight. It is best to have liberal or lucky 
players on your right ; because if they sit behind you, they will 
continually raise you, and you will be forced either to overbid 
your hand on the same liberal scale that they adopt, or lose what 
you have already put up. If a liberal player sits on your right 
you will often be able to make large winnings on moderate hands. 
In a close game, when the players bet in a niggardly manner, the 
liberal player is at a great disadvantage ; for he can win little or 
nothing on his good hands, but will lose large amounts when he 
runs up the betting on a good hand which is opposed to one that 
is better. When a liberal player finds a close player following 
him freely, he may be sure there is a very strong hand against 
him. 

VAJRIETY, Above all things a player should avoid regular- 
ity in his play, because observ.ant adversaries will soon learn his 
methods. The best players usually play two pairs pat, without 
drawing, about half the time. This gives them the reputation of 
betting on pat hands which are not genuine, and when they get 
one that is real, they will often succeed in getting a good bet, or 
even a raise, from those holding triplets or two large pairs, who 
have noticed them play two pairs pat. In the same way it is 
advisable to hold up an odd card occasionally, without raising the 
ante ; so that when you do hold triplets, and draw two cards, you 
will not frighten every one at the table. The chances of improving 
a pair by drawing three cards, are one in three ; and by drawing 
two cards only, one in four. The difference is worth the moral 
effect of the variation in the play. 

PROBABILITIES. The endless poker statistics that 
have been published are of little or no value to the practical player. 



234 (Poker.) PROBABILITIES. 

and there are only a few figures that are worth remembering, It 
is a general law in all games of chance that you should never do a 
thing which you would not be willing to repeat under the same 
circumstances a hundred times. The best example of the appli- 
cation of this law is in drawing to bobtails. If you have a four- 
card flush to draw to, the odds against getting it are about four to 
one ; and unless you can obtain the privilege of drawing to it by 
paying not more than one-fifth of the amount in the pool, you will 
lose by it in the long run. The best players never draw to four- 
card flushes except when they have the age, and the ante has not 
been raised. 

There are some players who pretend to be so guided by proba- 
bilities that they never go into a pool unless the chances in favour 
of their having a good hand after the draw are at least equal to 
the odds they have to bet by going into the pool. This is all 
nonsense ; for no player knows when he goes into a pool how 
much it will cost him to get out, and the value of his individual 
hand is an unknown quantity at the best, because it cannot be 
compared to the others. One thing only is certain, and that is 
that in the long run the player who goes in with the strongest 
hand will still have the strongest hand after the draw. This is an 
important thing to remember in jack pots, in which the value of 
at least one hand is known. If you draw to a pair smaller than 
Jacks, you do so with the full knowledge that the pair itself is not 
strong enough to win. Now what are the odds against your win- 
ning the pool .-* Suppose you hold tens, and draw three cards. Your 
chance of improving your hand is a little better than one in five. 
The opener of the jack pot has exactly the same chance, and if both 
of you draw cards a hundred times under those circumstances, he 
will beat you in the long run, to say nothing of the other players 
who may come in and beat both of you. It is therefore evident 
that in backing tens against openers, it is four to one against your 
beating the openers to begin with, and if you do beat them the 
odds are still against your winning* the pot. If there were five 
players, and the jack pots were all equal in amount, you would 
have to win one pot out of five to make your investment pay. 
Can you make this average when your original pair will not beat 
openers } 

There are three principles with regard to the draw that should 
never be lost sight of : 

(1) An average go-in hand is a hand which will win its propor- 
tion of the pools, according to the number playing, taking all 
improvements and opposition into account. This can be demon- 
strated to be a pair of tens. 

(2) The draw is much more valuable to a weak hand than to a 
strong one, and weak hands will improve in much greater pro- 
portion than strong ones will. For instance : The chances for a 



PROBABILITIES. 



(Poker.) 235 



player to improve by drawing to a pair of Queens are one in three 
and a half. He may make two pairs, or triplets, or a full hand, or 
four of a kind. The chances of improvement for a player drawing 
to two pairs, say Eights up, are only one in thirteen. This con- 
sideration leads players to adopt two lines of play : To bet all they 
intend to on two pairs before the draw, in order to prevent weaker 
hands drawing cards and improving; or, to discard the smaller 
pair in order to increase their chances of improvement. 

(3) The smaller the number of players, the greater the value of 
the hands ; and the larger the number of players, the greater the 
chance that any given hand will be beaten. When only two play, 
you can safely bet the limit on a pair of Eights ; but in a party of 
eight players they are hardly worth drawing to. For this reason 
average hands should force the weaker out, and reduce the num- 
ber of players before the draw. 

For the benefit of those interested in such matters tlie prob- 
able iinprovenient by the draw may be briefly given. 

It is 2^ to I against improving a pair by drawing three 
cards ; the chances against making triplets or two pairs being 8 to 
I ; against a full hand, 6i to i ; and against four of a kind, 364 to i. 
It is 4 to I against improving a pair by drawing two cards ; the 
chances against triplets being 12 to i,and 8 to i against two pairs. 

It is 12 to I against making a full hand by drawing to two 
pairs. 

It is 8 to I against improving triplets by drawing two cards; 
x^Yi to I against a full hand, and 23 to i against four of a kind. 
It is 12 to I against improving if one card is drawn ; 16 to i against 
the full, and 46 to i against four of a kind. 

It is 1 1 to I against making a straight out of a sequence of four 
cards which is open in the middle, or at one end only. It is 5 to I 
against making a straight out of a sequence of four which is open 
at both ends. 



i 




*** 







♦ ♦ 



In-between Straight. 










%* 

♦ ♦ 

♦ * 




<> 





Open-end Straight. 



It is 41^ to I against filling a four-card flush. It is 23 to I 
against filling a three-card flush. It is 95 to i against filling a two- 
card flush. 

It is 3 to I against improving a four-card straight flush which is 
open at both ends. The chances against getting the straight or 
the flush have been given ; the odds against getting the straight 
flush are 24 to i. The chance for getting a pair exists ; but the 
pair would probably be worthless. 



236 (Poker.) HO W TO WIN. 

It is 4 to I against improving a four-card straight flush open in 
the middle, or at one end only ; the odds against getting the 
straight flush being 46 to i . 

There are several minor or speculative draws which may be of 
interest. Drawing to an ace and a King, it is 3 to i against mak- 
ing a pair of either. It is 4 to i against making a pair of aces by 
drawing four cards to an ace ; and 12 to i against making aces 
up, or better. It is 24 to i against making a straight by drawing to 
three cards of it, open at both ends. It is 12 to i against mak- 
ing either a straight or a flush by drawing to three cards of a 
straight flush, open at both ends. 

HOW TO WIN AT POKER. There have been many 
alleged infallible receipts for winning at Poker. Proctor thought 
that refusing to go in on less than triplets would prove a certainty ; 
but in the same paragraph he acknowledges that the adversaries 
would soon learn the peculiarity, and avoid betting against the 
player. Triplets before the draw occur about once in every 45 
hands. If five were playing, a person following Proctor's advice 
would have to blind 9 times, and ante in at least 12 jack pots in 
every 45 hands, to say nothing of fattening. This means an out- 
lay of at least 75 counters. When the triplets come, will he get 
back 75 counters on them } He will probably win the blind, and 
one or two antes ; but the moment he makes his own ante good, 
every player who cannot beat triplets, knowing his system, will 
lay down his hand. 

An extensive observation of the methods of the best players 
has led the author to the conclusion that the great secret of suc- 
cess in Poker, apart from natural aptitude for the game, and being 
a good actor, is to avoid calling. If you think you have the 
best hand, raise. If you think you have not the best, lay it down. 
Although you may sometimes lay down a better hand than the 
one that takes the pool, the system will prove of immense advan- 
tage to you in two ways : In the first place, you will find it a great 
educator of the judgment ; and in the second place, it will take 
almost any opponent's nerve. Once an adversary has learned 
your method, it is not a question of his betting a red chip on his 
hand ; but of his willingness to stand a raise of two blues, which 
he will regard as inevitable if you come in against him at all. The 
fear of this raise will prompt many a player to lay down a moder- 
ately good hand without a bet ; so that you have all the advantage 
of having made a strong bluff without having put up a chip. The 
system will also drive all but the most courageous to calling your 
hand on every occasion, being afraid of a further and inevitable 
raise ; and it is an old saying that a good caller is a sure loser. 

The theory of calling is to get an opportunity to compare your 
hand with your adversary's. Now, if you think that after the 
comparison yours will prove the better hand, why not increase the 



BLUFFING. (Poker.) 237 

value of the pool ? li, on the contrary, you fear that his hand 
will beat yours, why throw good money after bad? If you don't 
think at all about it, and have no means of forming an opinion as 
to the respective merits of your hands, you are not a poker player, 
and have no business in the game. 

HLJJFFIN'Cr. There is nothing connected with Poker on 
which persons have such confused ideas as on the subject of bluff- 
ing. The popular impression seems to be that a stiff upper lip, 
and a cheerful expression of countenance, accompanied by a bet 
of five dollars, will make most people lay down three aces ; and 
that this result will be brought about by the five-dollar bet, with- 
out any regard to the player's position at the table, the number of 
cards he drew, his manner of seeing or raising the ante, or the 
play of his adversaries before the draw. The truth of the matter 
is that for a bluff to be either sound in principle or successful in 
practice, the player must carefully select his opportunity. The 
bluff must be planned from the start, and consistently played from 
the ante to the end. To use a common expression : " The play 
must be right for it, or the bluff will be wrong." 

There are many cases in which a bluff of fifty cents would be 
much stronger than one of five dollars ; the difference depending 
on the player's position at the table, his treatment of the ante, and 
the number of cards he had drawn. As an example of the play 
being right for a bluff, take the following case : Five play in a 
jack pot. A and B have passed when C opens it for the limit. D 
and E pass out, but A and B both stay, and each draws one card. 
C takes two cards, and as it is his first bet he puts up the limit on 
his three aces. A drops out, but B raises C the limit in return. 
Now, if C is a goci player he will lay down his three aces, even if 
he faintly suspects B is bluffing, because B's play is sound in any 
case. He either could not, or pretended he could not open the 
jack ; but he could afford to pay the limit to draw one card against 
openers, and he could afford to raise the limit against an opener's 
evidently honest two-card draw. As a matter of fact the whole 
play was a bluff ; for B not only had nothing, but had nothing to 
draw to originally. 

Another variety of the bluff, which is the author's own invention, 
will often prove successful with strangers, but it can seldom be 
repeated in the same company. Suppose six play in a jack pot. 
A passes, and B opens it by quietly putting up his counters. C 
and D pass, and E, pretending not to know that B has opened it, 
announces that he will open it for the limit, although he has not a 
pair in his hand. He is of course immediately informed that it 
has teen opened, upon which he unhesitatingly raises it for the 
limit. Whatever the others do, E stands pat, and looks cheerful. 
The author has never known this bluff to be called. 



238 (Poker.) POKER LAWS. 

Holding a strong hand, a player may often coax another to 
raise him, by offering to divide the pool. 

The successful bluffer should never show his hand. Even if he 
starts the game by bluffing for advertising purposes, hoping to 
get called on good hands later, he should not shovv^ anything or 
tell anything that the others do not pay to see or know. Bluffing 
is usually more successful when a player is in a lucky vein than 
when he has been unfortunate. 



POKER LAWS. 

1. Formation of Table. A poker table is complete with 
seven players. If eight play the dealer must take no cards, or a 
sixty-card pack must be used. If there are more than seven can- 
didates for play, two tables must be formed unless the majority 
decide against it. 

2. Cutting. The players who shall form the table, and their 
positions at the beginning of the game may be decided by drawing 
from an outspread pack, or by throwing round a card to each can- 
didate, face up. If there are eight or more candidates, the tables 
shall divide evenly if the number is even, those cutting the highest 
cards playing together. If the number is odd, the smaller table 
shall be formed by those cutting the highest cards. In cutting, 
the ace is low. Any player exposing more than one card must 
cut again. 

3. The table formed, the players draw from the outspread pack 
for positions. The lowest cut has the first choice, and deals the 
first hand. The player cutting the next lowest has the next choice, 
and so on until all are seated. 

4. Ties. If players cut cards of equal value they must cut 
again ; but the new cut decides nothing but the tie. 

5. Stakes. Any player may be the banker, and keep the kitty, 
if any. In Draw, Straight, or Stud Poker, each player may pur- 
chase as many counters as he pleases. In Freeze-out, Table 
Stakes, Whiskey Poker, and Progressive Poker, each player must 
begin with an equal amount, 

6. Setting Limits. Before play begins limits must be 
agreed upon for the amount of the blind, the straddle, the ante in 
jack pots, and for betting or raising. 

7. Shuffling. Before the first deal the pack must be counted 
to see that it contains the proper number of cards. Should the 
first dealer neglect this he forfeits five counters to the pool. Be- 
fore each deal the cards must be shuffled. Any player may shuf- 
fle, the dealer last. 



TOKEB LAWS. (Poker.) 23^ 

8. Cutting to the Dealer. The dealer must present the pack 
to the pone, [the player on his right,] to be cut. The pone may 
either cut, or signify that he does not wish to do so, by tapping the 
pack with his knuckles. Should the pone decline to cut, no other 
player can insist on his doing so, nor do it for him. If he cuts, he 
must leave at least four cards in each packet, and the dealer or 
the pone must re-unite the packets by placing the one not removed 
in cutting upon the other. 

9. If in cutting, or in re-uniting the packets, a card is exposed, 
the pack must be re-shuffled and cut. 

10. If the dealer re-shuffles the pack after it has been properly 
cut, he forfeits five counters to the current pool. 

11. Dealing Sefore the Draw. After the age, [the 
player on the dealer's left,] has put up the amount of the blind, the 
dealer distributes the cards face down, one at a time, in rotation, 
until each player has received five cards. 

12. The deal passes to the left, except in jack pots, when it may 
be agreed that the same dealer shall deal until the pot is opened. 

IB. Misdealing. A misdeal does not lose the deal ; the 
same dealer must deal again. It is a misdeal : If the dealer fails 
to present the pack to the pone ; or if any card is found faced in 
the pack ; or if the pack is found imperfect ; or if the dealer gives 
six or more cards to more than one player ; or if he deals more or 
fewer hands than there are players ; or if he omits a player in 
dealing ; or if he deals a card incorrectly, and fails to correct the 
error before dealing another. 

14:. Irregularities in the Hands. Should the dealer, or 
the wind, turn over any card, the player to whom it is dealt must 
take it ; but the same player cannot be compelled to take two ex- 
posed cards. Should such a combination occur there must be a 
new deal. If the player exposes cards himself, he has no remedy, 

15. Should any player receive more or less than his proper num- 
ber of cards, and discover the error before he looks at any card in 
his hand, or lifts it from the table, he may demand a new deal if 
no bet has been made ; or he may ask the dealer to give him an- 
other card from the pack if he has too few, or to draw a card if he 
has too many. Cards so drawn must not be exposed, but should 
be placed on the top of the pack. If a bet has been made, there 
must be a new deal. Should the player take up his hand, or look 
at any card in it, he has no remedy. 

16. Should a player take up a hand containing more or less 
than five cards, or look at any card in it, such a hand is foul, and 
he must abandon it, forfeiting any interest he may have in that 
pool. If one player has six cards and his neighbour four, neither 



240 (Poker.) POKER LAWS. 

having lifted or looked at any card, the dealer may be called upon 
to draw a card from the six hand and give it to the four hand. 

17» Straddling. During the deal, or at any time before he 
looks at any card in his hand, the player to the left of the age may 
straddle the blind by putting up double the amount put up by 
the age. Should he straddle, the player on his left may double 
the amount again, provided he has not seen any of his cards ; and 
so on, until the limit of the straddling is reached. This limit must 
not exceed one-fourth of the betting limit. Should any player in 
his turn refuse to straddle, no other player on his left can straddle. 

18, The Ante, After the cards are dealt, each player in turn, 
■beginning vv^ith the one to the left of the age, or to the left of the 

last straddler, if any, must either abandon his hand or put into the 
pool twice the amount of the blind, or of the last straddle. When 
it comes to the turn of the age, and the straddlers, if any, they 
must either abandon their hands, or make the amount they have 
in the pool equal to twice the amount of the blind, or of the last 
straddle, if any. 

19, liaising the Ante. Each player, when it is his turn 
to come in, may add to the amount of the ante any sum within the 
betting limit. This will compel any player coming in after him to 
equal the total of the ante and the raise, or to abandon his hand ; 
and it will also give such following player the privilege of raising 
again by any further amount within the betting limit. Should any 
player dechne to equal the amount put up by any previous player, 
he must abandon his hand, together with all his interest in that 
pool. Any player who has been raised in this manner may raise 
again in his turn ; and not until each player holding cards has anted 
an equal amount will the game proceed. 

20, Winning the Antes, Should any player have put up 
an amount which no other player will equal, he takes whatever 
counters are then in the pool, without showing his hand, and the 
deal passes to the next player on the dealer's left. Should only 
one player come in, and the age decline to make good his ante, the 
player who has come in wins the blind, unless jack pots are 
played. Should any player have straddled the blind, or raised the 
ante, there can be no jack pot. 

21, MaMftg Jacks, If no player will come in, it is a 
Natural Jack, and all the hands must be abandoned, each player 
putting up for the ensuing deal the amount agreed upon. If no 
one has straddled the blind, or raised the ante, and only one player 
has come in, the age may do one of four things : He may forfeit 
his blind ; or he may make the ante good ; or he may raise it ; or he 
may demand that the single player who has come in shall take 
down his ante, the age putting up twice the amount agreed upon 
for jack pots ; once for himself, and once for the player who came 



POKER LAWS. (Poker.) 241 

in. All the other players must then put up for the ensuing deal. 
This is an Only-Two-In Jack. 

22. JOrawing Cards. When two or more players have 
come in for an equal amount, the others having abandoned their 
hands, each of them in turn, beginning with the one on the 
dealer's left, may discard any or all of the cards originally dealt 
him, and draw others in their place. The number discarded and 
drawn, if any, must be distinctly announced by each player, includ- 
ing the dealer; and the fresh cards must be given face down from 
the top of the pack, without any further shuffling or cutting. Each 
player must receive the entire number he asks for before the next 
player is helped. No player shall receive from the dealer more or 
fewer than he discards ; so that if he is playing with a short hand, 
such as four cards only, he will still have four cards after the 
draw ; and if his hand was originally foul, it will so remain. 

23. Exposed Cards. In dealing for the draw, should any 
card be found faced in the pack, or should any card be exposed by 
the dealer in giving out the cards, or be blown over by the wind 
before the player has touched it, such cards must be placed on the 
table with the discards. The player whose card has been ex- 
posed does not receive another in its place until all the other play- 
ers, including the dealer, have been helped. 

24. Incorrect Draws. Should any player ask for an in- 
correct number of cards, he must take them ; unless he discovers 
the error before the next player has been helped. If too many 
have been asked for, he must discard before seeing them. If too 
few, and he lifts any of them, he holds a foul hand. No player is 
allowed to take back into his hand any card that has once been 
discarded. If he has taken up the cards, or has seen any of them, 
and has too many, his hand is foul, and must be abandoned. If 
the dealer gives himself more cards than he needs, he must take 
them ; but if less, he can supply the deficiency, provided he has 
not looked at any of the drawn cards. 

25. Incorrect Dealing. Should the dealer give any player 
more or fewer cards than he asks for, and the player discover the 
error before taking them up or seeing any of them, the dealer 
must withdraw the surplus card, and place it on the top of the 
pack. Should the dealer give a player fewer cards than he asks 
for, he must supply the deficiency when his attention is called to 
it, without waiting to supply the other players. Should the dealer 
give cards to any player out of his proper turn, he may correct the 
error if none of the cards have been seen ; not otherwise. 

26. The Last Card of the pack must not be dealt. When 
only two cards remain, and more than one is asked for, they must 
be mixed with the discards and abandoned hands, and the whole 
shuffled together, and presented to the pone to be cut. Discards 
of those who have yet to draw must not be gathered. 



242 (Poker.) POKEB LAWS. 

27. After the cards have been delivered by the dealer, no 
player has the right to be informed how many cards any player 
drew ; and any person, bystander or player, volunteering the in- 
formation, except the player himself, may be called upon to pay to 
the player against whom he informs an amount equal to that then 
in the pool. Any player who has made good the ante and drawn 
cards may, before making a bet, ask how many cards the dealer 
drew, and the dealer must inform him. 

28. Betting After the Draw. The first player who holds 
cards on the left of the age must make the first bet, whether he 
has straddled or not. If he declines to bet he must abandon his 
hand. The fact that the age is not playing makes no difference, 
as his privilege cannot be transferred to any other player. Bets 
may vary in amount from one counter to the betting limit. If no 
player will bet, the age takes the pool without showing his hand ; 
or, if he has passed out before the draw, the last player on his 
right who holds cards wins the pool. 

29. Raising the Sets. Should any player make a bet, 
each player in turn on his left must either bet an equal amount or 
abandon his hand. Should any player bet an equal amount, he 
has the privilege of increasing the bet to any further sum within 
the betting limit. The players on his left must then either meet 
the total amount of the original bet and the raise, or abandon their 
hands. Any player meeting the amount already bet has the privi- 
lege of increasing it to any further amount within the limit, and so 
on, until no further raises take place. Any player whose bet has 
been raised must abandon his hand or meet the raise, with the 
privilege of raising again in return. Should one player make a bet 
or raise which no other player will see, he takes the pool without 
showing his hand, and the cards are shufifled and cut for the next 
deal. 

30. Calling the Sets. As long as one player raises an- 
other's bets, he gives that player the privilege of raising him 
again ; but if a player who has made a bet is not raised, the others 
simply betting an equal amount, the first bettor is called, and all 
betting must cease, The players must then show their hands to 
the table, in order to decide which wins the pool. 

31. Bets must be actually made by placing the counters in the 
pool, and no bet is made until the player's hand has been with- 
drawn from the counters. Any counters once placed in the pool, 
and the owner's hand withdrawn, cannot be taken down again, ex- 
cept by the winner of the pool. 

32. Betting Out of Turn. Should any player bet out of 
his turn, he cannot take down his counters again if he has removed 
his hand from them. Should the player whose proper turn it was 



FOKEB LAWS. (Poker.) 243 

raise the bet, the player who bet out of turn must either meet the 
raise or abandon his hand, and all interest in that pool. 

33. Mouth Bets. Any player stating that he bets a cer- 
tain amount, but failing to put up the actual counters in the pool, 
cannot be called upon to make the amount good after the hands 
are shown, or the pool is won. If the players opposed to him 
choose to accept a mouth bet against the counters they have al- 
ready put up, they have no remedy, as no value is attached to 
what a player says ; his cards and his counters speak for them- 
selves. Any player wishing to raise a mouth bet has the privilege 
of raising by mouth, instead of by counters; but he cannot be 
called upon to make the amount good after the hands are shown, 
or the pool has been won. 

34. Showing Hands. When a call is made, all the hands 
must be shown to the table, and the best poker hand wins the 
pool. Any player declining to show his hand, even though he 
admits that it is not good, must pay an amount equal to the ante 
to each of the players at the table ; or, if jack pots are played, he 
must put up for all of them in the next jack pot. When the 
hands are called, there is no penalty for mis-calling a hand ; the 
cards, like the counters, speak for themselves. 

35. ManJc of the Sands. The best poker hand is a 
Royal Flush; A K Q J lo of the same suit, which beats a 

Straight Flush ; any sequence of five cards of the same suit. 

Four of a Kind ; such as four id's and an odd card. 

FuU Hand ; three of a kind and a pair, such as three 8's and 
a pair of Q's, which beats a 

Flush; five cards of the same suit, but not in sequence. 

Straight; five cards in sequence, but of various suits. In 
straights, the Ace cannot be used to form such combinations as Q 
K A 2 3 ; but it may be used as the bottom of 5 4 3 2, or the top 
of 10 J Q K. Straights beat 

Three of a Kind ; such as three K's and two odd cards. 

Two Pairs ; such as two 9's and two 7's, with an odd card. 

u4. Pair ; such as two Aces and three odd cards. 

If no pair is shown, the Highest Card wins. 

A short hand, such as four cards, cannot be claimed as either a 
straight or a flush. 

36. Ties. In case of ties, the highest of the odd cards de- 
cides it. Ultimate ties must divide the pool. When combinations 
of equal rank are shown, the one containing the highest cards wins, 
the rank of the cards being, AKQ J 1098765432; so that 
two pairs, K's and 4's, will beat two pairs, Q's and J's. Three 5's 
and a pair of 2's, will beat three 4's and a pair of aces. 



244 (Poker.) JACK POT LAWS. 

JACK POT LAWS. 

37* The Antes. There is neither age nor straddle in jack 
pots. Every one at the table must ante an equal amount. Any 
player may decline to ante, by saying : " I pass this jack ; " and 
the dealer will give him no cards. 

38. _ Opening. After the cards are dealt, each player in turn, 
beginning on the dealer's left, may open the pot for any amount he 
pleases within the betting limit, provided he holds a pair of Jacks, or 
some hand better than a pair of Jacks. If he does not hold openers, 
or does not wish to open the pot with them, he must say : " I pass ; " 
but must not abandon his hand, under penalty of paying five count- 
ers to the pool. 

39. False Openers. Should a player open a jack without 
the hand to justify it, and discover his error before he draws, his 
hand is foul, and he forfeits whatever amount he may have already 
placed in the pool. Those who have come into the pool after the 
false opening, stay in and play for the pot, regardless of the value 
of the hands dealt them. 

40. Fattening. If no player will open, the cards are re- 
shuffled, cut, and dealt, usually by the same dealer, and each 
player adds one counter to the pool. 

41. Coming In. If any player opens the pot for a certain 
amount, each player in turn, on his left, can come in by putting up 
a similar amount, regardless of the value of his hand. Any player 
on the right of the opener who passed on the first round may now 
come in. Any player declining to put up the amount for which 
the pot is opened must abandon his hand, and all his interest in 
the pool. 

42. Raising the Opener. Any player coming into the 
pool has the privilege of raising the original opener any amount 
within the betting limit, and he may in turn be raised again, just 
as in the ordinary pools. Should the opener decline to meet such 
a raise, he must show his entire hand before abandoning it. If he 
declines to do so, he must pay the antes for all the other players 
for another jack. It is not enough to show openers before the 
draw, the whole hand must be shown. 

43. Drawing Cards. Each player in turn who has come 
in, beginning on the left of the dealer, may discard and draw, to 
improve his hand. The opener is allowed to split his openers, pro- 
vided it is the rule of the game that the opener shall always put his 
discard under the chips in the pool, whether he is going to split or 
not. The opener's discard must never be gathered in with other 
discards when the pack runs short for the draw. 



STRAIGBT POKEE. (Poker.) 245 

44. False Sands. If a false opener does not discover his 
mistake until after he has drawn cards, his hand is foul, and must 
be abandoned. As a penalty he must put up an ante for each of 
the other players at the table for another Jack. 

4:5. netting the Hands. The opener makes the first bet ; 
or, if he has withdrawn, the player next on his left. Should the 
opener decline to bet after the draw, he must show his openers 
before abandoning his hand. He need not show the cards he has 
drawn. If no bet is made, the last player holding cards takes the 
pool without showing his hand. If a bet is made, the game pro- 
ceeds as in the ordinary pools. Should the opener retire during 
the betting, he must show his openers ; if he is in the final- call he 
must show his entire hand, whether it is the best or not. If he or 
any other player declines to show his hand when a call is made, 
he must ante for all the other players fo*" another jack. 

4:6. Shy Bets. If any player is shy in a jack pot, whether 
from failure to put up his ante, to fatten, or to substantiate his 
mouth bets with counters, nothing can be collected from him after 
a call has been made, or the pot has been won. 



STRAIGHT POKER 

Straight Poker or Bluff is played with a full pack of fifty-two 
cards, and any number of players from one to eight. The arrange- 
ments for counters, seats, and deal are exactly the same as in 
Draw Poker, but the method of anteing and betting up the hands 
is slightly different. There is no draw to improve the hand, and 
no such combination as a straight flush is recognized, four of a 
kind being the highest hand possible. 

The ante and betting limit must be decided before play begins. 
The first dealer is provided with a buck,, which should be a pen- 
knife, or some similar article. Before dealing, he puts up the 
amount of the ante for all the players, and then 2>asses the buck 
to the player on his left, who must ante for all the players in the 
next pool. There is no variation of the amount of the ante under 
any circumstances, and the buck is passed round the table in this 
manner irrespective of the deal, which is taken by the player 
winning the pool. The laws for the deal and its irregularities are 
the same as in Draw Poker, except that it does not pass to the 
left. 

The cards dealt, each in turn, beginning with the player to the 
left of the dealer, may either bet or pass. Should all pass, the 



246 (Poker.) STUD FOKEB. 

holder of the buck antes, making a double pool, and p^ses the 
buck. The deal then passes to the left. Should any player make 
a bet, each in turn, beginning with the one on his left, must call it, 
raise it, or abandon his hand. Players who have passed the first 
time, must now decide. The rules for seeing, raising, calling, and 
showing hands are precisely the same as at Draw Poker. 

Owing to the absence of the draw, there is no clue to the 
strength of an opponent's hand, except his manner, and the 
amount of his bet. The hands shown are much weaker than the 
average of those at Draw Poker, being about equal to hands that a 
player in that game would come in on. Triplets are very strong 
at Straight Poker, and two pairs will win three out of four pools in 
a five-handed game. The great element of success is bluff. 



STUD POKER, 

The arrangements for the cards, seats, antes, buck, etc., are pre- 
cisely as at Straight Poker ; but in dealing, only the first card is 
dealt face down, the remaining four being turned up by the dealer 
as he gives them out. Each player in turn then looks at his down 
cardf and the betting proceeds as in Straight Poker, each player 
having the privilege of passing .once before a bet is made. 

A much more popular method is to stop the deal at two cards, 
each player having received one face down, and another face up. 
The best card showing then makes the first bet, and each player 
in turn must meet it, raise it, or pass out of that pool. If no one 
will call, the player making the bet takes the pool, and the next 
deal. If a bet is made and called, those in the call do not show 
their down cards, but are each given another card, face up, and 
the same betting process is gone through, the best hand showing 
face up making the first bet in each round. As long as two or 
more players remain in the pool they are given more cards until 
they have five. Then the final betting is done, and if a call is 
made, the down cards are shown, and the best poker hand wins the 
pool. Straight flushes do not count. 



WHISKEY POKEB. (Poker.) 247 

WHISKEY POKER 

The arrangements for the cards, seats, etc., are the same as in 
Draw Poker. Each player is provided with an equal number of 
white counters, which may have a value attached to them, or 
which may simply represent markers. If the counters represent 
money, each player should have at least twenty ; if they are only 
markers, five is the usual number. 

If the game is played for money, each player puts one counter 
in the pool before the cards are dealt. There is no raising or bet- 
ting of any kind. 

An extra hand, called the widow, is dealt face down at Whis- 
key Poker. The dealer gives each player and the widow five cards, 
one at a time, beginning on his left, and dealing to the widow 
just before he deals to himself. Each player in turn, beginning 
with the age, then examines his hand, and has the option of ex- 
changing it for the widow ; keeping it for the purpose of drawing 
to it ; or risking his chances of winning the pool with it as it is. 

If he wishes to exchange, he must place his five cards face up- 
ward on the table, and take up the widow, but without showing it 
to any other player. The hand he abandons then becomes the 
widow. If he prefers to draw to his hand, he says : '* I pass,'* 
which transfers to the next player the option of taking the widow. 
If he wishes to stand on the merits of the hand dealt to him, with- 
out drawing to it, he Jcnocks on the table, which also passes the 
option of taking the widow to the next player on his left. 

If any player takes the widow, the next player on his left can do 
any one of three things : He may discard from his own hand any 
card he pleases, taking one from the widow in its stead ; the card 
which he discards being placed on the table face upward, and be- 
coming part of the widow ; or he may exchange his entire hand 
for the widow ; or he may stand on the hand dealt him, and knock. 
Whether he draws one card, exchanges his entire hand, or knocks, 
the next player on his left has the option of drawing, exchanging, 
or knocking ; and so on, until some player does knock. 

Should no player take the widow until it comes to the dealer's 
turn, he must either take it, or turn it face upward on the table. 
Even if the dealer knocks, he must turn up the widow, and allow 
each player an opportunity to draw from it, or to exchange his en- 
tire hand for it. 

When a player knocks, he signifies that no matter what the 
players following him may do, when it comes to his turn again the 
hands must be shown. A player cannot draw and knock at the 
same time ; but a player can refuse to draw or exchange after an- 



248 (Poker.) PBOGBESSIVE FOKER. 

other player has knocked, not before. In some localities it is the 
rule to turn the widow face up at once if any player knocks before 
it is taken ; allowing all those after the knock an opportunity to 
draw or exchange ; but this is not the usual custom. 

Suppose five play. E deals, and A passes ; B takes the widow ; 
C and D draw from B's abandoned hand, and E knocks ; without 
drawing, of course. A, who passed the lirst time, now has an op- 
portunity to draw or exchange. So have each of the others in 
turn, up to D ; but after D draws or exchanges, the hands must be 
shown, because the next player, E, has knocked. 

When the hands are shown, there are two ways to settle : If 
the counters have a money value, the best poker hand wins the 
pool, and the deal passes to the left. If the counters have no 
money value, there is no pool ; but the player who has the worst 
hand shown puts one of his counters in the middle of the table. 
This continues until some player has lost all five of his counters, 
and he is then called upon to pay for the whiskey, or whatever re- 
freshments may be at stake upon the game. Hence the name : 
Whiskey Poker. 

THIRTY-ONE. 

This game is sometimes called Schnautz. A pool is made up 
by any number of players. The dealer takes a pack of fifty-two 
cards and gives three to each, face down, and three extra cards to 
the table, dealt face up. Each player in turn to the left can ex- 
change one of his own cards for one of those on the table, the 
object being to get a flush of three cards of some suit having a pip 
value of thirty-one ; or else to get three of a kind. 

The aces are worth ii, the other court cards and the ten, lo 
each. If no one can get a flush worth thirty-one, three of a kind 
wins the pool. If no one has three of a kind, the highest pip value 
shown in one suit wins. Drawing is kept up until some player 
knocks, after which only one more draw is allowed, the knocker 
not being allowed to draw again. A player can knock without 
drawing at all if he wishes to prevent the others from beating his 
original hand. 

PROGRESSIVE POKER. 

There are several ways to play Progressive Poker, but the 
description of one will suffice. The simplest method of arranging 
the players is to take two packs of cards, one red and one blue, 
and to select two aces from each for the four positions at the 
head table ; three deuces, treys, etc., for the six positions at each 



PROGRESSIVE POKER. (Poker.) 249 

of the other tables until the last or booby table is reached, at which 
there must be only four players at starting. If there are not 
enough players to make exactly six at each of the intermediate 
tables, the numbers may be varied from four to seven, cards 
being selected to agree with the number required ; but the head 
and booby tables must start with four only. The cards thus 
selected are then thoroughly shuffled, and presented face down- 
ward to the ladies to draw from. Each lady takes a red-backed 
card, the gentlemen drawing the blue cards only. The number 
of pips on the card drawn will indicate to each person the table 
at which they are to sit. Should the number of men and women 
not be equal, some of the men must represent women or vice 
versa. 

Each player is provided at starting with a certain number of 
counters, usually fifty. The head table is supplied with a box of 
counters differing in colour from any of those used by the players, 
and also with a bell. The choice of seats, deal, etc., is decided at 
each table exactly as at Draw Poker. 

One deal is made at each table, ordinary Draw Poker is played, 
and when the pool is decided at the head table the bell is struck. 
This is the signal for the winner of the pool at each of the other 
tables to move up to the table next above. At the head table, the 
chips are counted, and the player with the smallest number in his 
possession goes down to the booby table, unless he was one of the 
players in the call. Should the player with the smallest number of 
chips be the winner of the pool, or one of those who called the win- 
ner, he retains his seat, and the player with the smallest number of 
counters who was not in the call goes to the booby table. This 
arrangement effectually prevents players at the head table from 
waiting for big hands. In case of ties, the players cut to decide 
which shall go down, the lowest cut remaining. The winner of 
each pool at the head table is given one of the special chips pro- 
vided for that purpose, and which are usually yellow, the others 
being red, white, and blue. 

Any player losing all his counters at any table must get a fresh 
stake of fifty more from the banker, and must then exchange seats 
with the player at the booby table who has the most counters. 

Three or four prizes are usually provided for : One for the 
player who has won the greatest number of yellow chips at the 
head table, and one each for the lady and gentleman winning the 
greatest number of counters during the evening's play. Those 
who have been provided with an extra stake must be charged with 
it when settling up. In case of ties for the number of yellow 
chips, the player with the largest number of ordinary counters 
wins. The booby prize, if any, is usually given to the player with 
the smallest number of ordinary chips, or the fewest number of 
yellow ones. 



250 (Brag.) 



BRAG. 



There are two varieties of this old English game ; single, and 
three-stake Brag. Both are played with a full pack of fifty-two 
cards ; the positions of the players, arrangements for counters, de- 
cision of the betting limit, etc., being the same as in Draw Poker. 
Three to twelve players may form a table. 

There is a special value attached to three cards which are known 
as braggers. These again have a rank of their own ; the best 
being the ace of diamonds ; then the Jack of diuhs, and 
then tlie nine of diamonds. AW other cards rank as in Poker. 
A player to whom any one of these braggers is dealt may call it 
anything he pleases. If he has a pair of nines and a bragger, or a 
nine and two braggers, he may call them three nines, and bet on 
them as such. In this respect braggers resemble mistigris, already 
described in connection with Draw'Poker ; but in Brag a natural 
pair or triplet outranks one made with the aid of a bragger. Three 
eights will beat an eight and two braggers. 

The dealer must put up an ante before the cards are cut. This 
ante may be any amount he pleases within the betting limit. No 
player can straddle or raise this ante until the cards are dealt. Be- 
ginning on his left the dealer distributes the cards face down, and 
one at a time, until each player has received three. Beginning 
with the age, [eldest hand,] each player in turn must put up an 
amount equal to the dealer's ante, or abandon his hand. He may, 
if he chooses, raise the ante any further amount within the betting 
limit. All those following him must meet the total sum put up by 
any individual player, increase it, or pass out. In this respect Brag 
is precisely similar to the betting after the draw at Poker. 

If no one will see the dealer's ante, he must be paid one white 
counter by each of the other players, and the deal passes to the 
left. Should any player bet an amount which no other player will 
meet, he takes the pool without showing his hand. Should a call 
be made, all the hands must be shown, and the best brag hand 
wins. 

Pairs and triplets are the only combinations of any value, and of 
course three aces is the best hand ; two aces and the club Jack be- 
ing the next best. If none of the hands shown contains either a 
natural pair or a bragger, the highest card wins, the ace ranking 
above the King. In case of equal natural pairs, the highest card 
outside the pair wins. Should the pairs tied both be made with a 
bragger, the highest bragger wins. Two odd cards, seven high, 
with the club Jack, would beat two cards seven high with the dia- 
mond nine. 

Three Stahe JBrag, In this variation each player puts up 
three equal amounts to form three equal pools. These amounts 



VARIETIES OF BRAG, (Brag.) 251 

must be invariable, and should be agreed upon before play be- 
gins The dealer then gives two cards to each player, one at a 
time, face down ; and then a third card to each, face up. The 
highest card turned up in this manner wins one of the pools, the 
ace being the highest and the deuce the lowest. The diamond 
ace, being a bragger, outranks any other ace ; the club Jack any 
other Jack ; and the diamond nine any other nine. Ties are de- 
cided in favour of the eldest hand, or the player nearest him on 
the left. 

The players then take up the other two cards, without showing 
them, and proceed to brag on their hands as in single stake Brag. 
The winner takes the second pool ; but those who pass out do not 
abandon their hands until the third pool is decided. If no bet is 
made for the second pool, it is won by the dealer. 

All hands are shown to decide the last pool. Each player 
counts up the pip value of his three cards, reckoning the aces 
for eleven, and court-cards as ten each. The player coming near- 
est to thirty-one takes the third pool. Ties are decided in favour 
of the eldest hand, as before. 

In some places a further variation is introduced by allowing the 
players to draw cards for the third pool, in order to increase the pip 
value of their hands. Beginning with the eldest hand, each player 
in turn pays into the pool a counter for each card he draws. These 
cards are given by the dealer face up, and one player must be 
given all he needs before passing to the next. Should a player 
pass thirty-one, he is out of the pool. Some judgment is necessary 
in drawing in this manner, for all the hands are exposed, and each 
player knows exactly what he has to beat. 

In American JBrag, there are eight braggers ; the Jacks and 
nines of each suit, and they are all of equal rank when used as 
braggers. Pairs or triplets formed with the aid of braggers out- 
rank naturals, so that three Jacks is an invincible hand, beating 
three aces. Two braggers and an ace outrank two aces and a brag- 
ger ; but the absurd part of the arrangement is that three Jacks 
and three nines are a tie. 

The method of playing differs from English Brag. If the 
players simply equal the dealer's ante, nothing unusual occurs, 
and all the hands are shown at once. But if any player raises, and 
another sees this raise, these two immediately exchange hands, 
without showing them to the other players, and the one who held 
the worse hand retires from that pool, returning the better hand 
to its original holder, who then awaits a call or raise from the next 
player in order, the entire amount staked still remaining in the 
pool. This lose-and-drop-out system is continued until only one 
player remains to dispute the pool with the dealer. If they come 
to a call, both hands are shown to the table. If the bragger is not 
called, he takes the pool without showing his hand. 



252 (Commerce.) 



COMMERCE. 

This old English game is evidently the forerunner of Whiskey 
Poker. It is played with a full pack of fifty-two cards, and the 
arrangements for the seats, counters, etc., are the same as at Draw 
Poker. Three to twelve players may form a table. There are 
two methods of playing Commerce ; with and without a widow. 
We shall take the older form first. 

Without a Widow. The counters have a money value, and 
each player deposits one in the pool. The dealer then distributes 
the cards one at a time, face down, until each has three. The 
players then examine their cards, and each in turn, beginning with 
the eldest hand, may exchange one card. If he trades for ready 
money, he gives his card and one white counter to the dealer, 
and receives another card, face down, from the top of the pack. 
The discard is left on the table, and the counter is the dealer's per- 
quisite. If he trades for barter, he passes his discard to the 
player on his left, who must give one of his own in exchange be- 
fore looking at the one he is to receive. If the player will not 
exchange, he must knoch on the table, to signify that he will 
stand by the cards he has. If he exchanges, he takes up the 
offered card, and then has the privilege of trading for ready money 
or for barter himself. The trading goes on in this way round and 
round, until some player knocks, when all trading is immediately 
stopped, and the hands are shown. The best hand wins the pool, 
the rank of the various combinations being as follows, beginning 
with the highest : — 

Triplets. Three aces being the highest, and three deuces the 
lowest. Pairs have no value. 

Sequence Flushes ; the ace being allowed to rank as the top 
or the bottom ; Q K A, or A 2 3. 

The Point ; the greatest number of pips on two or three cards 
of the same suit in one hand, counting the ace for eleven, and the 
other court-cards for ten each. A single card of a suit does not 
count for the point. In case of ties, a point made with three cards 
will beat one made with two cards. If the number of cards is also 
a tie, the dealer, or the player nearest him on his left wins. 

If no triplet is shown, the best straight flush wins. If there is 
no straight flush, the best point wins. The deal passes to the 
left, and a misdeal loses the deal, as the deal is an advantage, 
owing to the trade for ready money. 

If the dealer does not win the pool, he must pay one white 
counter to the player who does. If the dealer holds a combination 
of the same rank as the one that wins the pool, he must pay one 
white counter to every other player at the table. For instance: 



VARIETIES OF COMMERCE. (Commerce.) 253 

No triplet is shown, and a straight flush, Jack high, wins the pool. 
The dealer has a straight flush, 9 high, and must pay one counter 
to every player at the table. If the dealer had no sequence flush, 
he would pay the winner of the pool only. 

With a Widow. This is almost three-card Whiskey Poker. 
Each player is provided with three counters only, which are of no 
value, and three cards are dealt to each player and to the widow, 
face down, and one at a time. The widow is turned face up im- 
mediately, and the dealer has the first say. Before he looks at the 
cards he has dealt to himself, he may exchange his whole hand 
for the widow, otherwise the eldest hand has the first draw. No 
other player may exchange his whole hand, but each in turn may 
draw one card until some player knocks. The moment any player 
knocks, all drawing must cease, and the hands are shown at once. 
Triplets, straight flushes, and points determine the value of the 
hands, as already described, and the best hand takes the pool. 
The dealer makes no extra payments, as he has no perquisites. 
The first player to lose his three counters pays for the whiskey ; 
and if two or more are frozen out at the same time, the one with 
the worst hand pays. The game is sometimes varied by playing 
freeze-out, a value being attached to the three counters, and play- 
ers who are decave retiring from the game until all the counters 
have been won by a single player. 

Two other combinations are sometimes introduced in either 
form of Commerce : A flush, three cards of one suit, ranking next 
below the straight flush ; and a single pair outranking the point. 

Another variety of Commerce is variously known as My Ship 
iSails; or My Bird Sings. The counters have a money value, 
and three are given to each player. Three cards are dealt, face 
down, and one at a time. There is no widow. The eldest hand may 
then exchange one card with the player on his left, who must give 
his card before seeing the one he is to receive. The exchange 
goes round to the left. The moment any player finds himself with 
a flush, three cards of the same suit, regardless of their value, 
whether dealt to him, or made by exchange, he says : " My Ship 
Sails ; " and all exchange is stopped, and the hands are shown. 
Should there be more than one flush, the pips win, counting ace 
for II, and other court-cards for 10 each. If no player has se- 
cured a flush after two rounds of exchanges, the hands are shown, 
and the highest number of pips in the two-card flushes wins the 
pool. The elder hand wins ties. 



254 (Bouillottc) 



BOUILLOTTE, 

OR BRELAN. 

This is an old and famous French gambling game, often re- 
ferred to in stories of fast life in European society. It was the 
rage during and long after the French Revolution, but has lately 
had to share public attention with Baccara, and even with Le Poker 
Americain. It has many points in common with three-stake Brag, 
and is evidently descended from the same stock. By many per- 
sons Bouillotte is considered superior to Poker, because it offers the 
player many opportunities to speculate on winning by the aid of 
cards that are not in his own hand. 

Cards, Bouillotte is played with a piquet pack, reduced to 
twenty cards, only the A K Q 9 8 of each suit being retained. 
The ace is the highest card in play and in cutting. If five persons 
play, the Jack of each suit is added ; if only three play, the Queens 
are discarded, reducing the pack to sixteen cards. Two packs are 
generally used alternately. 

Counters or chips are used, as in Poker, instead of money. 
Any player may be the banker. 

Players, Three, four, or five persons may play ; but four is the 
proper number, and all descriptions of the game suppose it to be 
four-handed. 

Cutting. To decide the positions of the players, a sequence of 
cards is sorted out, equal in number with the number of players. 
These cards are then shuffled, face downward, and each player 
draws one. The highest of the sequence has the choice of posi- 
tions, and so on down until all are seated. The player who draws 
the King deals the first hand. 

Stakes. Each player purchases an equal number of counters 
from the banker, usually 100. This original cave cannot be 
added to or deducted from. As long as a single counter of it re- 
mains the player must call for a sight, just as in freeze-out or 
table stakes ; and not until he is decav4, [has lost everything,] 
can he purchase another stake, the amount of which is usually 
at his own option. 

Blind and Straddle. Before the distribution of the cards, 

the dealer puts up a blind, usually five counters, which the player 
on his right has the privilege of straddling. If he straddles, he 
may be straddled again, and so on. In Bouillotte the straddle 
practically buys from the dealer the privileges of the age. If it 
goes round until the dealer buys it back himself, the straddling 
must then be stopped. 



DEALING AND BETTING. (Bouillotte.) 255 

Dealing. As in all French games, the cards are cut by the 
player on the dealer's left, and are dealt from right to left. Three 
cards are given to each player, one at a time, face down, and the 
thirteenth is then turned face up on the pack. This card is called 
the retourne. 

Misdeals. If any card is exposed during the deal, either in 
the pack or in giving it to a player, it is a misdeal ; but the dis- 
tribution of the cards is continued until each player has received 
three cards, the exposed card being given out in its regular order. 
If any player can show triplets, he receives one white counter from 
each of the other players, and the hands are then abandoned. If 
more than one triplet is shown, the inferior does not pay the 
higher. If no triplet is shown, the cards are redealt, A misdeal 
does not lose the deal. 

The deal passes to the right ; but should the player whose turn 
it is to deal have lost everything on the previous deal, and have 
just purchased another stake, the deal passes to the player beyond 
him. If a player withdraws from the table when it is his turn to 
deal, the deal passes any new-comer who may take his place. 

Setting. The cards dealt, each player in turn, beginning with 
the one to the right of the dealer, or to the right of the last strad- 
dler, if any, can do one of three things : Equal the amount of the 
ante ; increase it as much as he pleases within the limits of his 
cave ; or pass, retaining his cards but betting nothing. If any 
player opens the game by making a bet, the player on his right 
may equal or raise it ; but he cannot pass after the game is opened, 
unless he withdraws from the pool. Any player may call for a 
sight for the amount in front of him, but that does not prevent the 
others from continuing the betting. If no one will open, the deal 
is void, and each player puts five counters in the pool for the next 
deal. If a player opens, and no one will equal or raise him, he 
wins the antes and straddles, if any. If any player makes a raise 
which no one will meet, he takes whatever is in the pool, unless a 
player has called for a sight for a small part of it. 

Calling and Showing. If only two players bet against each 
other, either may call the other, and demand a show of hands at 
any time ; but if three or four are betting, the privilege of calling 
falls upon each in turn from right to left. For instance : A, B, C, 
and D play. D blinds five counters, and deals. A passes, and B 
opens for five reds. C passes out, while D and A both meet the 
bet of five reds, but neither will raise it. This does not call B, 
who has the privilege of raising the bet if he pleases. Suppose he 
raises, and D and A both meet it. On this second round, C hav- 
ing passed out, it is D's turn to say whether or not he will raise. 
On the next round it will be A's turn, and after that it will be B's 
second turn, and so on. Should any player meet the bet but re- 



256 (Boumotte.) VALUE OF HANDS. 

fuse to raise, although it is his turn, he still cannot call. If he 
does not avail himself of his privilege of raising, he must pass 
the word to the player on his right ; that is, transfer the privilege 
to him. If he declines, it is a call ; if he raises, it goes on until 
every player has refused to avail himself of the privilege. If a 
player chooses to raise without waiting for his turn, of course he 
can do so. One of the fine points in the game is knowing when 
to raise the bet yourself, and when to pass the word. 

Rank of the Hands. If a call is made, the hands are shown, 
and the best Bouillotte hand wins. There are only two classes of 
hands recognized in Bouillotte, the brelan, and the point ; but 
there are three kinds of brelans, which rank in the following order : 

A Brelan Carre is four of a kind ; three in the player's hand, 
and the fourth turned up on the pack. If any player holds a bre- 
lan, [three of a kind,] of a higher denomination than the brelan 
carre, the player may turn up the card under the retourne, and if 
this makes his hand a brelan carre also, he wins the pool. In ad- 
dition to winning the pool, the holder of a brelan carre receives 
from each player four white counters. 

A Simple Brelan is three of a kind in the player's hand, 
three aces being the highest, and three eights the lowest. In ad- 
dition to winning the pool, the holder of a simple brelan receives 
one counter from each of the other players at the table. If two 
are shown, neither pays the other. Should the brelan be formed 
by uniting the retourne with two cards in the player's hand, it is 
a brelan favori, and the holder of it receives an extra counter 
from every player at the table, whether he wins the pool or not. 
For instance : The retourne is an eight ; a brelan of Queens is 
shown, and wins the pool. Another player holds a pair of eights, 
and claims brelan favori. He does not pay the winning brelan, 
but receives one counter from its holder, and also from each of the 
other players. If the brelan favori wins the pool, it is paid two 
counters by each player. If two simple brelans are shown, the 
higher wins the pool ; but both must be paid by each of the other 
two players, who did not hold brelans. 

The Point. If no brelan is shown, the hands of all the play- 
ers are shown, including those who passed out during the betting. 
This will expose thirteen cards, including the retourne. The pips 
in each suit are then counted, the ace reckoning for 1 1, court cards 
for lo each, and the 9 and 8 at their face value. Whichever suit 
has the greatest number of pips is called the suit that wins, 
and the player who holds the highest card of it takes the pool ; 
provided, of course, that he was one of those who backed his hand 
until the last call. If the player who holds the best card of the 
winning suit has dropped out during the betting, his cards count 
for the player who has the highest card of the suit among those 



COUNTING THE POINT. (Bouilbtte,) 257 



w"ho backed their hands. For instance : D deals and turns the 
heart 8. A and B have passed out, but C has made a bet which 
D has called. Neither has a brelan, so all four players show their 
cards, and it is found that they lie thus : — 




♦ ♦ 4* 4* 

4 » \^ 4' 



£> e> £> 

£> £> E> 



Spades are the winning suit ; but neither C nor D has a spade, 
and as neither A nor B is in the call, the spade suit cannot win 
anything. As between clubs and hearts, D's point is 40, and C's 
38 ; so D wins the pool. C of course had a great advantage in 
betting, as he knew four hearts were out, his own and the retourne ; 
and all he feared was a brelan. A would have won the pool if he 
had backed his hand, because he would have had the highest card 
of the winning suit. 

Calling for a Sight. Suppose four players have the fol- 
lowing caves in front of them: A, 35; B, 60; C, 120; and D, 
185. D blinds five, deals, and turns the heart 9. A puts up all 
his 35 counters. B passes out. C raises 50, putting up 85 ; and 
D bets everything, 180 more than his blind. A demands a sight 
for his 35, and C puts up the remainder of his 120, and calls a sight 
for them. Then D withdraws his superfluous 65, and it is a call. 
No one has a brelan, so all the hands are shown, and the cards lie 
thus :— . 



Si ♦a* 
mm ^ *^ 




258 (Bouillotte.) DIVIDING THE POOL. 

The point is exactly even for clubs and spades, 40 in each. In 
case of ties, the dealer, or the pla3'er nearest him on the right wins. 
In this case A wins on account of his position, so clubs is the win- 
ning suit, and A has the best card of it. But he can win from 
C and D only the amount for which he called a sight, z. e. 35 
counters. He therefore takes down 105 as his share of the pool, 
leaving 170 to be decided between C and D. Now, although C 
has a better point than D, it is one of the principles of the game 
that the suit that wins cannot lose at the same time ; and as D has 
a card of the winning suit, while C has not, D wins the remainder 
of the pool. If neither C nor D had a card of the winning suit, C 
would win from D on account of his better point. 

If we transposed the club ace and spade ace, spades would be 
the winning suit, because the elder hand. A, had the best card of 
it ; but C would take the remainder of the pool, because he held a 
spade, while D did not. 

As it is, C is decave, and must purchase another stake, or re- 
tire from the game. If C had lost this pool with a brelan in his 
hand, he would not be decave ; because after losing the pool, and 
all he had staked therein, B, who had passed out, would have to 
pay him for the brelan, and with this one white counter he would 
have to call for a sight in the next pool he entered. 

Methods of Cheating. As in all games in which winning 
depends entirely on the cards held, and not on the manner of play- 
ing them, Bouillotte offers many opportunities to the greek. The 
small number of cards in the pack, and the consequent ease with 
which they may be handled, enable even the clumsiest card sharp- 
ers to run up brelan carres, make false shuffles, and shift cuts. 
There is' one trick, called the poussette, which consists in sur- 
reptitiously placing more counters on the table when the player 
finds he has a hand worth backing. Marked cards, and packs 
trimmed to taper one way, biseautes, are among the most common 
weapons of the French tricheurs. As in Poker, it is best to avoid 
playing with strangers. 

Suggestions for Good Play. Beyond the usual qualifica- 
tions necessary to succeed with any member of the poker family, 
Bouillotte requires some study of the probable value of the point, 
which value will vary with the number of players engaged in the 
coup. For instance : The first player to say, having only 21 in his 
hand, should ante ; but if two other players had already anted, 31, 
or even 40 would be a doubtful hand. If a bet had been made 
and met by another player, such a point should generally be laid 
down. 

With good cards it is always better for the eldest hand to pass, 
especially with a brelan, for he will then have an opportunity to 
judge of the value of the hands against him, and he can raise the 



GOOD PLAY. (Ambigu.) 259 

bet to his advantage. Good players will not bet on an ace alone, 
unless the suit is turned up; nor on a point of 21 with a weak 
card of the turn-up suit. If three play in a pool the point should 
be very strong to follow beyond the first raise ; and if four players 
are engaged, it is almost a certainty that brelans will be shown. 

When a player with a brelan has frightened off his opponents 
with a big bet, it is usual to stifle the brelan, as it is considered 
more to the player's advantage to leave his adversaries under the 
impression that he may have been bluffing than to show the hand 
for the sake of the one white counter to which it entitles him. 
With three cards of one suit to the King, it is usual to bet high, 
in order to drive out anything but a brelan. Any player hold- 
ing ace and another of the suit will of course abandon his hand, 
as his point is worth only 21 at the most, and the player with 
three to the King will get the benefit of his cards when the point 
is counted. 



AMBIGU. 

Cards. Ambigu is played with a pack of forty cards, the K 
Q J of each suit being deleted. The cards rank in the order of 
their numerical value, the 10 being the highest, and the ace the 
lowest. Two packs may be used alternately. 

Players. Any number from two to six may form the table, 
and the arrangements for seats, first deal, etc., should be decided 
as at Bouillotte. 

Stakes. Each player begins with an equal number of counters, 
the value of which must be determined beforehand. A betting 
limit should be agreed upon, and one player should be the banker 
for the evening. 

Blind. Before the cards are dealt, each player deposits one 
counter in the pool ; there is no straddle. 

Dealing. The cards are cut to the left, and dealt to the 
right, and two cards are given to each player, one at a time, face 
down. 

Method of Playing. Each player in turn, beginning on the 
dealer's right, examines his hand, and if satisfied with it he says : 
"Enough." If not satisfied, he may discard one or both of his 
cards, and receive others from the top of the pack. In either case 
he places two white counters in the pool for his ante. All having 
decided to stand or to draw, the remainder of the pack, exclusive 



260 (Ambiga.) METHOD OF FLAYING. 

of the discards, is reshuffled and cut ; each player is then given 
two more cards, one at a time, and face down. Each in turn ex- 
amines his four cards, and if satisfied he says : " I play ; " if not, 
he says : " I pass." If all pass, the dealer has the choice of two 
things : He may gather the cards and deal again, each player 
putting another counter into the pool, or he may put up two white 
counters himself, and compel the players to retain the cards dealt 
them, the dealer keeping his also. 

Any person announcing to play may put up as many counters as 
he pleases within the betting limit. If no person will stay with 
him, he takes back his raise, leaving the antes, and is paid two 
counters by the last player who refuses. If two or more declare 
to play they can either meet the amount offered by the first player, 
or raise him. If any player declines to meet a raise, he must 
abandon his hand. If no one will call the last raise, the player 
making it takes the pool, and then shows his hand, and demands 
payment from each of the other players for whatever combination 
he holds. If two or more players call, by making their bets equal, 
they again draw cards, having the privilege of discarding any 
number from one to four, or of standing pat. After the draw 
each in turn can pass or play. If all pass, the hands are aban- 
doned, and the pool remains ; each player adding one counter for 
the next deal. This is to force players to bet on their hands. 
If a bet is made, the calling and raising proceeds as in Draw 
Poker. 

When there are not enough cards to supply the players, the 
discards must be gathered, shuffled, and cut. Any player with 
too many or too few cards must abandon his hand as foul. Any 
player showing his cards must abandon his hand, and forfeit four 
counters to the pool. 

The general laws of Poker governing all irregularities may be 
applied to Ambigu ; but it must be remembered that the French 
are very much averse to penalties of all kinds, and if an error can 
be rectified without doing an injustice to any player, it is usual to 
set things right in the simplest manner possible. 

Value of the Hands. There are seven combinations of 
value in Ambigu, which rank in the following order, beginning 
with the lowest : — 

The Point. The total number of pips on two or more cards 
of the same suit. A single card does not count for the point. 
Three cards of one suit are a better point than two cards, even if 
there are more pips on the two cards. If no higher comljination 
than a point is shown, the player with the winning point receives 
one counter from each of the other players at the table, besides 
•winning the pool, and everything in it. In case of ties, the player 
having two cards in sequence wins. For instance : an 8 and a 7 



TSJE BANDS. (Ambigu,) 261 

Will beat a to and a 5. If this does not decide it, the elder hand 
wins. 

The Prime. Four cards of different suits, sometimes called 
a Dutch flush, is a better hand than the point. If a prime is the 
best combination shown, the holder wins the pool, and receives 
two counters from each of the other players. If the pips in the 
prime aggregate more than thirty, it is called Grand Prime, 
and the holder receives three counters from each of the other 
players, instead of two. If two or more primes are shown, the 
one with the highest number of pips wins. If this is still a tie, 
the elder hand v»^ins. 

A Sequence is a bobtail straight flush ; that is, three of the 
four cards are in sequence, such as the 2, 3 and 4 of spades, 
with an odd card, such as a 9. This is a better combination than 
a prime, and the holder receives three counters from each 
player. In case of ties, the highest sequence wins. If the se- 
quence flush is one of four cards, it is a doublet. 

A. Tricon, or three of a kind, is better than a straight, and 
entitles the holder to fotir counters from each of the other 
players. Pairs have no value. 

A Fltish is four cards of the same suit, not necessarily in se- 
quence, and is better than a tricon. The holder is paid five 
counters by each of the other players, in addition to winning the 
pool. 

Doublets. Any hand containing a double combination will 
beat any single combination. For instance : A player holds 
three of a kind, and the fourth card in his hand is of a different 
suit from any of his triplet. His hand is a double combination, 
prime and tricon, and will beat a flush. A sequence of four 
cards of the same suit is a double combination, and will beat any- 
thing but a fredon. When doublets are shown, the holder is paid 
for both combinations, six for tricon and prime, or eight for 
sequence and flush, as the case may be. 

A Fredon, or four of a kind, is the best possible hand, and 
the holder is paid ten or eleven counters by each of the other 
players, according to the pip value of his cards. He is paid eight 
counters for fredon, and two for the prime, if it is smaller than 8's ; 
but he claims grand prime if he has four 9's, or four lo's, and gets 
eleven counters. 

In case of ties which cannot be decided by the pip values, the 
elder hand wins. 

Even if a player has lost his entire stake in the pool, he must 
pay the various combinations shown, and it is usual to reserve 
about ten counters for this purpose. 

Betting the Hands. After the last cards have been drawn, 



262 (Ambigu.) 

the players proceed to bet upon their hands precisely as at Poker. 
If a player makes a bet or raise which no one will call, he takes 
the pool, and then shows his hand and demands payment for the 
combination he holds. It is very unusual for a player to stifle a 
hand at Ambigu, as he would at Bouillotte. If a call is made, 
the players in the call show and compare their cards, and the best 
hand wins the pool. Only the player who wins the pool can de- 
mand payment for combinations held. 



TEXT-BOOKS ON POKER. 

Draw Poker, by John W. Keller, 1887. 
Round Games, by Baxter-Wray, 1891. 
Complete Poker Player, by John Blackbridge, 1875. 
Proctor on Draw Poker, 1883. 
Schenck's Rules for Draw Poker, 1872. 
The Poker Book, by Richard Guerndale, 1888. 
The Gentlemen's Handbook of Poker, by J. W. Florence, 1892. 
Poker Rules in Rhyme, by Geo. W. Allen, 1895. 
Science of Draw Poker, by David A. Curtis, 1901. 
Poker, Brentano's Pocket Library Series, by R. F. Foster, 1897. 
Practical Poker, with complete laws, by R. F. Foster, 1905. 
Treatise on Poker, by E. P. Philpots, 1904. 
Poker probabilities, by AUeyne Reynolds, 1901. 

The Game of Draw Poker, Mathematically Illustrated, by H. T. Winter* 
blossom, 1875. 



(EucHre,) 263 



THE EUCHRE FAMILY. 



This family embraces four of the best known and most popular 
games in the world, each of which has been considered the 
national game in its own country : Ecarte in France ; Napoleon in 
England ; Spoil Five in Ireland ; and Euchre in America. 

It has always been the custom to trace the origin of Euchre to 
a variety of Triomphe, or French Ruff, probably introduced to 
America by the French of Louisiana ; and to claim Ecart^ as its 
cousin, and the French survivor of the parent game. In the 
opinion of the author, both the game and its name go to show 
that Euchre is of mixed stock, and probably originated in an at- 
tempt to play the ancient Irish game of Spoil Five with a piquet 
pack. "Euchre" is not a French word, but the meaning of it is 
identical with " Spoil Five " ; both names signifying that the object 
of the game is to prevent the maker of the trump from getting 
three tricks. In the one game he is " spoiled ; " /m the other he is 
"euchred." In the old game of Triomphe, in Ecarte, and in the 
black suits in Spoil Five, the order of the court cards in plain suits 
is the same, the ace ranking below the Jack, But in Euchre the 
Jack ranks above the ace when the suit is trumps, exactly as it 
does in Spoil Five. In the latter game the five is the best trump ; 
but as there is no five in a piquet pack, that trump was probably 
disregarded, leaving the Jack the best. Taking up, or " robbing" 
the turn-up trump, is another trait common to both Spoil Five 
and Euchre. 

Spoil Five and Triomphe are mentioned in the earliest works on 
card games. Triomphe can be traced to 1520, when it was popu- 
lar in Spain ; and the origin of Maw, the parent of Spoil Five, is 
lost in the mists of Irish antiquity. It was the fashionable game 
during the reign of James I. 

The old Spanish game of Triomphe, now obsolete, seems to 
have undergone several changes after its introduction to France. 
At first it was played either by two persons, or by two pairs of 
partners. If one side had bad cards, they could offer to abandon 
the hand, and allow the adversaries to count a point without play- 



264 (Euchre.) THE EUCHRE FAMILY. 

ing. If the adversaries refused, they were obliged to win all five 
tricks or lose two points. It was compulsory to win the trick if 
possible, and to trump, overtrump, or undertrump if the player had 
none of the suit led. This peculiarity survives in the games of 
Rams and Loo, which also belong to the euchre family. 

After a time we find a variation introduced in which any number 
from two to six could play, each for himself, and the player first 
winning two tricks out of the five marked the point. Later still 
we find the ace ranking above the King, thus becoming the best 
trump. If the ace was turned up, the dealer had the privilege of 
robbing it, or the holder of the ace of trumps could rob the turn- 
up, discarding any card he pleased, just as in Spoil Five. But in 
Triomphe the dealer turned up another card, and if that was of 
the trump suit the holder of the ace could rob that also, and so on 
until he turned a card of a different suit. This did not alter the 
trump, but merely stopped the robbing process. Whether or not 
Triomphe borrowed this feature from Spoil Five or Maw, it is now 
impossible to say. 

Whatever its origin. Euchre has always been the most respecta- 
ble member of the family, and the game of all others that has best 
served the card-playing interest in social life. Spoil Five probably 
comes next in point of respectability ; but Ecarte has often fallen 
into evil hands, and the very name is in some places regarded as 
synonymous for gambling. The same is true of Napoleon, but in 
less degree. Euchre, unlike the other members of the family, is ■ 
not essentially a gambling game, but belongs rather to the intel- 
lectual group of card games ; a position which we hope it may long 
maintain. 



EUCHRE. 

CAItDS. Euchre is played with what is commonly known as 
the piquet pack, 32 cards, all below the 7 being deleted. In plain 
suits the cards rank as at Whist ; but in the trump suit the Jack 
is the best, and it is called the Might Bower. The Jack of the 
same colour as the trump suit, red or black, is the second-best 
trump, and it is called the Left Bower ; so that if clubs were 
trumps the rank of the nine cards in the trump suit would be as 
follows : — 





•J. .4. 

*** 


4. 4. 

♦ * + 

♦ 4. 



4. 4. 


4" 4> 
4. 4. 

4. 4- 



CARDS AND COUNTERS. (Euchre.) 265 

The rank of the cards in the other suits would be : — 




When the Joker, or blank card is used, it is always the best 
trump, ranking above the right bower. In cutting, the ace is low, 
the other cards ranking as in plain suits. A player cutting the 
Joker must cut again. 

COUNTEMS or whist markers maybe used for keeping the 
score, but it is much more common to use the small cards from the 
deleted portion of the pack. The game is five points, and the best 
method of scoring is to use the 4 and 3 of any suit. When the 3 
is face up, but covered by the 4 face down, it counts one. When 
the 4 is face up, covered by the 3 face down, it counts two. 
When the 4 is face down, covered by the 3 face up, it counts 
three. When the 3 is face down, covered by the 4 face up, it 
counts four. 




One. 



Two. 



Three. 



Four. 



The number of pips exposed on the card which is face up is im- 
material ; the relative position of the two cards will always de- 
termine the score. 

Rubber or game scores must be kept on a whist marker, or on a 
sheet of paper. 

PLAYEJRS. Euchre may be played by any number of per- 
sons from two to seven ; but in the seven-handed game the full 
pack of fifty-three cards is used. Whatever the number of play- 
ers, they cut for positions at the table, for partners, and for the 
deal. 



266 (Euchre,) 

CUTTING. The cards are usually spread, face down, and 
each candidate for play draws a card. 




Spreading the Pack. 

When two or three play, the lowest cut has the choice of seats, 
and takes the first deal. When four play, they cut for partners ; 
the two highest pairing against the two lowest. The lowest has 
the choice of seats, and deals the first hand. When five or 
seven play, they have the choice of seats in their order, the lowest 
first, a»d the lowest cut deals. When si'X play, the three lowest 
are partners against the three highest, the lowest cut having the 
choice of seats, and the first deal. 

TIES. Players cutting cards of equal value cut again ; but the 
new cut decides nothing but the tie. 

PL A YEB' S POSITIONS. The eldest hand, or age, sits 
on the left of the dealer, and the pone sits on the dealer's right. 
There are no distinctive names for the other positions. 

When two play, they sit opposite each other. When three 
play, each for himself, the game is known as Cut Throat, and 
the position of the players is immaterial. When four play, the 
partners sit opposite each other. When five or seven play, the 
maker of the trump in each deal selects his partners, and they play 
against the others without any change in their positions at the 
table. When six play, three are partners against the other three, 
and the opposing players sit alternately round the table. 

STAKES. If there is any stake upon the game, its amount 
must be settled before play begins. When rubbers are played, 
it is usual to make the stake so much a rubber point. If the win- 
ners of the game are five points to their adversaries' nothing, they 
win a treble, and count three rubber points. If the losers have 
scored one or two points only, the winners mark two points for a 
double. If the losers have reached three or four, the winners 
mark one for a smj7?e. The side winning the rubber adds two 
points to its score for so doing ; so that the largest rubber possible 
is one of eight points ; — two triples to nothing, and two added for 
the rubber. The smallest possible is one point ; — two singles 
and the rubber, against a triple. If the first two games are won by 
the same partners, the third is not played. 



DEALING. (Euchre.) 267 

DEALING. Any player has the right to shuffle the cards, 
the dealer last. The pack must be presented to the pone to be 
cut, and he must leave at least four cards in each packet. Begin- 
ning on his left, the dealer distributes the cards either two at a 
time and then three, or three and then two to each player in rota- 
tion, until all have five cards. Whichever number, two or three, 
the dealer begins with, he must continue giving the same number 
to every player, including himself, for the first round. After the 
cards are dealt, the next card is turned face up on the remainder 
of the pack, except in five and seven-handed Euchre, in which no 
trump is turned. Each player deals in turn to the left, until the 
conclusion of the game or rubber. 

Irregularities in the Deal. If any card is found faced 
in the pack, the dealer must deal again. Should the dealer ex- 
pose any card but the trump while dealing, the adversaries may 
demand a new deal by the same dealer. Should any adversary of 
the dealer expose a card, the dealer may elect to deal again. A 
player dealing out of turn may be stopped before the trump card 
is turned ; but after that the deal must stand, afterward passing 
to the left in regular order. On the completion of the deal, if any 
player has more or less than five cards, it is a misdeal, and the 
deal passes to the player on the misdealer's left. 

The dealer loses his deal if he neglects to have the pack cut ; if 
he deals a card incorrectly, and fails to remedy the error before 
dealing another ; if he counts the cards on the table, or those re- 
maining in the pack ; or if he deals two cards to one player and 
three to another in the same round. 

If the pack is found to be imperfect, the deal in which the error 
is discovered is void ; but all previous scores stand good. 

MAKING THE TRUMP. Although a card is turned 
up at the end of the deal, the suit to which it belongs is not neces- 
sarily the trump for that hand. Each player in turn, beginning on 
the dealer's left, whether he be an adversary or a partner of the 
dealer's, may insist on the turn-up suit remaining the trump ; or 
he may declare that he is indifferent as to which suit is the trump, 
the one turned up or some other. But should one player in his 
proper turn decide in favour of the turn-up, no player after him 
can alter the decision. When it comes to the dealer's turn, if no 
other player has decided to retain the suit turned up, he must 
either let the trump remain as it is, or insist on its being changed. 

As the individual or side that settles which suit shall be the 
trump is said to make the trutnp, it will be necessary to de- 
scribe the method of scoring in order to understand the principles 
that guide the players in deciding on the trump suit. 

SCORING. Euchre is played for tricks. If the side that 
makes the trump takes three or four tricks out of the five possible, 



268 (Euciire.) SCORING. 

it scores one point. If the side wins all five tricks, it scores two 
points for a march. If the player that makes the trump fails to 
win three tricks, he is euchred, and his adversaries score two 
points for the euchre. When four play, if the player who 
makes the trump declares to play alone, that is, without any 
assistance from his partner, who must lay down his cards, the 
maker of the trump scores four points if he succeeds in winning 
all five tricks, and one point if he wins three or four tricks. But 
if he fails to win three tricks, he is euchred, and the adversaries 
score two points. When three play, a lone hand counts three 
if the player wins all five tricks. WJien two play, five tricks is 
simply a march, and counts two points. When five or seven 
play, there are special scores for lone hands. When all five 
tricks are taken by one side, but not by an individual playing a 
lone hand, it is simply a march, and counts two points, no matter 
how many are playing. When two or three are playing, a march 
must of course be a lone hand, as there are no partnerships. As 
we shall see later, there are some varieties of Euchre in which a 
lone hand may play against a lone hand, but this is not permitted 
in the ordinary game. 

No one but the individual player who makes the trump can play 
alone. 

Except in five and seven-handed Euchre, the player or side 
first reaching five points wins the game. If three are playing, and 
two of them reach five points simultaneously by euchreing the 
third, they both win a game. If they are playing for stakes, they 
divide the pool. 

TAKING TIB THE TRUMP. After the trump is turned 
up, each player in turn examines his cards, and if he does not care 
whether the trump suit remains unchanged or not, he says: '* I 
pass.'' If all pass, the dealer must decide. The dealer has the 
advantage of being allowed to take the trump card into his own 
hand, discarding one of his worthless cards in its place. If he 
thinks he can make three tricks with the turn-up suit for trumps, 
and his partner's probable assistance, or can win five tricks by 
playing alone, he discards any card he pleases, placing it under 
the remainder of the pack, face down, and without showing or 
naming it. If the dealer decides to play alone, it is usual for him 
to pass his discard across the table to his partner, face down, so 
that there may be no misunderstanding his intention. 

The dealer may take up the trump card at any time during the 
play of the hand ; but it is usual to leave it on the pack until it is 
played to a trick. No one but the dealer can take the trump into 
his hand. 

TURNING DOWN THE TRUMP. If the dealer fears 
that he and his partner cannot make three tricks with the turn-up 



MAKING THE TRUMP. (Eoclife.) 269 

suit for trumps, or would prefer to have the suit changed, he can 
pass. If he passes, he takes the trump card from the top of the 
pack, and places it face upward, and partly under the pack, in 
such a manner that it can be distinctly seen. 





Taken Up. Turned Down. 

CHANGING THE TRUMF, It then becomes the turn 
of the other players, each in succession to the left of the dealer, to 
name some other suit for the trump, or to pass a second time. If 
the suit of the same colour as the turn-up is named for the new 
trump, it is usual to say : " I make it next." If a suit of a 
different colour is named, it is called crossing the suit, and 
some players, if a red suit is turned, will say : " I cross to clubs." 

Any player naming a new suit may announce to play alone at 
the same time. The side that makes the new trump must make at 
least three tricks, or it will be euchred, and the adversaries will 
count two points. If a player names the suit that has just been 
turned down, he loses his right to make the trump ; and if he 
corrects himself, and names another suit, he debars not only him- 
self but his partner from making the trump. One player having 
named a new trump suit in his proper turn, his decision is binding 
on all the others ; but should a player name a suit out of his 
proper turn, both he and his partner are debarred from making 
that suit the trump. If no one will name a new trump, the deal is 
void, and passes to the next player on the dealer's left. 

ORDERING UP THE TRUMP. Instead of passing 
the turn-up trump on the first round, any player who thinks it 
would be to his advantage to have the turn-up remain the trump, 
may order the dealer to take it up. In doing so he says: "1 
order it," if he is an adversary ; or : ^' I assist," if he is the 
dealer's partner. In either case the player making the trump may 
announce a lone hand at the same time. His side must make at 
least three tricks, whether he plays alone or not, or it is a euchre, 
and the adversaries will count two points. In case an adversary 
of the dealer plays alone, he must distinctly announce it when he 
orders up the trump. The usual expression is : *' I order it 
alone." His partner then lays his cards face downward on the 
table and takes no further part in the play of that hand. If he ex- 
poses any card of the abandoned hand, the adversaries can call 
upon him to take up the hand and play it, leaving the exposed card 



270 (Etichre.) PLAYING ALONE. 

on the table as liable to be called. This of course prevents the 
lone hand. 

If the dealer's partner wishes to play alone, instead of assisting, 
he says : '' I play this alone/' and the dealer lays down his 
cards, leaving the trump on the pack. 

PLAYING ALONE. No player but the one that takes up, 
orders up, or makes the trump can play a lone hand. If the 
dealer takes up the trump card of his own accord, he can play 
alone. If any player orders up or assists, that player can play alone. 
Any player making a new trump after the first has been turned 
down, can play alone. If one player orders up the trump, neither 
his partner nor his adversary can play alone ; and if the dealer's 
partner assists, that prevents the dealer from playing a lone hand. 
In many clubs the mistake is made of allowing the dealer to play 
alone on his partner's assist ; or letting the pone play alone after 
the dealer has been assisted ; or letting the partner of the player 
who makes the new trump play alone. This is not good Euchre, 
because it gives an unfair advantage to one side, as we shall see 
when we come to the suggestions for good play, especially in 
connection with ordering up at what is called the " bridge ; " that 
is, when the score is 4 to i, or 4 to o. 

METHOD OF PLATING. The trump settled, the eldest 
hand, or the player next him on the left, if the partner of the eldest 
hand is playing alone, begins by leading any card he pleases, and 
the others must follow suit if they can. Failure to follow suit 
when able is a revoke, if the error is not discovered and corrected 
before the trick in which it occurs is turned and quitted. If the 
player discovers his mistake in time, the card played in error 
must be left on the table, and is liable to be called. When a re- 
voke is discovered and claimed by the adversaries, it is usual to 
abandon the hand, and the adversaries of the revoking player can 
either deduct two points from his score, or add two to their own 
score, for every revoke made during the hand. The penalty can- 
not be divided. If both sides revoke, the deal is void, and the 
same dealer must deal again. 

Any player having none of the suit led may either trump, cr 
throw away a card of another suit. The highest card played, if 
of the suit led, wins the trick, trumps winning against all other 
suits, and a higher trump winning a lower. The winner of the trick 
may lead any card he pleases for the next trick, and so on, until 
all five tricks have been played. If the dealer takes the trump into 
his hand, any player naming it is liable to have his highest or low- 
est trump called ; but a player may ask and must be informed 
what the trump suit is. 

Cards Played in Error. All cards led out of turn, played 
in error, or two or more played to a trick, or dropped face upward 



IREEGULAniTIES. (Etschre.) 271 

on the table, are called exposed cards, and must be left face up 
on the table. These must be played when called by the adver- 
saries, unless compliance with the demand would make the player 
revoke ; but the fact of their being exposed does not prevent their 
being got rid of in the course of play if the opportunity offers. 
Some persons imagine that the adversaries can prevent an exposed 
card from being played ; but such is not the case in Euchre. A 
person playing a lone hand is not liable to any penalty for expos- 
ing his cards, nor for leading out of turn, for he has no partner to 
derive any benefit from the information conveyed. 

Leading Out of Turn. Should any person, not playing 
alone, lead out of turn, the adversaries may call a suit from the 
player in error, or from his partner, when it is next the turn of 
either of them to lead. The demand must be made by the person 
who will be the last player on the trick in which the suit is called. 
If all have played to the lead before discovering the error, it can- 
not be rectified ; but if all have not played, those who have fol- 
lowed the false lead must take back their cards, which are not 
liable to be called. 

Any player may ask the others to draw cards in any trick, 
provided he does so before the cards are touched for the purpose 
of gathering them. In answer to this demand, each player should 
indicate which card of those on the table he played. No one is 
allowed to see any trick that has been turned and quitted. 

Taking Tricks. As the tricks are taken they should be 
neatly laid one upon the other in such a manner that any player at 
the table can count them. All tricks belonging to one side should 
be kept together. At the end of each hand the score should be 
claimed and marked. Revokes must be detected and claimed be- 
fore the cards are cut for the following deal. 

CUTTING OUT. When the play is confined to four 
players, rubbers are usually played, and the table is complete with 
six persons, two looking on, and awaiting their turn. At the end 
of a rubber, if there are more than four players belonging to the 
table, those who have just played cut to decide which shall give 
place to those waiting, the players cutting the highest cards going 
out. If six belong to the table, there will be no further cutting 
out, as those who are out for one rubber re-enter for the next, 
taking the places of those who have played two consecutive rub- 
bers. If five belong to the table, the three who remained in for 
the second rubber must cut to allow the fifth player to re-enter. 
At the end of the third rubber, the two cut that have not yet been 
out ; and at the end of the fourth rubber the one who has played 
every rubber goes out without cutting. Partners and deal are cut 
for at the beginnine of each new rubber. 



272 (Euchre, GOOD PLAY. 

METSOBS OF CHEATING. All the Euchre family of 
games, especially Ecarte and Napoleon, offer numerous opportu- 
nities to the greek. So well is this known in Europe that it is con- 
sidered extremely foolish for any person to play Ecarte in mixed 
companies. The small number of cards in the pack, and the cus- 
tom of dealing two and three at a time, gives the dealer an op- 
portunity to bunch four valuable cards, of which he can give 
himself three, and turn up the fourth. False shuffles, shifted cuts, 
and marked cards are formidable weapons. The telegraph be- 
tween partners, and the variation in tone or words in passing are 
frequently used by card-sharpers. One of the commonest devices 
in America is the use of what are known as "jack strippers." 
These are two Jacks, usually both of the same colour, which can be 
withdrawn from any portion of the pack by the fingers of an ex- 
pert, and placed on the top. When the sharp deals, he places 
cards enough on these to supply the other players on the first 
round, sp that the strippers will come to him. When only two 
are playing, he strips them out and leaves them on the top when 
he cuts the cards, so that they shall be dealt to him. Never play 
Euchre or Ecartd with a man who cuts the pack with both hands. 

Any person who is tempted to bet on any game in the Euchre 
family should remember the advice of the worldly-wise Parisian to 
his son :^ " Until you have four eyes in your head, risk not your 
gold at Ecarte." 

SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD FLAT. The chief 
points for the beginner to understand are . When to order up ; 
when to assist ; when to take up ; when to play alone ; and what 
to make the trump if it is turned down. His decision in each 
case will be governed largely by his position at the table, and by 
the score. The following suggestions are for four players, two 
being partners against the other two, and playing without the 
Joker ; that being the most common form of the game. The gen- 
eral principles underlying these suggestions for the four-handed 
game will be found equally valuable in any form of Euchre. 

^ OBDEBING UF. Although probabilities are of little prac- 
tical value in Euchre, it may be well to remember that there are 
nine cards in the trump suit ; but as only two-thirds of the pack 
is dealt out, the average number of trumps among four players 
will be six. Of these, the dealer always has the advantage of be- 
ing sure of one more than his share, and it is safe to reckon upon 
the dealer to hold at least two trumps. He may also be counted 
for a missing suit, for he will discard any losing card of an odd 
suit when he takes up the trump. 

The Eldest Hand should not order up the trump unless he has 
such cards that he is reasonably certain of three tricks without any 
assistance from his partner, and cannot be sure of two tricks if 



ORDERING UP. (Ewclire.) 273 

the trump is turned down. When he holds one or two bowers, 
especially if he has cards of the next suit ; that is, the suit of the 
same colour as the turn-up, he should always pass ; because if the 
dealer takes it up he will probably be euchred, and if he turns it 
down, the eldest hand will have the first say, and can make it 
next. It is seldom right to order up a bower, because the dealer 
will rarely turn down such a card. 

There are exceptional cases in which the eldest hand may order 
up with little or nothing. One of the most common is when the 
adversaries of the dealer are at the bridge; that is, when their 
score is 4, and the dealer's side has only i or 2 marked. It is 
obvious that if the dealer or his partner plays alone, he will win 
the game ; but if the trump is ordered up the most he can score is 
2 points for a euchre, and the player who orders up will then have 
a chance to go out on his own deal. For this reason it has come 
to be regarded as imperative for the eldest hand to order up at the 
bridge, unless he holds the right bower, or the left bower guarded, 
or the ace twice guarded, any one of which combinations is cer- 
tain to win a trick against a lone hand if the eldest hand does not 
lead trumps himself. Another case is when the score is 4 to 4, 
and the eldest hand has average trump strength, good side cards, 
but nothing in the next suit. It is better to order it up, and risk 
the game on such a hand than to take the chance of the dealer's 
turning it down. 

The Pone, who is the partner of the eldest hand, orders up at 
the bridge on exactly opposite principles. The fact that the eldest 
hand did not order up shows that the dealer cannot make a lone 
hand. This should indicate to the pone that his partner has a 
certain trick in trumps, and if the pone holds any good trumps 
himself, he can often guess what his partner's trumps are. For 
instance : The ace is turned, and the pone holds the left bower 
guarded. The eldest hand must have the right bower, or four 
trumps to the King. If the eldest hand has passed at the bridge, 
and the pone has strong trumps himself, especially the ace or left 
bower and two small trumps, he should order up the trump ; not 
to save the game, but to be sure of winning it by preventing the 
dealer from turning it down. If the pone does not order up at 
the bridge, the eldest hand may infer that he is weak in trumps. 

When it is not a bridge, the pone should be guided by the same 
principles as those given for the eldest hand, because he may be 
sure that his partner will make it next if it is turned down, unless 
he has a certainty of three tricks by crossing. 

If a player calls his partner's attention to the fact that they are 
at the bridge, both lose their right to order up. 

ASSISTING. The dealer's partner usually assists on plain- 
suit cards, such as two aces, rather than on trumps. The score 



274 (Eucltfe.) ASSISTING. 

and the turn-up trump will often be a guide as to whether or not 
to assist. For instance: If the score is i all, or to 2 to i, and a 
bower is turned, it is rarely right to assist, because it prevents the 
dealer from playing alone. If the partner has good suit cards, 
they may be useful to make a march ; if he has strong trumps, 
especially if sure of three tricks, he should play alone, instead of 
assisting. If the score is 3 in the dealer's favour, he does not need 
a lone hand to win the game, and with two reasonably certain 
tricks in his own hand the dealer's partner should assist, as they 
may win the game by a march. 

If the dealer's side is at the bridge, the score being 4 to i or 4 
to o in their favour, and the eldest hand passes, the dealer's part- 
ner must be on the alert to prevent the pone from playing a lone 
hand. He should assist unless a bower is turned, or he has it 
himself, or holds such cards that, combined with the turn-up, he 
is sure of a trick. For instance : The dealer's partner has the 
King and two other trumps, and the ace is turned. It is impossi- 
ble for the pone to make a lone hand, even if he has both bowers, 
and the ace is bare ; for he cannot catch the King, even if his 
partner leads the trump through it. But if a small trump was 
turned, the pone might easily make a lone hand with both bowers 
and the ace. 

TAKING UP, The average expectation of the dealer is 
something over two trumps, including the turn-up. With more 
than two trumps, or with two strong trumps, and a reasonably 
certain trick in a plain suit, the dealer should take up the trump. 
Three trumps of any size and an ace in plain suits is a strong take- 
up hand. It is better to take up the trump with only one plain 
suit in the hand, and small trumps, than with two strong trumps 
and two weak plain suits. The score will often decide the dealer 
in taking up the trump. For instance : At 4 all, it is useless to 
turn anything down unless you have a certain euchre in the next 
suit, and nothing in the turn-up. Even then, the adversaries are 
almost certain to cross the suit and go out. With the score 3 all, 
the dealer should be very careful about taking up on a weak hand, 
because a euchre loses the game. If he is weak, but has a chance 
in the next suit, or a bower in the cross suits, he should turn it 
down. It is a common stratagem to turn it down for a euchre 
when the dealer is better in the next suit, and has only 2 to go. 

PLATING ALONE. The dealer has the best chance to 
get a lone hand ; but the eldest hand is more likely to succeed 
with one, on account of the advantage of the lead. It is an in- 
variable rule for any player to go alone when he has three certain 
tricks, unless he is 3 up, and can win the game with a march. A 
lone hand should be played with both bowers and the ace, no 
matter how worthless the other cards ; or with five trumps to the 
ace without either bower ; or two high trumps and three aces in 



PLAYING ALONE. (Euclife.) 276 

plain suits ; or three good trumps and two aces. The theory of 
this is that while the march might possibly be made with partner's 
assistance, if partner has the cards necessary to make a march, the 
adversaries have little or nothing, and there is a very good chance 
to make a lone hand if three tricks of it are certain. Both bowers 
and the ace, with only the seven and eight of a plain suit have 
made many a lone hand. If the lone player is not caught on the 
plain suit at the first trick, the adversaries may discard it to keep 
higher cards in the other suit ; or they may have none of it from 
the first. There is always a chance, and it should be taken. 

The dealer's partner, and the pone, should be very careful in 
playing lone hands, and should never risk them except with three 
certain tricks, no matter what suit is led first. 

With three sure tricks, some players make it a rule to play alone, 
provided the two other cards are both of the same suit. 

MAKING THE THUMP. When the trump is turned 
down, the general rule is for the eldest hand to make it next. The 
exceptions are when he has nothing in the next suit, but has at 
least two certain tricks in the cross suit, and a probable trick in a 
plain suit. It is safer to make it next with a weak hand than to 
cross it on moderate strength, for the presumption is that neither 
the dealer nor his partner had a bower in the turn-down suit, and 
therefore have none in the next suit. Such being the case, it is 
very likely that one or both may be strong in the cross suits, 
and it is not considered good policy to cross the suit unless so 
strong in it as to be reasonably certain of three tricks. Some 
players invariably make it next, regardless of their hands, unless 
they can play alone in the cross suit. Such a habit exposes them 
to ihe common artifice of the dealer's turning it down for a euchre. 
A dealer holding a bower and three cards of the next suit, will 
often turn it down, and trust to the eldest hand making it next, 
which will give the dealer four trumps instead of two. The eldest 
hand should be on his guard against this when the dealer's side 
has 3 scored. 

The dealer's partner, on the other hand, should cross the suit 
almost as invariably as the eldest hand should make it next ; for if 
his partner cannot take up the trump, and the eldest hand cannot 
make it next, their hands must be weak, and if it is passed to the 
pone, he will probably turn out to have a lone hand. The best 
chance is to cross the suit, unless the player has three certain tricks 
in his own hand by making it next, such as five trumps to the ace, 
or four trumps and a plain-suit ace. With such cards he should 
play alone. 

The pone should never make the trump unless he has three cer- 
tain tricks, and is willing to play a lone hand. If the dealer turns 
it down, and both the eldest hand and the dealer's partner pass a 
second time, there must be a nigger in the woodpile somewhere. 



276 (Euchre.) 



LEADING. 



JLEADING. The general principle of leading is to make 
tricks while you can. It is useless to save up tenaces in plain 
suits, because there are only five tricks to play, two of which are 
certain to fall to the trumps, and it is very improbable that any 
player will lead up to you a small card of a plain suit that will go 
round twice. It is seldom right to lead small cards of a plain suit. 
There is a better chance to make a trick with the King by lead- 
ing it than by keeping it guarded. In the trump suit, tenaces are 
very strong, and should be preserved, especially if the tenace is 
over the turn-up trump. There is a familiar example of the im- 
portance of tenace when only two play, in which one person holds 
the major tenace in trumps, hearts, and must win three tricks, no 
matter which player leads. The cards in one hand are : — 



1 


<? 





e 



and those in the other hand are ;— 




1 





* 



If the player with the major tenace has to lead first, all he has to 
do is to force his adversary with the plain suit, spades. Whatever 
the adversary leads, the player with the major tenace simply wins 
it, and forces again. If the player with the four trumps has the 
first lead, it does not matter what card he plays ; the player with 
the major tenace wins it, and forces with the plain suit. As long 
as the major tenace in trumps is not led away from, it must win 
three tricks in trumps. 

Leading Trumps, With strong cards in plain suits, the 
eldest hand may often lead trumps to advantage if the dealer's 
partner has assisted, especially if the turn-up trump is small. It 
is seldom right to lead trumps if the dealer has taken up the trump 
of his own accord ; but an exception is usually made when the 
eldest hand holds three trumps, and two aces in plain suits. The 
best chance for a euchre is to exhaust the trumps, so as to make 
the aces good for tricks. If the pone has ordered up the trump, 
the eldest hand should lead trumps to him immediately ; but the 
pone should not lead trumps to his partner if the eldest hand has 
ordered up at the bridge. If a bower is turned, the dealer's part- 
ner should lead a small trump at the first opportunity. 

In playing against a lone hand the best cards in plain suits 
should always be led, trumps never. In playing alone, it is best 
to lead winning trumps as long as they last, so as to force dis- 
cards, which will often leave intermediate cards in plain suits good 
for tricks. 



TRUMP mo. (Euclife.) 277 

Second Hand. Play the best card you have second hand, 
and cover everything led if you can. With King and another or 
Queen and another, it is usually best to put up the honour second 
hand, on a small card led. 

Trumping. It is seldom right to trump partner's winning 
cards, unless he has ordered up the trump, and you think you can 
lead through the dealer to advantage. In playing against a lone 
hand, it is sometimes good play to trump your partner's ace with 
an unguarded left bower or ace of trumps, as it may prevent the 
dealer from getting into the lead with a small trump, and may 
save a King or Queen of trumps in your partner's hand. If you 
don't trump, the dealer will probably get in and swing the right 
bower, and your trump will be lost. 

If your partner has ordered, made, or taken up the trump, and 
you have only one trump, even a bower, trump with it at the first 
opportunity. Trump everything second hand, unless it takes the 
right bower for a doubtful trick, or breaks into the major tenace 
in trumps. 

Discarding. It is best to throw away singletons, unless 
they are aces. If you have two cards of equal value, but of differ- 
ent colours, one of which must be discarded, it is usual to keep 
the one of the same colour as the turn-up when playing against 
the dealer. Discard suits that the adversaries are trumping. If 
your partner discards a suit in which you have a high card, keep 
that suit, and discard another. If you have both ace and King of 
a plain suit, discard the ace, to show partner that you can win a 
trick in the suit. It is very often important to discard correctly 
when playing against a lone hand, especially if the lone player leads 
trumps for the fourth trick. It is a common practice for modern 
players to signal in the discard if they have a certain trick in a 
suit. This is done by discarding two cards in another suit, the 
higher before the lower. For instance : You have two aces, 
spades and diamonds. The dealer plays alone on hearts, and 
trumps your spade ace the first time. If you have two clubs, such 
as King and ten, discard the King first, and then the ten, and 
your partner will know you can stop the diamond suit. This 
should advise him to keep his clubs. 



CUT-THROAT EUCHRE, 

The chief element in the three-handed game is playing to the 
score. The player with the strong hand must always be kind to 
the under dog, and partnerships are always formed against the 
man with the high score. Suppose A., B, and C are playing, and 



278 (Euchre.) CUT THROAT. 

that A has 3 points to his adversaries' nothing on Ws deal. It is 
to the interest of A to euchre B; but it is to the interest of C to 
let B make his point, because if B is euchred, A wins the game, 
B having made his point, C deals, and it is then to the interest of 
B to let C make his point. Suppose C makes a march, 3 points, 
which puts him on a level with A. On A's deal it is Cs game to 
euchre him, but B must let A make his point ; so that instead of 
being opposed by both B and C, as he was a moment ago, A 
finds a friend in B, and the two who were helping each other to 
beat Af are now cutting each other's throats. On B's deal, A 
does not want to euchre him, for although that would win the 
game for both A and C, A, who now has 4 points up, does not 
wish to divide the pool with C while he has such a good chance 
to win it all himself. Suppose B makes his point. A will do all 
he can to euchre C'^ but B will oppose the scheme, because his 
only chance for the game is that A will not be able to take up the 
trump on his own deal, and that B will make a march. 



SET-BACK EUCHRE, 

This is simply a reversal of the ordinary method of scoring, the 
players starting with a certain number of points, usually ten, and 
deducting what they make on each deal. The peculiarity which 
gives the game its name is that if a player is euchred he is set 
hack two points, his adversaries counting nothing. The revoke 
penalty is settled in the same way. The game is usually counted 
with chips, each player starting with ten, and placing in the centre 
of the table those that he is entitled to score. 



BLIND EUCHRE. 

Each player is for himself and a widow of two cards is dealt. 
The player who takes the widow practically orders up the trump 
and must play against all the others after discarding two cards. If 
no one will take the widow, the deal is void. 



{Exichte,} 279 



PENALTY EUCHRE. 

Five players are each provided with twelve counters. An extra 
hand of five cards is dealt face down, for a widow. Each player in 
turn can exchange the hand dealt him for the widow, or for the 
hand abandoned by anyone who has taken the widow, the cards 
being always face down. The turned trump is not taken up by the 
dealer, but is left on the pack. The eldest hand leads for the first 
trick and every man is for himself, each holding his own tricks. 

At the end of the hand, each player that has not taken a trick 
receives a counter from each of the others, whether they have taken 
tricks or not. Then all those that have won tricks put back into 
the pool a counter for each trick they have taken. The first player 
to get rid of his twelve counters wins the game. 



AUCTION EUCHRE. 

This form of the game is sometimes erroneously called French 
Euchre. The French know nothing about Euchre in any form. 
Auction Euchre is exactly the same as the ordinary four or six- 
handed game, except that the trump is not turned up, the players 
bidding in turn for the privilege of naming the trump suit. The 
bidder names the number of tricks he proposes to take. There is 
no second bid, and the player who has made the highest bid names 
the trump suit. No matter who is the successful bidder, the eldest 
hand leads for the first trick. The number of points won or lost 
on the deal are the number of points bid, even if the bidder ac- 
complishes more. If a player has bid 3, and he and his partner 
take 4 or 5 tricks, they count 3 only. If they are euchred, failing 
to make the number of tricks bid, the adversaries count the num- 
ber of points bid. Fifteen points is usually the game. 

This is probably the root of the much better games of five and 
seven-handed Euchre, which will be described further on. 



280 {Euchtc.) 



PROGRESSIVE EUCHRR 

This form of Euchre is particularly well suited to social gather- 
ings. Its peculiarity consists in the arrangement and progression 
of a large number of players originally divided into sets of four, 
and playing,, at separate tables, the ordinary four-handed game. 

Apparatus. A sufficient number of tables to accommodate 
the assembled players are arranged in order, and numbered con- 
secutively ; No. I being called t7ie head table, and the lowest of 
the series the booby table. Each player is provided with a 
blank card, to which the various coloured stars .may be attached 
as they accrue in the course of play. These stars are usually of 
three colours ; red, green, and gold. The head table is provided 
with a bell, and each table is supplied with one pack of cards only. 
It is usual to sort out the thirty-two cards used in play, and the 
four small cards for markers, before the arrival of the guests. 

Drawing for Positions. Two packs of differently col- 
oured cards are used, and from the two black suits in each a 
sequence of cards is sorted out, equal in length to the number of 
tables in play. For instance : If there are sixteen ladies and six- 
teen gentlemen, or thirty-two players in all, they will fill eight 
tables, and all the clubs and spades from the ace to the eight in- 
clusive should be sorted out. These are then thoroughly shufifled 
and presented, face down, to the players to draw from. The 
ladies take only the red-back cards, and the gentlemen only the 
blue. The number of pips on the card drawn indicates the num- 
ber of the table at which the player is to sit, and those drawing 
cards of the same suit are partners for the first game. 

Playing. All being seated, the deal is cut for at each table, 
and play begins. There is no cutting for partners, that being 
settled in the original drawing. Five points is a game, and after 
that number is reached by either side at the head table, the bell is 
struck. Lone hands are usually barred at the head table, so as to 
give the other tables time to make a certain number of points, and 
so to avoid ties. Upon the tap of the bell all play immediately 
ceases, even if in the middle of a deal. If the players at any but 
the head table have reached five points before the bell rings, they 
play on, counting all points made until the bell taps. 

Progressing, The partners winning the game at the head 
table each receive a gold star, and retain their seats for the next 
game. The losing players at the head table go down to the booby 
table. All the winning players at the other tables receive red 



PROGBESSIVE EUCHBE. (Eoc&fe.) 281 

stars, and go to the table next in order above, those at table No. 2, 
going to No. I. Those losing and remaining at the booby table 
each receive a green star. 

Changing Partners. At all but the head table the partners 
that progress to the next table divide, the lady who has just lost at 
each table retains her seat, and takes for her partner the gentle- 
man who has just arrived from the table below. At the head 
table the newly arrived pair remain as partners ; but at the booby 
table the players who have just arrived from the head table di' 
vide. All being seated, they cut for the deal, and play is resumed 
until the next bell tap. 

Ties, In case of ties in points at any table when the bell taps, 
those having won the most tricks on the next hand are declared 
the winners. If that is also a tie, the ladies cut to decide it, the 
lowest cut going up. In cutting, the ace is low, and the Jack 
ranks below the Queen. 

Prizes. Six prizes are usually provided for large companies. 
The lady and gentleman having the largest number of gold stars 
taking the first prizes ; the largest number of red stars winning 
the second prizes ; and the largest number of green stars the 
booby prizes. One player cannot win two prizes. In case of ties 
for the gold stars, the accompanying red stars decide it ; if that is 
also a tie, the player with the fewest number of green stars wins ; 
and if that is still a tie, the players must cut for it. 

The hostess decides the hour at which play shall cease, and is 
the referee in all disputes. 



MILITARY EUCHRR 

The hostess arranges each table as a fort, with a distinguishing 
flag and a number of small duplicate flags. The partners who sit 
East and West progress round the room from table to table, and 
play one game of five points at each, no lone hands allowed. The 
winners of each game get a little flag from the losers as a trophy. 
By the time the E and W pairs have made the circuit of all the 
tables and got home again, the game is ended, the victors being the 
fort that has captured the greatest number of flags. 



282 (Euclirc.) 



RAILROAD EUCHRE. 



Railroad Euchre is the name given to any form of the four- 
handed game in which every expedient is used to make points 
rapidly. 

Cards. A pack of twenty-five cards is used, all below the 9 
being deleted, and the Joker added. The Joker is always the best 
trump. 

Players, There are four players, two being partners against 
the other two. Partners, deal, and seats are cut for as in the 
ordinary game. 

Dealing. The cards are distributed as in the ordinary game ; 
but it is usual to agree beforehand upon a suit which shall be the 
trump if the Joker is turned up. 

Playing Alone. The chief peculiarity in Railroad Euchre is 
in playing alone. Any player announcing to play alone, whether 
the dealer or not, has the privilege of passing a card, face down, 
to his partner. In exchange for this, but without seeing it, the 
partner gives the best card in his hand to the lone player, passing 
It to him face down. If he has not a trump to give him, he can 
pass him an ace, or even a King. Even if this card is no better 
than the one discarded, the lone player cannot refuse it. If the 
dealer plays alone, he has two discards ; the first in exchange for 
his partner's best card, and then another, in exchange for the 
trump card, after seeing what his partner can give him. In this 
second discard he may get rid of the card passed to him by his 
partner. If the dealer's partner plays alone, the dealer may pass 
him the turn-up trump, or any better card he may have in his 
hand. 

Any person having announced to play alone, either of his adver- 
saries may play alone against him ; discarding and taking part- 
ner's best card in the same manner. Should the lone player who 
makes the trump be euchred by the lone player opposing him, the 
euchre counts four points. It is considered imperative for a player 
holding the Joker, or the right bower guarded, to play alone 
against the lone hand, taking his partner's best ; for as it is evi- 
dent that the lone hand cannot succeed, there is a better chance to 
euchre it with all the strength in one hand than divided. 

If any player, in his proper turn, announces to play alone, and 
asks for his partner's best, the partner cannot refuse ; neither can 
he propose to play alone instead. 

Scoring. With the exception of the four points for euchreing 
a lone hand, the scoring is exactly the same as in the ordinary 



RAILROAD EUCHRE. (Euchre.) 283 

four-handed game ; but there are one or two variations which are 
sometimes agreed upon beforehand in order to make points still 
more rapidly. 

Laps. If a player makes more points than are necessary to 
win the game, the additional points are counted on the next game, 
so that there is always an inducement to play lone hands, even 
with 4 points up. 

Slams. If one side reaches five points before the other has 
scored, it is a slam, and counts two games. 

When laps and slams are played, it is sometimes agreed that if 
a person plays alone without taking his partner's best card, or 
the dealer plays alone without taking up the trump or asking for 
his partner's best, and such a player succeeds in winning all five 
tricks with a pat hand, it convxls five points. If he fails to win all 
five tricks, the adversaries count one. If he is euchred, they 
count three; but they are not permitted to play alone against 
him. 

tTambone, Any person playing a lone hand may announce 
Jambone, and expose his cards face up on the table. The adver- 
saries then have the right to call any card they please, either for 
the lead, or in following suit ; but they cannot make the player re- 
voke, nor can they consult, or in any way expose their hands. If a 
lead is required, it must be called by the person on the jambone 
player's left. If a card is called on a trick, it must be called by 
the person on the jambone player's right. If in spite of these diffi- 
culties the jambone player succeeds in winning five tricks, he 
scores eight points. If he wins three or four only, he counts one 
point. If he is euchred he loses two. It is not allowable to play 
alone against a jambone. 

Jamboree, This is the combination of the five highest trumps 
in one hand, and need only be announced and shown to entitle the 
holder to score sixteen points. If held by the dealer, it may be 
made with the assistance of the turn-up trump ; and any player 
may make it with the assistance of his partner's best ; but it does 
not count unless the holder of it has made the trump. If a player 
with a pat Jamboree is ordered up, all he can score is a euchre. 

As in other forms of Euchre, no one but the maker of the trump 
can play alone, or announce Jambone or Jamboree. Lone hands 
are very common in Railroad Euchre, and ordering up to prevent 
lone hands is commoner still. 



284 (Euchre.) SEVEN-HANDED EUCHBE. 



SEVEN-HANDED EUCHRR 

Cards. Seven-handed Euchre is played with a full>pack of 
fifty-three cards, including the Joker. The cards in plain suits 
rank as at Whist ; but the Joker is always the best trump, the 
right and left bowers being the second and third-best respectively. 

Counters. One white and four red counters are necessary. 
The white counter is passed to the left from player to player in 
turn, to indicate the position of the next deal. The red counters 
are placed in front of the maker of the trump and his partners, 
to distinguish them from their opponents. Markers are not used, 
the score being kept on a sheet of paper. The score is usually 
kept by a person who is not playing, in order that none of those in 
the game may know how the various scores stand. Should an 
outsider not be available for scoring, there are two methods : One 
is for one player to keep the score for the whole table, who must 
inform any player of the state of the score if asked to do so. The 
other is to have a dish of counters on the table, each player being 
given the number he wins from time to time. These should be 
placed in some covered receptacle, so that they cannot be counted 
by their owner, and no other player will know how many he has. 
As it is very seldom that a successful bid is less than five, and 
never less than four, counters marked as being worth 4, 5, 6 and 7 
each will answer every purpose, and will pay every bid made. 

Cutting. The players draw cards from an outspread pack for 
the choice of seats, those cutting the lowest cards having the first 
choice. The lowest cut of all deals the first hand, passing the 
white counter to the player on his left, whose turn it will be to deal 
next. Ties are decided in the usual way. 

Dealing, The cards are dealt from left to right, two being 
given to each player for the first round, then three, and then two 
again, until each player has received seven cards. The four re- 
maining in the pack are then placed in the centre of the table, face 
down, and form the widow. No trump is turned. 

The rules governing all irregularities in the deal are the same as 
in ordinary Euchre. 

Making the Trump. The cards dealt, each player in turn, 
beginning with the eldest hand, bids a certain number of points, at 
the same time naming the suit which he wishes to make the trump. 
There is no second bid, and the suit named by the highest bidder 
must be the trump for that deal. The successful bidder takes the 
widow, selecting from it what cards he pleases, and discarding 
others in their stead, so as to restore the number of his cards to 
seven. He then places a red counter in front of him, and chooses 



SEVEN-HANDED EUCHBE. (Euchre.) 286 

his partners, passing a red counter to each of them. These coun- 
ters must be placed in front of the players to distinguish them as 
belonging to the bidder's side ; but the players make no changes in 
their respective positions at the table. Each player should bid on 
the possibilities of his hand, however small, so as to guide the 
others in their selection of partners. 

Partners. If the bidder has proposed to take not more than 
five tricks out of the seven possible, he chooses two partners, and 
these three play against the remaining four. If he has bid to make 
six or seven tricks he chooses three partners, and these four play 
against the remaining three. Partners cannot refuse to play. 

Playing Alone, Should a player think he can take all seven 
tricks without any partners, he may bid ten, which would outrank 
a bid of seven ; but such a bid must be made before seeing the 
widow. If a player thinks he can win all seven tricks without either 
widow or partners, he may bid twenty, which is the highest bid 
possible. When twenty is bid the cards in the widow must re- 
main untouched. 

Playing, The successful bidder has the lead for the first 
trick. The general rules for following suit, etc., are the same as in 
ordinary Euchre. The bidder takes in all the tricks won by him- 
self and his partners,. and one of the adversaries should gather for 
that side. If a player on either side revokes, the adversaries 
score the number bid, and the hand is abandoned. 

Scoring. If the bidder is successful in his undertaking, he 
and his partners, if any, are credited by the scorer with the num- 
ber of points bid, but no more. Should a player bid five, and his 
side take seven, it would count them only five points. If the 
player making the trump fails to reach his bid, he is euchred, and 
the adversaries are credited with the number of points bid. 

Prizes. It is usual to give two prizes for each table in play ; 
one for the highest number of points won during the evening, and 
one for the smallest number ; the latter being usually called the 
" booby " prize. 

Suggestions for Good Play. It is very risky to bid seven 
without the Joker, the odds being 1 1 to i against finding it in the 
widow. A bid of ten should not be made without both Joker and 
Right Bower, and all the other cards winners and trumps. To bid 
twenty, a player should have a practically invincible hand, with at 
least five winning leads of trumps. 

The first bidders are always at a disadvantage, because they 
know nothing of the contents of the other hands ; but after one or 
two players have made a bid, those following them can judge pretty 
well how the cards lie. For instance : The seven players are A JB 
C D EF G. A deals, and B bids 2 in hearts. C and D pass. 
E bids 3 in clubs ; and F says 4 in hearts. It is evident that F 



286 (Euclife.) SEVEN-HANDED EUCHRE. 

is bidding on B^s offer iii hearts, and intends to choose him for a 
partner. G finds in his hand four good spades and the Joker, but 
neither Bower. He may safely bid 5 or 6, taking E for a partner 
if successful, as E very probably has one or both the black 
Bowers. If he bids 5 only, the dealer. A, would have an excellent 
chance to bid 6 in hearts, and to take B and F for two of his 
partners, and G for the third, trusting to find him with the Joker, 
or at least protection in one or both black suits. 

If the successful bidder has had no previous bids to guide him 
in his choice of partners, he should take those who have the low- 
est scores, if the scores are known ; because it is to his advantage 
to avoid advancing those who are perhaps already ahead. When 
the scores are not known, there is nothing but luck to guide one, 
unless a person has a very good memory, and knows which players 
are probably behind. 

Leading, If the successful bidder wants 6 or 7 tricks, and 
holds the Joker, he should lead it at once. If he has not the 
Joker, he should begin with a low trump, and give his partners a 
chance to play the Joker on the first round. If the leader cannot 
exhaust the trumps with one or two rounds, it will sometimes be 
to his advantage to lead any losing card he may have in the plain 
suits, in order to let his partners win the- trick if they can. In 
playing alone, it is absolutely necessary to exhaust the trumps be- 
fore opening a plain suit. 

Partners should avail themselves of the methods common to 
four-handed Euchre to support one another in trumps and plain 
suits. The discard should invariably be from weakness if the 
player is the bidder's partner ; and from strength, if opposed to 
him. 

EUCHME FOB FIVE FLATEBS. This is practically 
the same as the seven-handed game, but the pack is reduced to 
28 cards, all below the Eight in each suit being deleted. The 
Joker is not used. Five cards are dealt to each player, by two 
and three at a time, and the three remaining form the widow. 
The player bidding three tricks takes one partner only. The 
player bidding four or five tricks, takes two partners. A player 
who intends to take the widow, but no partners, can bid eight 
and one who intends to take neither widow nor partners can bid 
fifteen. In this form of Euchre the scores are generally known, 
and 100 points is game. 

In some clubs it is the practice for the successful bidder to 
select one of his partners by asking for the holder of a certain 
card. For instance : B has the lead, and has bid five in hearts, 
holding the three best trumps, the club ace, and a losing spade. 
Instead of selecting his partners at random, he asks for the spade 
ace, and the player holding that card must say, " Here " ; upon 
which the bidder will pass him a counter, marking him as one of 
his partners. 

\ 



(Euchre.) 287 

CALL-ACE EUCHRE^ 

In this variety of euchre, each player is for himself so far as the 
final score goes. The one who takes up the trump or orders it up, 
or who makes it after it is turned down, may call upon the best card 
of any suit but the trump. The player holding the best card of that 
suit must be his partner, but he does not declare himself. When 
the highest card of the suit asked for falls in play, the partner is 
disclosed. 

As the whole pack is not dealt out, it often happens that the ace, 
or even both ace and king, of the suit called for are in the talon. 
Should it turn out that the caller has the highest card of the suit 
himself, he has no partner. 

When six play, 32 cards are used, and only one remains unknown. 
When five play, the sevens are thrown out. When four play, the 
eights are also discarded. 

If the maker of the trump does not want a partner, he may either 
say " alone" or he may ask for a suit of which he holds the ace 
himself. 

If the maker of the trump and his partner get three tricks, they 
score I point each. If they win all the tricks, they score 3 points 
each if there are five or six in the game ; 2 points if there are not 
more than four players. If the partnership is euchred, each of the 
others at the table scores 2 points. 

For a lone hand, winning all five tricks, the player scores a point 
for as many players as there are at the table, including himself. 
Euchres score 2 for every other player but the lone hand. A lone 
hand making three or four tricks only, scores i. 



500, OR BID EUCHRE. 

In this variety of euchre, the joker is always used. When there 
is a trump suit, it is the best trump; but when there are no trumps, 
it is a suit by itself, but still a trump. The player holding it can- 
not trump with it as long as he can follow suit ; but when he has 
none of the suit led, he can trump with the joker if he likes. When 
the joker is led in a no-trump hand, the leader must name the suit 
that he wishes played to it. 

Five hundred is supposed to be a game for three players, but 
sometimes two play against two as partners. 

The dealer gives ten cards to each player, three and then two at 
a time as in the ordinary game of euchre ; but after dealing the first 
three cards to each he lays off three cards face down for a widow.. 
This widow is taken in hand by the successful bidder, who discards 
three cards in its place. 



288 (Euchre.) 



EUCHRE LAWS. 



The players bid for the privilege of naming the trump suit, or of 
playing without any trump but the joker. The number of tricks 
bid must not be less than six, and the suit must be named at the 
same time. The player having the most valuable game, regard- 
less of the number of tricks or the suit, is the successful bidder, 
because a bid of seven in hearts, for instance, is worth more in 
points than a bid of eight in clubs, as will be seen from the follow- 
ing table. 



^If trumps are : 



Spades . . . 
Clubs . . . . 
Diamonds 
Hearts . , , 
No-trumps 



6 tricks. 


7 tricks. 


8 tricks. 


9 tricks. 


40 


80 


120 


160 


60 


120 


180 


240 


80 


160 


240 


320 


100 


200 


300 


400 


120 


240 


360 


480 



200 
300 
4oo 
500 
600 



The successful bidder always leads for the first trick, after he 
has taken the widow and discarded, and after the hand is played, he 
has the first count. If he has made as many as he bid, he scores 
it ; but he cannot score more than he bid unless he succeeds in 
winning every trick. In that case he scores 250 if his bid was less 
than 250 ; but if his bid was more than 250, he gets nothing extra 
for winning every trick. 

Any player but the bidder winning a trick scores ten points for 
it, so it is necessary for each player to keep separate the tricks he 
individually wins. 

If the bidder fails, he loses, or is set back, as many points as he 
bid, and he scores nothing for the tricks he takes, but he may play 
the hand out to prevent the others from scoring, as his adversaries 
still get ten points for each trick they win. 

Five hundred points is game, and as the bidder has the first count 
he may go out first, even if an adversary has won tricks enough to 
reach 500 also. 



EUCHRE LAWS. 

1. SCORING. A game consists of five points. If the 
players making the trump win all five tricks, they count two 
points towards game ; if they win three or four tricks, they count 
one point ; if they fail to win three tricks, their adversaries count 
two points. 

2. If the player making the trump plays alone, and makes 
five tricks, he counts as many points as there are players in the 



EUCHRE LAWS. (Euchre.) 289 

game : Two, if two play ; three if three play ; four if four play, 
etc. If he wins three or four tricks only, he counts one ; if he 
fails to win three tricks, his adversaries count two. 

3. The Mtibber is the best of three games. If the first two 
are won by the same players, the third game is not played. The 
winners gain a triple, or three points, if their adversaries have 
not scored ; a double, or two points, if their adversaries are less 
than three scored ; a single, or one point, if their adversaries 
have scored three or four. The winners of the rubber add two 
points to the value of their games, and deduct the points made by 
the losers, if any ; the remainder being the value of the rubber. 

4. FORMING THE TABLE. A Euchre table is com- 
plete with six players. If more than four assemble, they cut for 
the preference, the four lowest playing the first rubber. Partners 
and deal are then cut for, the two lowest pairing against the two 
highest. The lowest deals, and has the choice of seats and cards. 

5. Ties, Players cutting cards of equal value cut again, but 
the new cut decides nothing but the tie. 

6. Cutting Out. At the end of a rubber the players cut to 
decide which shall give way to those awaiting their turn to play. 
After the second rubber, those who have played the greatest num- 
ber of consecutive games give way ; ties being decided by cutting. 

7. Cutting. In cutting, the ace is low, the other cards rank- 
ing, K Q J ID 9 8 7, the King being the highest. A player expos- 
ing more than one card, or cutting the Joker, must cut again. 

8. SHUFFLING. Every player has a right to shuffle the 
cards, the dealer last. 

9. DEALING. The dealer must present the pack to the 
pone to be cut. At least four cards must be left in each packet. 
If a card is exposed in cutting, the pack must be re-shuffled, and 
cut again. If the dealer re-shuffles the pack after it has been 
properly cut, he loses his deal. 

10. Beginning on his left, the dealer must give to each player 
in rotation tivo cards on the first round, and three on the second ; 
or three to each on the first round, and two on the second. Five 
cards having been given to each player in this manner, the next 
card is turned up for the trump. The deal passes to the left. 

11. There must be a new deal by the same dealer if any 
card but the trump is found faced in the pack, or if the pack is 
proved incorrect or imperfect ; but any previous scores made with 
the imperfect pack stand good. 

12. The adversaries may demand a new deal if any card but 
the trump is exposed during the deal, provided they have not 
touched a card. If an adversary exposes a card, the dealer may 



290 (Euc&re.) EUCHRE LAWS. 

elect to deal again. If a new deal is not demanded, cards exposed 
in dealing cannot be called. 

13. The adversaries may stop a player dealing out of turn, or 
with the wrong pack, provided they do so before the trump card 
is turned, after which the deal stands good. 

14:. MISDEALING. A misdeal loses the deal. It is a 
misdeal : If the cards have not been properly cut ; if the dealer 
gives two cards to one player and three to another in the same 
round ; if he gives too many or too few cards to any player ; if he 
counts the cards on the table, or those remaining in the pack ; or 
if he deals a card incorrectly, and fails to correct the error before 
dealing another. If the dealer is interrupted in any manner by an 
adversary, he does not lose his deal. 

15. THE THUMP CARD. After the trump card is 
turned, each player in turn, beginning with the eldest hand, has 
the privilege of passing, assisting, or ordering up the trump. 
Should a player pass, and afterward correct himself by ordering ■ 
up or assisting, both he and his partner may be prevented by the 
adversaries from exercising their privilege. If a player calls his 
partner's attention to the fact that they are at the bridge, both 
lose their right to order up the trump. 

16. The dealer may leave the trump card on the pack until it 
is got rid of in the course of play. If the trump card has been 
taken up or played, any player may ask, and must be informed by 
the dealer, what the trump suit is ; but any player naming the 
trump card may be called upon by an adversary to play his highest 
or lowest trump. 

17. If the dealer takes up, or is ordered up, he must discard 
a card from his own hand, placing it under the remainder of the 
pack. Having quitted such discard, it cannot be taken back. If 
the dealer hasjnot discarded until he has played to the first trick, 
he and his partner cannot score any points for that hand. 

18. If the eldest hand leads before the dealer has quitted his 
discard, the dealer may amend his discard, but the eldest hand 
cannot take back the card led. 

19. If the dealer takes up the trump to play alone, he must 
pass his discard across the table to his partner. If he fails to do 
so, the adversaries may insist that his partner play with him, pre- 
venting the lone hand. 

20. MAKING THE TMUMP. If the dealer does not 
take up the trump, he must place it under the remainder of the 
pack, face upward, so that it can be distinctly seen. Each player in 
turn, beginning on the dealer's left, then has the privilege of nam- 
ing a new trump suit. 



EUCHRE LAWS (Euclifcj 291 

21. If any player names the suit already turned down, he 
loses his right to name a suit ; and if he corrects himself, and 
names another, neither he nor his partner is allowed to make that 
suit the trump. If a player names a new trump suit out of his 
proper turn, both he and his partner are forbidden to make that 
suit the trump. 

22. If no one will name a new trump, the deal is void, and 
passes to the next player on the dealer's left. 

23. IRJREGULARITIES IN THE HANDS. If 
any player is found not to have his correct number of cards, it is a 
misdeal ; but if he has played to the first trick the deal stands 
good, and he cannot score anything that hand. 

24:. EXPOSED CARDS. The following are exposed 
cards, and must be left face up on the table, and are liable to be 
called by the adversaries : 

I. Every card faced upon the table otherwise than in 

the regular course of play. 

II. Two or more cards played to a trick. The adver- 

saries may elect which shall be played. 

III. Any card named by the player holding it. 

25. If an adversary of a person playing alone exposes a card, 
the lone player may abandon the hand, and score the points. 
Should the partner of the lone player expose a card, the adver- 
saries may prevent the lone hand by compelling the player in error 
to play with his partner, leaving the exposed card on the table. 

26. CALLING EXPOSED CARDS. The adversary 
on the right of an exposed card must call it before he plays himself. 
If it will be the turn of the player holding the exposed card to lead 
for the next trick, the card, if wanted, must be called before the cur- 
rent trick is turned and quitted. Should a player having an ex- 
posed card and the lead, play from his hand before the previous 
trick is turned and quitted, the card so led may also be claimed as 
exposed. 

27. LEADING AND PLA TING O UT OF TURN. 
If a player leads when it was his partner's turn, a suit may be called 
from his partner. The demand must be made by the last player 
to the trick in which the suit is called. If it was the turn of neither 
to lead, the card played in error is exposed. If all have played to 
the false lead, the error cannot be rectified. If all have not fol- 
lowed, the cards erroneously played must be taken back, but are 
not liable to be called. 

28. If an adversary of a lone player leads out of turn, the lone 
player may abandon the hand, and score the points. 

29. If the third hand plays before the second, the fourth hand 
may play before his partner, either of his own volition, or at the 



292 (Euc&fc.) EUCHBE LAWS. 

direction of the second hand, who may say : " Play, partner." If 
the fourth hand plays before the second, the third hand may call 
upon the second hand to play his highest or lowest of the suit led, 
or to trump or not to trump the trick. 

30. REVOKING. A revoke is a renounce in error, not 
corrected in time ; or non-compliance with a performable penalty. 
If a revoke is claimed and proved, the hand in which it occurs is 
immediately abandoned. The adversaries of the revoking player 
then have the option of adding two points to their own score, or 
deducting two points from his score. If both sides revoke, the 
deal is void. If one person is playing alone, the penalty for a re- 
voke is as many points as would have been scored if the lone hand 
had succeeded. 

31. A revoke may be corrected by the player making it before 
the trick in which it occurs has been turned and quitted, unless the 
revoking player or his partner, whether in his right turn or other- 
wise, has led or played to the following trick. 

32. If a player corrects his mistake in time to save a revoke, 
the card played in error is exposed ; but any cards subsequently 
played by others may be taken back without penalty. 

33. PLAYING ALONE. No one but the individual 
maker of the trump can play alone, 

34:. The dealer must announce his intention to play alone by 
passing his discard over to his partner. Any other player intend- 
ing to play alone must use the expression " alone " in connection 
with his ordering up or making the trump ; as, " I order it, alone ; " 
or " I make it hearts, alone." 

35. The partner of a player who has announced to play alone 
must lay his cards on the table, face down. Should he expose any 
of his cards, the adversaries may prevent the lone hand, and com- 
pel him to play with his partner, the exposed card being left on the 
table and liable to be called. 

36. The lone player is not liable to any penalty for exposed 
cards, nor for a lead out of turn. 

37. Should either adversary lead or play out of turn, the lone 
player may abandon the hand, and score the points. 

38. BIISCELLANEOUS. No player is allowed to see 
any trick that has once been turned and quitted, under penalty of 
having a suit called from him or his partner. 

39. Any player may ask the others to indicate the cards played 
by them to the current trick. 

4:0. A player calling attention in any manner to the trick or to 
the score, may be called upon to play his highest or lowest of the 
suit led ; or to trump or not to trump the trick during the play of 
which the remark was made. 



(Ecarte.) 293 

ECARTE. 

ficarte is usually described as a very simple game, but unfor- 
tunately the rules governing it are very complicated, and as no 
authoritative code of law exists, disputes about trifling irregulari- 
ties are very common. In the following directions the author has 
selected what appears to be the best French usage. The code of 
laws adopted by some of the English clubs is unfortunately very 
defective, and in many respects quite out of touch with the true 
spirit of the French game. The English are very fond of penal- 
ties ; the French try to establish the status quo. 

CARDS' Ecarte is played with a pack of thirty-two cards, 
which rank, KQJA10987. When two packs are used, the ad- 
versary shuffles one while the other is dealt. 

MARKERS. In France, the game is always marked with 
the ordinary round chips or counters, never with a marker. As 
five points is the game, four of these counters are necessary for 
each player. 

PLAYERS^ Ecarte is played by two persons, who sit oppo- 
site each other. One is known as the dealer, and the other as the 
pone, the adversary, the elder hand, the non-dealer, the leader, or 
the player. 

THE GALLERY. In clubs that make a feature of Ecarte, 
and in which there is a great deal of betting on the outside by the 
spectators, it is not usual to allow more than one game between 
the same players, the loser giving place to one of those who have 
been backing him, and who is called a rentrant. This is known 
as playing the cul-leve. Any person in the gallery is allowed to 
draw attention to errors in the score, and may advise the player he 
is backing, or even play out the game for him, if he resigns. The 
player need not take the advice given him, vv^hich must be offered 
without discussion, and by pointing only, not naming the suit or 
cards. If a player will not allow the gallery to back him, taking 
all bets himself, no one may overlook his hand nor advise him 
without his permission, and he need not retire if he loses the 
game. 

CUTTING. The player cutting the highest ecarte card deals 
the first hand, and has the choice of seats and cards. If a person 
exposes more than one card in cutting, the lowest is taken to be 
his cut. If he does not cut, or will not show his cut, he loses the 
first deal. 

STAKES. Ecarte is played for so much a game. If the 
gallery is betting, all money offered must be placed on the table, 
and if the bets are not taken by the players, they may be covered 
by the opposing gallery. 



294 (Ecarte.) D3ALING. 

DEALING, It is usual for the dealer to invite his adversary 
to shuffle the cards, but if two packs are used this is not neces- 
sary. The dealer must shuffle the pack and present it to his ad- 
versary to be cut. At least two cards must be left in each packet, 
and the upper part of the pack must be placed nearer the dealer. 
Five cards are given to each player, and the eleventh is turned up 
for the trump. The cards are distributed two and three at a time, 
or three and then two, and in whichever manner the dealer begins 
he must continue during the game. If he intends to change his 
manner of dealing in the following game, he must so advise his 
adversary when presenting the cards to be cut. 

MISDEALING. A player dealing out of turn, or with the 
wrong cards, may be stopped before the trump is turned. But if 
the trump has been turned, and neither player has discarded or 
played to the first trick, the pack must be set aside, with the cards 
as dealt, and the trump turned, to be used for the ensuing deal. 
The other pack is then taken up and dealt by the player whose 
proper turn it was to deal. If a discard has been made, or a trick 
played to, the deal stands good, and the packs, if changed, must so 
remain. 

There must be a new deal if any card but the eleventh is found 
faced in the pack. If the dealer exposes any of his own cards, the 
deal stands good. If he exposes any of his adversary's cards, the 
non-dealer may claim a fresh deal, provided he has not seen any 
of his cards. 

It is a misdeal if the dealer gives too many or too few cards to his 
adversary or to himself. If the hands have not been seen, and the 
pone discovers that he has received more than five cards, he has 
the choice to discard the superfluous cards at hazard, or to claim a 
misdeal, which loses the deal. If the pone has received less than 
the proper number, he may supply the deficiency from the remainder 
of the pack, without changing the trump card, or he may claim a 
misdeal. If the dealer has given himself too many or too few 
cards, the pone may claim a misdeal, or he may draw the super- 
fluous cards from the dealer's hand, face downward, or allow him 
to supply the deficiency from the remainder of the pack, without 
changing the trump. 

If the cards have been seen, the pone, having an incorrect num- 
ber, may supply or discard to correct the error, or he may claim a 
misdeal. If he discards, he must show the cards to the dealer. 
If the dealer has an incorrect number, the pone may draw from 
his hand, face downward, looking at the cards he has drawn, (as 
the dealer has seen them,) or allow him to supply the deficiency, 
or claim a misdeal. 

When any irregularity is remedied in this manner, the trump 
card remains unchanged. 

If the dealer turns up more than one card for the trump, his 



PROPOSING. (Ecarte.) 295 

adversary has a right to select which card shall be the trump, or he 
may claim a new deal by the same dealer, provided he has not 
seen his hand. If he has seen his hand, he must either claim a 
misdeal, or the eleventh card must be the trump, the other exposed 
card being set aside. 

If the pack is found to be imperfect, all scores previously made 
with it stand good. 

TURNING THE KING, If the King is turned up, the 
dealer marks one point foi it immediately. If a wrong number of 
cards has been dealt, and a King is turned, it cannot be scored, 
because it was not the eleventh card. 

PROPOSING AND REFUSING. _ The cards dealt, 
the pone examines his hand, and if he thinks it strong enough to 
win three or more tricks, he stands ; that is, plays without propos- 
ing, and says to the dealer : " I play." If he thinks he can im- 
prove his chances by drawing cards, allowing the dealer the same 
privilege of course, he says : *' I propose ; " or simply : 
** Cards." In reply the dealer may either accept the proposal 
by asking: *' Mow many?" or he may refuse, by saying: 
*' Play." If he gives cards, he may also take cards himself, after 
having helped his adversary. If he refuses, he must win at least 
three tricks or lose two points ; and if the pone plays without pro- 
posing, he must make three tricks, or lose two points. The hands 
on which a player should stand, and those on which the dealer 
should refuse are known as Jeux de rdgle, and will be found in 
the suggestions for good play. 

A proposal, acceptance, or refusal once made cannot be changed 
or taken back, and the number of cards asked for cannot be cor- 
rected. 

DISCARDING. If the pone proposes, and the dealer asks : 
" How many ? " the elder hand discards any number of cards from 
one to five, placing them on his right. These discards, once 
quitted, must not again be looked at. A player looking at his own 
or his adversary's discards can be called upon to play with his 
cards exposed face upward on the table, but not liable to be called. 
The number of cards discarded must be distinctly announced, and 
the trump is then laid aside, and the cards given from the top of 
the pack, without further shufifling. It is considered imperative 
that the player who has proposed should take at least one card, even 
if he proposed with five trumps in his hand. The pone helped, 
the dealer then announces how manj^ cards he takes, placing his 
discards on his left. The dealer, if asked, must inform his adver- 
sary how many cards he took, provided the question is put before 
he plays a card. 

After receiving his cards, the pone may either stand or propose 
again, and the dealer may either give or refuse ; but such subse- 



296 (Ecarte.) DISCABDING. 

quent stands or refusals do not carry with them any penalty for 
failure to make three tricks. Should these repeated discards ex- 
haust the pack, so that there are not enough cards left to supply the 
number asked for, the players must take back a sufficient number 
from their discards. If the dealer has accepted a proposal, and finds 
there are no cards left for himself, that is his own fault ; he should 
have counted the pack before accepting. The trump card cannot 
be taken into the hand under any circumstances. 

MISDEALING AFTER DISCARDING. If the 

dealer gives the pone more or less cards than he asks for, he loses 
the point and the right to mark the King, unless it was turned up. 

If the dealer gives himself more cards than he wants, he loses 
the point and the right to mark the King, unless he turned it up. 
If he gives himself less cards than he wants, he may make the de- 
ficiency good without penalty; but if he does not discover the 
error until he has played a card, all tricks for which he has no 
card to play must be considered as won by his adversary. 

If the pone asks for more cards than he wants, the dealer can 
play the hand or not, as he pleases. If he plays, he may draw the 
superfluous card or cards given to the pone, and look at them if 
the pone has seen them. If the dealer decides not to play, he 
marks the point. In either case the pone cannot mark the King, 
even if he holds it. 

If the pone asks for less cards than he wants, he must play the 
hand as it is, and can mark the King if he holds it ; but all tricks 
for which he has no card to play must be considered as won by his 
adversary. 

If a player plays without discarding, or discards for the pur- 
pose of exchanging, without advising his adversary of the fact that 
he has too many or too few cards, he loses two points, and the 
right of marking the King, even if turned up. 

If either player, after discarding and drawing, plays with more 
than five cards, he loses the point and the privilege of marking the 
King. 

Should the dealer forget himself in dealing for the discard, and 
turn up another trump, he cannot refuse his adversary another 
discard, if he demands it, and the exposed card must be put aside 
with the discards. 

If any cards are found faced in the pack when dealing for the 
discard, the deal stands good if they will fall to the dealer. But 
if the exposed card will go to the pone, he has the option of tak- 
ing it, or claiming a fresh deal by the same dealer. 

During all the discards the trump card remains the same. 

MARKING THE KING. The discards settled, the first 
and most important thing before play begins is to mark the King. 
If the King is turned up, the dealer marks one point for it im- 



MARKING THE KING. (Ecarte.) 297 

mediately. If the pone holds it, he must announce and mark it 
before he plays a card. If he leads the King for the first trick, he 
must still announce it by saying distinctly : " I mark the King ; " 
and unless this announcement is made before the King touche^ 
the table, it cannot be marked. So important is this rule that in 
some European Casinos it is found printed on the card tables. 
Having properly announced the King, it may be actually marked 
with the counters at any time before the trump is turned for the 
following game. 

If the dealer holds the King he must announce it before his 
adversary leads for the first trick. It is in order that there may 
be no surprises in this respect that the elder hand is required to 
say distinctly: "I play," before he leads a card. The dealer 
must then reply : " I mark the King," if he has it ; if not, he 
should say : " Play." A player is not compelled to announce or 
mark the King if he does not choose to do so. 

If a player announces and marks the King when he does not 
hold it, his adversary can take down the point erroneously marked, 
and mark one himself, for penalty. This does not prevent him 
from marking an additional point for the King if he holds it him- 
self. For instance : The pone announces King, and marks it, at 
the same time leading a card. Not having notified the dealer that 
he was about to play, the dealer cannot be deprived of his right to 
mark the King himself, if he holds it. The dealer marks the 
King, marks another point for penalty, and takes down the pone's 
point, erroneously marked. If the player announcing the King 
without holding it, discovers his error before a card is played, he 
simply amends'the score and apologizes, and there is no penalty. 
If any cards have been played after an erroneous announcement 
of the King, such cards can be taken back by the adversary of the 
player in error, and the hand played over again. 

METSOn OF PLATING. The elder hand begins by 
leading any card he pleases, at the same time announcing the suit ; 
" hearts ; " " spades ; " or whatever it may be. This announcement 
must be continued at every trick. If a player announces one suit 
and leads another, his adversary may demand that he take back 
the card played, and lead the suit announced. If he has none of 
the announced suit, the adversary may call a suit. If the adver- 
sary is satisfied with the card led, but improperly announced, he 
may demand that it remain as played. 

BENOUNCING. When a card is led the adversary must 
not only follow suit, but must win the trick if he can. If he can 
neither follow suit nor trump, he may discard any card he pleases. 
Should a player not follow suit, or should he decline to win the 
trick, when able to do so, it is a renounce, and if he makes the odd 
trick he counts nothing ; if he makes all five tricks, he counts one 



298 (Ecarte.) RENOUNCING. 

point only, instead of two. Should he trump the trick when he can 
follow suit, he is subject to the same penalty. There is no such 
thing as a revoke in Ecarte. When it is discovered that a player 
has not followed suit when able, or has lost a trick that he could 
have won, the cards are taken back, and the hand played over 
again, with the foregoing penalty for the renounce. 

The highest card played, if of the suit led, wins the trick, and 
trumps win all other suits. 

Leading Out of Turn. Should a player lead out of turn, he 
may take back the card without penalty. If the adversary has 
played to the erroneous lead, the trick stands good. 

Gathering Tricks. The tricks must be turned down as 
taken in, and any player looking at a trick once turned and quitted 
may be called upon to play with the remainder of his hand ex- 
posed, but not lia.ble to be called. 

Abandoned Hands. If, after taking one or more tricks, a 
player throws his cards upon the table, he loses the point ; if he 
has not taken a trick, he loses two points. But if the cards are 
thrown down claiming the point or the game, and the claim is 
good, there is no penalty. If the cards are abandoned with the 
admission that the adversary wins the point or the game, and the 
adversary cannot win more than is admitted, there is no penalty. 

SCORING. A game consists of five points, which are made 
by tricks, by penalties, and by marking the King. A player win- 
ning three tricks out of the five possible, counts one point toward 
game ; winning all five tricks, which is called the vole, counts 
two points. The player holding or turning up the King of trumps 
may mark one point for it, but he is not compelled to do so. 

If the pone plays without proposing, and makes three or four 
tricks, he counts one point ; if he makes the vole he counts two 
points ; but if he fails to make three tricks the dealer counts two. 

If the dealer refuses the first proposal, he must make three tricks 
to count one point ; if he makes the vole he counts two points ; but 
if he fails to win three tricks the player who was refused counts 
two points. 

If the dealer accepts the first proposal, and gives cards, subse- 
quent proposals and refusals do not affect the score ; the winner of 
the odd trick scoring one point, and the winner of the vole two 
points. 

In no case can a player make more than two points in one hand 
by tricks. If the dealer refuses the first proposal, and the pone 
makes the vole, it counts two points only. If the pone should play 
without proposing, and the dealer should mark the King and win 
the vole, it would count him only three points altogether. 

The player first reaching five points wins the game. If a 
player has four scored, and turns the King, that wins the game, 



GOOD PLAY (icarte.) 299 

provided the King was the eleventh card. Rubbers are seldom 

played. 

CHEATING. The methods of cheating at :£carte vi^ould fill 
a volume. There are many tricks which, while not exactly fraudu- 
lent, are certainly questionable. For instance : A player asks the 
gallery whether or not he should stand, and finally concludes to 
propose, fully intending all the time to draw five cards. Another 
will handle his counters as if about to mark the King ; will then af- 
fect to hesitate, and finally re-adjust them, and ask for cards, 
probably taking four or five, having absolutely nothing in his hand. 
The pone will ask the dealer how many points he has marked, 
knowing perfectly well that the number is three. On being so in- 
formed, he concludes to ask for cards, as if he were not quite 
strong enough to risk the game by standing ; when as a matter of 
fact he wants five cards, and is afraid of the vole being made 
against him. 

There are many simple little tricks practiced by the would-be 
sharper, such as watching how many cards a player habitually cuts, 
and then getting the four Kings close together in such a position in 
the pack that one of them is almost certain to be turned. Tele- 
graphic signals between persons on opposite sides of the gallery 
who are nevertheless in partnership, are often translated into ad- 
vice to the player, to his great benefit. Besides these, all the ma- 
chinery of marked cards, reflectors, shifted cuts, wedges, strippers, 
and false shuffles are at the command of the philosopher, who can 
always handle a small pack of cards with greater freedom, and to 
whom the fashion of dealing in twos and threes is always welcome. 
The honest card-player has not one chance in a thousand against 
the professional at Ecarte. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD PLAY. The French 
claim that any person may become an expert at a game like Pi- 
quet, simply by dint of long practice ; but that the master of Ecarte 
must be a born card-player, as no game requires in such degree 
the exercise of individual intelligence and finesse. While this may 
be true, there are many points about the game which may be 
learned by the novice, and which will greatly improve his play. 

There are two things which the beginner should master before 
sitting down to the table for actual play : the hands on which it is 
right to stand, or play without proposing , and those with which it 
is right to refuse, or play without giving cards. These are called 
stand hands, or Jeuoc de regie, and the player should be able 
to recognize them on sight. 

In the following paragraphs the words dealer and player 
will be used to distinguish the adversaries at Ecarte. 

The principle underlying the jeux de regie is the probable distri- 
bution of the cards in the trump suit, and the fact that the odds 



SOO (Ecarte.) 



JEUX DE BkOLE. 



are always against the dealer's holding two or more. There are 
thirty-two cards in the Ecarte pack, of which eight are trumps, and 
one of these is always turned up. The turn-up and the player's 
hand give us six cards which are known, and leave twenty-six un- 
known. Of these unknown cards the dealer holds five, and he 
may get these five in 65,780 different ways. The theory of the 
jeux de regie is that there are only a certain number of those ways 
which will give him two or more trumps. If the player holds one 
trump, the odds against the dealer's holding two or more are 
44,574 to 21,206 ; or a little more than 2 to i. If the player holds 
two trumps, the odds against the dealer's holding two or more are 
50,274 to 15,506 ; or more than 3 to i. It is therefore evident that 
any hand which is certain to win three tricks if the dealer has not 
two trumps, has odds of two to one in its favour, and all such 
hands are called jeux de regie. The natural inference from this is 
that such hands should always be played without proposing, un- 
less they contain the King of trumps. 

The exception in case of holding the King is made because there 
is no danger of the dealer's getting the King, no matter how many 
cards he draws, and if the player's cards are not strong enough to 
make it probable that he can win the vole, it is better for him to 
ask for cards, in hope of improving his chances. If he is refused, 
he stands an excellent chance to make two points by winning the 
odd trick. 

While it is the rule for the player to stand when the odds are 
two to one in his favour for making the odd trick, and to ask for 
cards when the odds are less, there are exceptions. The chances 
of improving by taking in cards must not be forgotten, and it must 
be remembered that the player who proposes runs no risk of pen- 
alty. He has also the advantage of scoring two for the vole if he 
can get cards enough to win every trick, whereas the dealer gets 
no more for the vole than for the odd trick if the player does not 
propose. Some beginners have a bad habit of asking for cards if 
they are pretty certain of the point. Unless they hold the King 
this is not wise, for the player cannot discard more than one or 
two cards, but the dealer may take five, and then stands a fair 
chance of getting the King, which would not only count a point 
for him, but would effectually stop the vole for which the player 
was drawing cards. 

The most obvious example of a jeux de regie is one trump, a 
winning sequence of three cards in one suit, and a small card in 
another. For instance : Hearts trumps— 



44,724 to 21,056. 




1 





JEUX DE BkGLE. 



(Ecarte.) 301 



If the dealer does not hold two trumps, it is impossible to pre- 
vent the player from winning the point with these cards ; because 
he need only lead his winning sequence until it is trumped, and 
then trump himself in again. With this hand the player will win 
44,724 times out of 65,780. 

There are about twenty hands which are generally known as 
jeux de regie, and every ecarte player should be familiar with 
them. In the following examples the weakest hands are given, 
and the trumps are always the smallest possible. If the player 
has more strength in plain suits than is shown in these examples, 
or higher trumps, there is so much more reason for him to stand. 
But if he has not the strength indicated in plain suits, he should 
propose, even if his trumps are higher, because it must be remem- 
bered that strong trumps do not compensate for weakness in plain 
suits. The reason for this is that from stand hands trumps 
should never be led unless there are three of them ; they are to be 
kept for ruffing, and when you have to ruff it does not matter 
whether you use a seven or a Queen. The King of trumps is of 
course led ; but a player does not stand on a hand containing the 
King. 

The first suit given is always the trump, and the next suit is al- 
ways the one that should be led, beginning with the best card of 
it if there is more than one. The figures on the right show the 
number of hands in which the player or the dealer will win out of 
the 65,780 possible distributions of the twenty-six unknown cards. 
These calculations are taken, by permission of Mr. Charles Mossop, 
from the eighth volume of the " Westminster Papers," in which 
all the variations and their results are given in full. 



2 



4>. 4> 
4. 4. 


4. 4. 


9 '^ 
9? ^ 




9? ^ 







9 9 


i 









^ A 4^ A ,5. J. ^^ 

T ♦ V V «Kv 

♦ ♦♦♦<><>4i4. mm 

» ♦! k » lo 01 14' ^ ^m. 



"0" 






0% 


4. 4. 

4.^4. 


4. 4. 
4. 4. 


<^M^ 



Player Dealer 

Wins. Wins. 

47,768 18,012 



46,039 19,741 



43,764 22,016 



45,374 20,406 



302 (Ecarte.) JEUX DE B^GLK 



8 



4. 4. 



♦ 4 



4- * <0> 
4. O 



9? 9? 


9 9 



♦ 
O 






* 4- 

4i^4i 
4. 4. 


*** 





@ 






<;? 






Player 
Wins. 
44.169 



44,766 



Dealer 

Wins. 

21,611 



43,478 22,301 



44,243 21,537 



21,014 



10 



11 




44,459 21,321 



44,034 21,746 



12 







<^* 




*A* 
4.*4- 





43,434 22,346 



J5 



14: 



15 



<> 




9 ^ 









*** 

4. 4. 
4. 4. 


4. 4. 
4.^4. 






9 9 
9 c? 




44,766 21,014 



46,779 19,001 



45,929 19,851 



JEUX DE RilGLR 



(Ecarte.) 303 



The player should always stand on a hand containing three 
trumps, not including the King, and should lead the trump : — 



16 







9 ^ 













42,014 to 23,766 



An example of a hand containing only one trump has already 
been given, and some hands are jeux de regie which contain no 
trumps. The strongest of these is the King of each plain suit, 
and any queen. Lead the K Q suit : — 



X7 



m 





f^ 



48,042 to 17,738 



The odds in favour of this hand are greater than in any other 
jeux de regie. Another which is recommended by Bohn is this, 
the odds in favour of which have not been calculated ; the player 
to begin with the guarded King : — 



18 



4. ^ 
4. 4. 
4. A 



i 






Another is any four court cards, not all Jacks ; unless one is the 
trump Jack guarded. From the example the Queen should be 
led:— 



19 



There are two hands which are usually played with only one 
trump, from both of which the best card of the long suit is led : — 




20 



21 



<;? 


^ 




s> 


^ 


^ 


<? 


^ 



4> ^ 



♦ ♦ 1^ *f 

^ ft 

T T V V 



*** 

4. 4. 
4. 4. 










^ 


1 



304 (Ecarte.) IMPORTANCE OF TEN ACE. 

THE LEADER. There are a great many more opportuni- 
ties to make the vole than most players are aware of ; especially 
with jeux de regie. Where the vole is improbable or impossible, 
tenace is very important, and all tenace positions should be made 
the most of. In No. 5, for instance, if the clubs were the Queen 
and ace, it would be better to begin with the heart King, instead 
of leading away from the minor tenace in clubs. Observe the 
lead in No. 4. Many tenace positions cannot be taken advantage 
of because the player must win the trick if he can. For instance : 
Several discards have been made, and each player suspects the 
other holds three trumps, with three tricks to play. The Queen is 
led, and the adversary holds K A 7. If he could pass this trick, 
he must lie tenace ; but as he has to win it with the King, he gives 
tenace to his adversary, who evidently has J and another. 

When the dealer is four, the player may stand on much weaker 
hands. 

It is usually best to lead from guarded suits, in preference to 
single cards. Lead the best of a suit if you have it. If the third 
trick is the first you win, and you have a trump and another card, 
lead the trump ; but if you have won two tricks, lead the plain suit. 

THE DEALER. When the player asks for cards, the 
dealer knows that his adversary probably does not hold a jeux de 
r^gle. The dealer must not be too sure of this, however, for pro- 
posals are sometimes made on very strong hands in order to try 
for the vole, or to make two points on the refusal. The dealer 
should assume that he is opposed by the best play until he finds 
the contrary to be the case, and it is safest to play on the assump- 
tion that a player who proposes has not a jeux de regie. 

For all practical purposes it may be said that the dealer can re- 
fuse to give cards with hands a trifle less strong than those on 
which the player would stand. The general rule is for the dealer 
to give cards unless he is guarded in three suits ; or has a trump, 
and is safe in two suits ; or has two trumps, and is safe in one 
suit. If the dealer has only one suit guarded, and one trump, he 
must take into account the risk of being forced, and having to lead 
away from his guarded suit. 

There are eight recognized hands on which the dealer should re- 
fuse. The full details of the calculations can be found in the 
ninth volume of the " Westminster Papers." As in the case of 
the player, the weakest trumps have been taken for the exam- 
ples, and the weakest holdings in plain suits. If the dealer has 
better plain suits, or stronger trumps, he has of course so much 
more in his favour if he refuses. The first column of figures gives 
the number of times in 65,780 that there will be no proposal, so 
•^^hat the dealer has no choice but to play. The other columns 
give the number of times the dealer or the player will win if the 
player proposes and the dealer refuses. 



REFUSAL HANDS, (Ecarte.) 305 

The first suit given in each instance is the trump. 



22 



23 



24: 



25 



26 



27 



28 



29 



(? 


<7 




s^ 


^ 


^ 


9 


<^ 



4> 4> 



4'.4' 
4. 4. 


4.^4. 


4. -^4. 
A 4- 




<0 


♦ * 

♦ ♦ 

♦ * 





@ 





%* 

♦ ♦ 

♦ ♦ 







1 




4. 4. 
4. 4. 







"0" 


0*0 


*^ 




*** 

4. 4. 
4. 4. 


9 <? 
9 9? 



4. 4. 
4.^4. 



%* 






0*0 



<7 <7' 


(J) c? 


4» 

4.^4. 


4. 4. 

•?• , 4" 
4.**4. 
4. 4. 


1 









9 ^? 




^^^ 
^ ^ 

^^^ 
^^^ 


4.-4. 



%* 





%0 


0*0 


4. 4> 
4. 4. 
4. 4. 






0*0 



No Dealer Player 
Proposal. Wins. Wins. 

6,034 36,974 22,772 



9,826 38,469 17,485 



8,736 41,699 15,345 



9,256 40,524 16,000 



10.336 37.484 17.960 



9.776 37,439 18,565 



9.776 36,909 19,095 



9.776 36,733 19,271 



In giving cards, some judgment of human nature is necessary. 
Some players habitually propose on strong hands, and it is best to 
give to such pretty freely. 

DISCAMJyiNG, The general principle of discarding is to 
keep trumps and Kings, and let everything else go. If you hold 
the trump King you may discard freely in order to strengthen 
your hand for a possible vole. If you have proposed once, and 



306 (Ecarte'.) LAWS AND TEXT. BOOKS. 

hold the King, and feel pretty sure of the point, you may propose 
again on the chance of getting strength enough to make the vole. 

When only two cards can be discarded, it is a safe rule to stand 
on the hand ; either to play without proposing, or to refuse cards ; 
unless you hold the King. 

There are no authoritative laws for !Ecarte, and the various 
French and English codes do not agree. The code adopted by 
the English clubs is not in accord with the best usage, and fails to 
provide for, many contingencies. All that is essential in the laws 
will be found embodied in the foregoing description of the game. 

TEXT BOOKS. The best works on the subject of Ecarte 
are usually to be found in conjunction with other games. The 
student will find the following useful : — 

The Westminster Papers, Vols. IV to XI, inclusive. 

Bohn's Handbook of Games ; any edition. 

Ecarte and Euchre, by Berkeley, 1890. 

Cavendish on Ecart^, 1886. 

Jeux de Cartes, (Fr.), by Jean Boussac. 

Regies de Tons les Jeux, (Fr.), M. Dreyfous, Edit. 

Academie des Jeux, (Fr.), by Van Tenac. 

Academic des Jeux, (Fr.), by Richard. 

Short Whist, by Major A. (Ecarte Laws in appendix.) 



POOL 6cART6. 



Pool Ecart6 is played by three persons, each of whom con- 
tributes an agreed sum, which is called a stake, to form a pool. 
They then cut to decide which shall play the first game, the lowest 
ecarte card going out. The players then cut for the first deal, 
choice of seats and cards, etc., exactly as in the ordinary game. 

The winner of the first game retains his seat ; the loser pays into 
the pool another stake, equal to the first, and retires in favour of 
the third player, who is called the rentrant. The rentrant takes 
the loser's seat and cards, and cuts with the successful player for 
the first deal. The loser of the second game adds another stake 
to the pool, and retires in favour of the waiting player. 

The pool is won by any player winning two games in succession. 
If the winner of the first game won the second also, he Would 
take the pool, which would then contain five stakes ; the three 
originally deposited, and the two added by the losers of the two 
games. A new pool would then be formed by each of the three 
depositing another stake, and all cutting to decide which should 
sit out for the first game. 



POOL ^CABTA (Ecarte.) 307 

In some places only the two players actually engaged contribute 
to the pool, the loser retiring without paying anything further, 
and the rentrant contributing his stake when he takes the loser's 
place. 

The outsider is not allowed to advise either player during the 
first game, nor to call attention to the score ; but on the second 
game he is allowed to advise the player who has taken his seat 
and cards. This is on the principle that he has no right to choose 
sides on the first game ; but that after that he has an interest in 
preventing his former adversary from winning the second game. 
so as to preserve the pool until he can play for it again himself. 



NAPOLEON, 

OR NAP. 



This is one of the simplest, and at the same time most popular 
of the euchre family. Few games have become so widely known 
in such a short time, or have had such a vogue among all classes 
of society. So far as the mere winning and losing goes, che result 
depends largely upon luck, and skill is of small importance. Ex- 
cept in a long series of games the average player has little to fear 
from the most expert. 

CARDS. Napoleon is played with a full pack of fifty-two 
cards, which rank AKQJ1098 76 5 4 3 2; the ace being 
highest in play; but ranking below the deuce in cutting. 

COTJNTEHS, As each deal is a complete game in itself it 
must be settled for in counters, to which some value is usually 
attached. One player is selected for the banker, and before play 
begins each ot the others purchases from him a certain number of 
counters, usually fifty. When any player's supply is exhausted, 
he can purchase more, either from the banker or from another 
player. 

In many places counters are not used, and the value of the 
game is designated by the coins that take their place. In " penny 
nap," English coppers are used in settling; sixpences in " sixpenny 
nap," and so on. In America, nickel and quarter nap are the 
usual forms. 

PLAYERS. Any number from two to six can play; but 
four is the best game. If five or six play it is usual for the dealer 
to give himself no cards. 

CUTTING* The players draw from an outspread pack to 



308 (Nap.) DEALING AND BIDDING. 

form the table, and for choice of seats. A lower cut gives prefer- 
ence over all higher ; the lowest cut has the first choice of seats, 
and deals the first hand. Ties cut again, but the new cut de- 
cides nothing but the tie. 

In some places the players take their seats at random, and a 
card is then dealt to each face upward ; the lowest card or the 
first Jack taking the deal. 

DEALING. Any plaj'er has a right to shuffle the cards, the 
dealer last. They are then presented to the pone to be cut, and 
at least four cards mur*- be left in each packet. Beginning at his 
left, the dealer gives each i Ir.y^r in rotation two cards on the first 
round, and three on the next ; or three on thfe first and two on 
the next. No trump is turned. In some places the cards are dis- 
tributed one at a time until each player has five ; but the plan is 
not popular, as the hands run better and the bidding is livelier 
when the cards are dealt in twos and threes. The deal passes 
to the left, each player dealing in turn. 

MISDEALING. A misdeal does not lose the deal in Na- 
poleon, because the deal is a disadvantage. For this reason, if 
any player begins to deal out of turn, he must finish, and the deal 
stands good. If any card is found faced in the pack, or is exposed 
by the dealer ; or if too many or too few cards are given to any 
player ; or if the dealer does not give the same number of cards to 
each player in the same round ; or if he fails to have the pack cut, 
it is a misdeal, and the misdealer must deal again with the same 
pack. 

BIDDING. Beginning on the dealer's left, each player in 
turn bids for the privilege of naming the trump suit, stating the 
number of tricks he proposes to win, playing single-handed against 
the three other players, and leading a trump for the first trick. In 
bidding, the trump suit is not named, only the number of tricks. 
If a player proposes to win all five tricks he bids nap, which is 
the highest bid possible, and precludes any further bidding, ex- 
cept in some of the variations which will be described later on. 
If a player will not make a bid, he says " I pass." A bid having 
been made, any following player must either increase it or pass. 
If all pass until it comes to the dealer, he is bound to bid at least 
one trick, and either play or pay. The hands are never abandoned 
except in case of a misdeal. 

In some places a misdi^e bid is allowed, which outranks a bid 
of three tricks, and is beaten by one of four. There is no trump 
suit in misere, but the bidder, if successful, must lead for the first 
trick. 

Any bid once made can neither be amended nor recalled, and 
there is no second bid. 

METHOD OF PLATING. The player bidding the high- 
est number of tricks has the first lead, and the first card he plays 



METHOD OF TLAYING. (Nap.) 309 

must be one of the trump suit. The players must follow suit 
if able, but need not win the trick unless they choose to do so. 
The highest card played of the suit led wins the trick, and trumps 
win all other suits. The winner of the trick leads again for the 
next trick, and so on, until all five tricks have been played. After 
the first trick any suit may be led. 

The bidder gathers all tricks he wins, stacking them so that they 
may be readily counted by any player at the table. One of the 
other side should gather all tricks won by the adversaries of the 
bidder. A trick once turned and quitted cannot again be seen. 
In some places they have a very bad habit of gathering tricks with 
the cards face up, turning down one card only. This always 
results in numerous misdeals, on account of cards being contin- 
ually found faced in the pack. 

The hands are usually abandoned when the bidder succeeds in 
his undertaking, or shows cards which are good for his bid against 
any play. If it is impossible for him to succeed, as when he bids 
four and the adversaries have won two tricks, the hands are thrown 
up, because nothing is paid for under or over-tricks. Players 
should show the remainder of their hands to the board, as evidence 
that no revoke has been made. 

IHBEGITLAItlTIES IN HANDS. If a player, before 
he makes a bid or passes, discovers that he holds too many or too 
few cards, he must immediately claim a misdeal. If he has either 
made a bid or passed, the deal stands good, and the hand must be 
played out. If the bidder has his right number of cards and suc- 
ceeds, he must be paid. If he fails, he neither wins nor loses ; 
because he is playing against a foul hand. If the bidder has more 
than his right number of cards he must pay if he loses ; but wins 
nothing if he succeeds. If he has less than his right number of 
cards, he is simply supposed to have lost the trick for which he 
has no card to play. 

PLAYING OUT OF TUBN, If any adversary of the 
bidder leads or plays out of turn, he forfeits three counters to the 
bidder, independently of the result of the hand, and receives noth- 
ing if the bid is defeated. If the bidder leads out of turn, the card 
must be taken back, unless all have followed the erroneous lead, 
in which case the trick is good. There is no penalty if he plays 
out of turn. 

REVOKES, When a revoke is detected and claimed, the 
hands are immediately abandoned, and the individual player in 
fault must pay all the counters depending on the result. If he is 
the bidder, he pays each adversary ; if he is opposed to the bidder, 
he pays for himself and for each of his partners. In England it is 
the rule to take back the cards and play the hand over again, as 
at Ecarte, the revoking player paying all the stakes according to 
the result. This is often very unfair to the bidder, and leads to 



310 (Nap.) &00D PLAY. 

endless disputes as to who held certain cards which have been 
gathered into tricks. Sometimes the difference between a seven 
and an eight in a certain player's hand will change the entire 
result, 

PAYMENTS. If the bidder succeeds in winning the speci- 
fied number of tricks, each adversary pays him a counter for every 
trick bid. If he bid three tricks, they pay him three counters 
each ; four counters each for four tricks bid ; and the value of 
three tricks for a misere. If he fails to win the specified number 
of tricks, he pays each adversary ; three counters if he bid three 
tricks, or a misere ; four if he bid four. Any player bidding nap, 
and succeeding in winning all five tricks, receives ten counters 
from each adversary ; but if he fails, he pays only five to each. 

When penny nap is played, the settlement being in coin, it is 
usual to make naps win a shilling or lose sixpence, in order to 
avoid handling so much copper. 

SUGGESTIONS FOB GOOD PLAT. In calculating 
his chances for success in winning a certain number of tricks, the 
player will often have to take into consideration the probability of 
certain cards being out against him. This will vary according to 
the number of players engaged. For instance : If four are play- 
ing, and the bidder holds K Q of a plain suit, the odds against the 
ace of that suit being out against him are about 2 to i. As it 
would be impossible for any person to remember all the jeux de 
regie for three tricks at Napoleon, each must learn from experi- 
ence the trick-taking value of certain hands. Trump strength is, 
of course, the great factor, and the bidder should count on finding 
at least two trumps in one hand against him. Nap should never 
be bid on a hand which is not pretty sure of winning two rounds 
of trumps, with all other cards but one winners. One trick may 
always be risked in a nap hand, such as A Q of trumps, or a King, 
or even a Queen or Jack in a plain suit ; the odds against the ad- 
versaries having a better card being slightly increased by the odds 
against their knowing enough to keep it for the last trick. 

If the bid is for three tricks only, tenaces, or guarded minor 
honours in plain suits should be preserved. After the first trick it 
will sometimes be advantageous for the player to get rid of any 
losing card he may have in plain suits. It is seldom right to con- 
tinue the trumps if the bidder held only two originally, unless he 
has winning cards in two plain suits, in which case it may be bet- 
ter to lead even a losing trump to prevent a possibility of adverse 
trumps making separately. 

In playing against the bidder, leave no trick to your partners 
that you can win yourself, unless a small card is led, and you 
have the ace. In opening- fresh suits do not lead guarded hon- 
ours, but prefer aces or singletons. If the caller necLls only one 
more trick, it is usually best to lead a trump. If you have three 
trumps, including the major tenace, pass the first trick if a small 



GOOD PLAY. (Nap.) 311 

trump is led ; or if you remain with the tenace after the first trick, 
be careful to avoid the lead. 

Discards should indicate weakness, unless you can show com- 
mand of such a suit as A K, or K Q, by discarding the best of it. 
This will direct your partners to let that suit go, and keep the 
others. It is usually better to keep a guarded King than a single 
ace. The player on the right of the bidder should get into the 
lead if possible, especially if he holds one or two winning cards. 
These will either give his partners discards, or allow them to over- 
trump the bidder. 

In playing miseres, it is better to begin with a singleton, or the 
lowest of a safe suit. An ace or King two or three times guai'ded 
is very safe for a misere, as it is very improbable that any player 
will be able to lead the suit more than twice ; and if the bidder's 
missing suit is led, the high card can be got rid of at once. 

In playing against a misere, discards are important, and the first 
should be from the shortest suit, and always the highest card of it. 
A suit in which the bidder is long should be continued, in order to 
give partners discards. More money is lost at Napoleon by play- 
ing imperfect miseres than in any other way. 

Variations, The foregoing description applies to the regu- 
lar four-handed game ; but there are several variations in common 
use. 

Better bids than " nap " are sometimes allowed, on the under- 
standing that the bidder will pay double or treble stakes if he fails, 
but will receive only the usual amount if successful. For instance : 
One player bids Nap, and another holds what he considers a cer- 
tainty for five tricks. In order not to lose such an opportunity the 
latter bids Wellington, which binds him to pay ten counters to 
each player if he fails. Another may outbid this again by bidding 
Blucher, which binds him to pay twenty to each if he loses, but 
to receive only ten if he wins. In England, the bidder, if success- 
ful, receives double or treble stakes for a Wellington or a Blucher, 
which is simply another way of allowing any person with a nap 
hand to increase the stakes at pleasure, for a player with a cer- 
tain five tricks would of course bid a Blucher at once, trebling 
his gains and shutting off all competition at the same time. This 
variation is not to be recommended, and benefits no one but the 
gambler. 

Pools. Napoleon is sometimes played with a pool, each player 
contributing a certain amount, usually two counters, on the first 
deal. Each dealer in turn adds two more ; revokes pay five, and 
leads out of turn three. The player who first succeeds in winning 
five tricks on a nap bid takes the pool, and a fresh one is formed. 
If a player bids nap and fails, he is usually called upon to double 
the amount then in the pool, besides paying his adversaries. 

Purchase Nap ; sometimes called Jt^vartS Nap, is a varia- 
tion of the pool game. After the cards are dealt, and before any 



312 (Nap.) VARIETIES OF NAP. 

bids are made, eacTi player in turn, beginning on the dealer's left, 
may discard as many cards as he pleases, the dealer giving him 
others in their place. For each card so exchanged, the player pays 
one counter to the pool. Only one round of exchanges is allowed, 
and bids are then in order. A player having once refused to buy, 
or having named the number of cards he wishes to exchange, can- 
not amend his decision. Any player winning five tricks cr>. a nap 
bid takes the entire pool. This is a very good game, and mcreases 
both the bids and the play against them. 

Widows. Another variation is to deal five cards in the centre 
of the table, face downward, the dealer giving the cards to the 
widow just before helping himself in each round. Any player in 
his proper turn to bid may take the widow, and from the total of 
ten cards so obtained select five on which he must bid nap, dis- 
carding the others face downward. 

Peep Nap. In this variety of the pool game one card only is 
dealt to the widow, usually on the first round. Each player in 
turn, before bidding or passing, has the privilege of taking a pri- 
vate peep at this down card, on paying one counter to the pool. 
The card is left on the table until the highest bidder is known, and 
he then takes it into his hand, whether he has paid to peep at it or 
not. He must then discard to reduce his hand to five cards. If a 
player bids nap it usually pays those following him to have a peep 
at the down card in case the bidder should retain it in his hand. 



SPOIL FIVE. 

Spoil Five is one of the oldest of card games, and is generally 
conceded to be the national game of Ireland. It is derived from 
the still older game of Maw, which was the favourite recreation of 
James the First. The connecting link seems to have been a game 
called Five Fingers, which is described in the '' Compleat Game- 
ster;' first published in 1674. The Five Fingers was tne five of 
trumps, and also the best, the ace of hearts coming next. In Spoil 
Five, the Jack of trumps comes between these two. 

CARDS. Spoil Five is played with a full pack of fifty-two 
cards. The rank of the cards varies according to the colour of the 
suit, and the trump suit undergoes still further changes, the heart 
ace being always the third best trump. In the plain suits, the 
K O J retain their usual order, the Kmg being the best. The rank 
of the spot cards, including the aces of diamonds, clubs, and 
spades, is generally expressed by the phrase : Highest in red } 
lowest in black. That is to say, if several cards of a suit, not 
including a King, Queen or Jack, are played to a trick, the highest 
card will win if the suit i&red ; and the lowest if the suit is black. 



BANK OF THE CARDS. (Spoil Five.) 313 

This will give us the following order for the plain suits, beginning 
with the highest card in each : — 





No change 






Highest in red. 









K Q 
K Q 


■] 


lo 9 
lo 9 


876543 
876543 

Lowest in black. 


3 
2 


A 




K Q 

K Q 


] 


A 2 
A 2 


345678 
345678 


9 
9 


10 
10 



(5 5 J 
5 J 


^ A 


<3? A K Q 
• A K Q 


♦ 5 J 

♦ 5 J 


^? A 

^ A 


* A K Q 

♦ A K Q 



In the tnimp suit the same order of cards is retained, except 
that four cards are always the best trumps. These are the Five, 
Jack, and ace of the suit itself, and the ace of hearts, the latter be- 
ing always the third best. This gives us the rank of the cards as 
follows, when the suit is trump : — 

No change. Highest in red. 

10. 98765432 
10 98765432 

Lowest in black. 
23456789 10 
23456789 10 

COUNTEItS. Spoil Five is played with a pool, for which 
counters are necessary. One player should act as banker, and the 
others should purchase from him, each beginning with 20 counters. 
Coins may take the place of counters, shillings being the usual 
points. 

PLAYERS. Any number from 2 to 10 may play ; but 5 or 6 
is the usual game. 

CUTTING. This is unknown at Spoil Five. The players 
take their seats at random, and one of them deals a card face up 
to each in succession. The first Jack takes the first deal. Some 
note should be made of the player who gets the first deal, as the 
rules require that when the game is brought to an e-.d the last 
deal shall be made by the player on the right of the first dealer. 

TME POOL. Before play begins each player deposits one 
counter in the pool, and to this amount each successive dealer 
adds a counter until the pool is won, when all contribute equally 
to form a new one. In some places it is the practice for each suc- 
cessive dealer to put up for all the players, whether the pool is won 
or not. This simply makes larger pools. 

DEALING. Any player has the right to shuffle the pack, 
the dealer last. The cards are then presented to the pone to be 



314 (Spoil Five.) DEALING. 

cut, and as many cards as there are players must be left in each 
packet. Beginning on his left, the dealer gives five cards to each 
player ; two on the first round and three on the next, or three and 
then two. After all are helped, the next card is turned up on the 
remainder of the pack, and the suit to which it belongs is the 
trump for that deal. 

MISDEALING. If there is any Irregularity in the deal 
which IS not the dealer's fault, such as any card except the trump 
found faced in the pack, or the pack found imperfect, the same per- 
son deals again. But if the dealer neglects to have the pack cut, 
or deals too many or too few cards to any player, or exposes a 
card in dealing, or does not give the same number of cards to 
each player on the same round, or counts the cards on the table 
or those remaining in the pack, it is a misdeal, and the deal passes 
to the next player on the misdealer's left. In some places the mis- 
dealer is allovv^ed to deal again if he forfeits tv^^o counters to the 
pool. 

ROBBING THE TBITMP CARD. If the tn:mp card 
is an ace, the dealer may discard any card he pleases in exchange 
for it. He may take up the ace when he plays to the first trick, 
or may leave it on the pack until got rid of in the course of play. 
When an ace is turned, the eldest hand, before leading, should 
call upon the dealer to discard if he has not already done so. If 
the dealer does not want the trump, he answers : " I play these." 

If the trump card is not an ace, any player at the table holding 
the ace of trumps is bound to announce the fact when it comes 
to his turn to play to the first trick. The usual plan is for him to 
pass a card to the dealer face downward, and in return the dealer 
will give him the turn-up trump. If the holder of the ace does 
not want the turn-up, he must tell the dealer to turn the trump 
down, which shows that he could rob, but does not wish to. If 
the holder of the ace of trumps plays without announcing it, he 
not only loses his right to rob, but his ace of trumps becomes of 
less value than any other trump for that deal, and even if it is the 
ace of hearts he loses the privileges attached to that card. 

METHOD OF PLAYING. The eldest hand begins by 
leading any card he pleases. It is not necessary to follow suit ex- 
cept in trumps ; but if a player does not follow suit when he is a,ble 
to do so, he must trump the trick, or it is a revoke. If he cannot 
follow suit, he may trump or discard at his pleasure. The highest 
card played of the suit led wins the trick, and trumps win all other 
suits. The winner of the first trick leads any card he pleases for 
the next, and so on, until all five tricks have been played. Each 
player gathers his own tricks, as there are no partnerships. 

RENEGING. The three highest trumps have special privi- 
leges in the matter of not following suit. Any player holding the 
Five or Jack of the trump suit ; or the ace of hearts, but having 



RENEGING. (Spoil Five.) 315 

no smalFer trump with them, may refuse to follow suit if any in- 
ferior trump is led ; but if he has also a smaller trump, he must 
play one or the other. If a superior trump is led, the player must 
follow suit in any case. For instance : If the Five of trumps is 
led, no one can refuse to follow suit, no matter what trumps he 
holds ; but if the Jack is led, and any player holds the Five alone, 
he need not play it to the inferior trump lead. If the heart ace is 
led, and one player holds the Jack alone, and another the Five 
alone, neither of these cards need be pla3^ed, because the trump 
led is inferior to both of them. If a superior trump is played in 
following suit, such as the Five played on an Eight led, the holder 
of the lone Jack of trumps or ace of hearts, need not play it, be- 
cause the lead was inferior. This privilege of reneging is confined 
to the three highest trumps. 

OBJECTS OF THE GAME. In Spoil Five there are 
three things to play for. If any one person can win three tricks 
he takes the pool. If he can win all five tricks he not only gets 
the pool, but receives an extra counter from each of the other 
players. If he has no chance to win three tricks, he must bend 
all his energies to scattering the tricks among the other players, so 
that no one of them shall be able to get the three tricks necessary 
to win the pool. When this is done, the game is said to be 
si^oiled, and as that is the object of the majority in every deal 
it gives the game its name. In the older forms of the game the 
winner of three tricks counted five points, and if he could be pre- 
vented from getting three tricks his five points were spoiled. 

JINK GAME. When a player has won three tricks, he 
should immediately abandon his hand and claim the pool, for if he 
continues playing he must jink it, and get all five tricks or lose 
what he has already won, the game being spoiled just as if no one 
had won three tricks. It is sometimes a matter for nice judgment 
whether or not to go on, and, for the sake of an extra counter 
from each player, to risk a pool already won. The best trump is 
often held up for three rounds to coax a player to go on in this 
manner. 

IRREGULARITIES IN THE HANDS. If, during 
the play of a hand, it is discovered that any one holds too many 
or too few cards that hand is foul, and must be abandoned, the 
holder forfeiting all right to the pool for that deal. Those who 
have their right number of cards finish the play without the foul 
hand, but any tricks already won by the holder of the foul hand 
remain his property. 

IRREGULARITIES IN PLAY. If any player robs 
when he does not hold the ace ; leads or plays out of turn ; 
reneges to the lead of a higher trump ; renounces in the trump 
suit; revokes in a plain suit; or exposes a card after any player 
has won two tricks, he loses all his right and interest in the cur- 



316 (Spoil Five,) GOOD PLAY. 

rent pool, which he cannot win, either on that or any subsequent 
deal, but to which he must continue to contribute when it comes 
to his turn to deal. After the pool has been won, and a fresh one 
formed, the penalty is removed. 

SUGGESTIONS FOB, GOOD PLAY, Observation, 
quickness, and good judgment of character are the essentials for 
success at Spoil Five, the last being probably the most important. 
The peculiar order of the cards ; the privilege of renouncing when 
holding a card of the suit led ; and the right of passing inferior 
trump leads, are very confusing to the beginner ; but with practice 
the routine and strategy of the game soon become familiar. 

The player should first make up his mind whether he is going to 
try to win the pool or to spoil it. Particular attention should be 
paid to the player who robs, because he must have at least the ace 
and the turn-up in trumps, and is more likely to need spoiling than 
any other player. When a player wins a trick, some judgment 
will be necessary to decide whether he is trying for the pool him- 
self, or simply spoiling it for some one else. When he wins two 
tricks, every other player at the table must combine against him. 

With only one small or medium trump, it is better to use it at 
the first opportunity. Unless the player has some hopes of win- 
ning the pool himself, he s'lould trump all doubtful cards ; that is, 
cards that may win the trick if not trumped. With two good 
trumps, it is better to wait for developments ; even if yeu cannot 
win the last three tricks yourself, you may effectually spoil any 
other player. Do anything you can to prevent the possibility of a 
third trick being won by a player who has already won two. 



FORTY-FIVE, OR FIVE AND TER 

These names are given to Spoil Five when it is played by two 
persons only, or by four or six divided into two equal partnerships. 
There is no pool, as one side or the other must win three tricks 
every deal. The side winning the odd trick counts five points 
towards game, or ten points if it wins all five tricks. Forty-five 
points is game. In another variation, each trick counts five points, 
and the winners' score is deducted from the losers', so that if one 
side wins four tricks it counts fifteen towards game. When this 
manner of counting is adopted, the players count out ; that is, if 
each side is 35 up, the first to win two tricks counts out. 

Minor variations are sometimes introduced ; such as robbing 
with the King, if the ace is not in play ; counting five for the 
dealer's side if the ace or King is turned up, etc. 

There are no Text Booh^ on Spoil Five ; but descriptions and 
laws of the game are to be found in the " Westminster Papers," 
Vol II., and in "Round Games," by Berkeley. 



(Rams.) 317 

RAMS, 

OR RAMMES 

This game seems to be the connecting link between the more 
strongly marked members of the Euchre family and Division Loo. 

CAMDS. Rams is played with the euchre pack, thirty-two 
cards, which rank as at Ecart6, KQJA10987. It has lately 
become the fashion, however, to adopt the rank of the cards in 
the piquet pack, AKQJ 10 987. 

PLAYERS. Any number from three to six may play; but 
when six play the dealer takes no cards. The general arrange- 
ments for the players, first deal, counters, etc., are exactly the 
same as at Spoil Five. 

TME POOL, Each successive dealer puts up five counters, 
to form or to augment the pool. 

DEALING. The cards having been properly shuffled and 
cut, five are given to each player ; two the first round and three 
the next, or three the first round and two the next. An extra 
hand, known as the widow, is dealt face downward in the centre 
of the table. The dealer gives cards to the widow just before 
dealing to himself in each round. When all are helped, the next 
card is turned up for the trump. Irregularities in the deal are 
governed' by the same rules as in Spoil Five. 

DECLAMING TO PLAT. Each player in turn, begin- 
ning with the eldest hand, may either play or pass. If he passes, 
he lays his cards face downward in front of him, and takes no 
further part in that deal unless a eeneral rams is announced. I£ 
he plays, he engages himself to take at least one trick, or forfeit 
five counters to the pool. He may play with the hand originally 
dealt him, or he may risk getting a better by taking the widow in 
exchange. If he exchanges, his original hand is dead, and must 
not be seen by any player. If any player takes the widow, those 
following him must play the hand dealt them or pass out. In 
some clubs the eldest hand is obliged to play, either with his own 
hand or with the widow. 

If all pass except the pone, he must play against the dealer, 
either with the cards dealt him, or with the widow. If he de- 
clines to play, he must pay the dealer five counters, and the pool 
remains. The dealer must play if he is opposed by only one 
player ; but if two others have announced to play, the dealer may 
play or pass as he pleasesi If he plays, he may discard and take 
up the trump card. No other player may rob the trump. 

METHOD OF PLATING. The eldest hand of those 
who have declared to play begins by leading any card he pleases. 
Each player in turn must head the trick; that is, play a higher 
card if he can. If he has two higher, he may play either. If he 



318 (Rams.) RAMS. 

has none of the suit led, he must trump if he can, even if the trick 
is already trumped by another player. For instance : Hearts are 
trumps, and A leads a club. B follows suit, but neither C nor D 
has a club. Suppose C trumps with the King, and that the only 
trump D has is the Queen, he must play it on the trick, losing it to 
C's King. When a player can neither follow suit nor trump, he 
may discard any card he pleases. The winner of the trick leads 
for the next trick, and so on until all five tricks have been played. 

PENALTIES. There is only one penalty in Rams ; to win 
nothing on the deal, and to forfeit five counters to the next pool. 
This is inflicted for playing with more or less than five cards ; for 
exposing any card ; for leading or playing out of turn ; for renounc- 
ing ; and for refusing to head or trump a trick when able to do so. 

DIVIDING THE POOL. Pools may be simple or 
double. The usual custom is to compel every one to play when 
the pool is a simple, containing nothing but the five counters put 
up by the dealer. When there are more than five counters in the 
pool they must be some multiple of five, and the pool is called a 
double. In double pools the players may play or pass as they 
please. No matter how many counters are already in the pool, 
the dealer must add five. 

Each player gathers in the tricks he wins, and at the end of the 
hand he is entitled to take one-fifth of the contents of the pool for 
every trick he has won. If he has played his hand, and failed to 
get a trick, he is ramsed, and forfeits five counters to form the 
next pool, in addition to those which will be put up by the next 
dealer. If two or more players fail to win a trick, they must each 
pay five counters, and if the player whose turn it will be to deal 
next is ramsed, he will have to put up ten ; five for his deal, and 
five for the rams. 

GENERAL RAMS. If any player thinks he can win all 
five tricks, with the advantage of the first lead, he may announce 
a general rams, when it comes to his turn to pass or play. This 
announcement may be made either before or after taking the 
widow. When a general rams is announced, all at the table must 
play, and those who have passed and laid down their hands, must 
take them up again. If the widow has not been taken, any player 
who has not already refused it may take it. The player who an- 
nounced general rams has the first lead. If he succeeds in get- 
ting all five tricks, he not only gets the pool but receives five 
counters in addition from each player. If he fails, he must double 
the amount then in the pool, and pay five counters to each of his 
adversaries. Any player taking a trick that spoils a general rams 
gets nothing from the pool, and it is usual to abandon the hands 
the moment the announcing player loses a trick. 



(Rotmce,) 319 



ROUNCE. 



This is an American corruption of Rams. It is played with the 
full pack of fifty-two cards, which rank as at Whist, and any 
number of players from three to nine. Six cards are dealt _ to 
the widow, one of which must be discarded by the player taking 
it. All pools are alike, there being no difference between simples 
and doubles, and thero is no such announcement as general rounce. 
There is no obligation to head the trick, nor to trump or under- 
trump ; but the winner of the first trick must lead a trump if he 
has one. 



BIERSPIEL. 

This is a popular form of Rams among German students. 
Three crosses are chalked on the table in front of each player, 
representing five points each. When a trick is won, a beer-soaked 
finger wipes out the centre of a cross, and reduces its value to 
four. Successive cancellings of the remaining arms of the cross as 
tricks are taken gradually reduce it to nothing, and the player who 
is last to wipe out his third cross pays for the beer. No player is 
allowed to look at his cards until the trump is turned, and the 
dealer gives the word of command : " Auf." The seven of 
diamonds is always the second-best card of the trump suit, rank- 
ing next below the ace. If it is turned up, the dealer turns up the 
next card for a trump, and when it comes to his turn, he can take 
both cards into his hand, discarding others in their place. If the 
dealer passes, the eldest hand may take up the trump. If only 
two declare to play, a trump must be led for the first trick ; if 
three play, trumps must be led twice ; if four play, three times. If 
the leader has no trump, he must lead his smallest card, face 
downward, which calls for a trump from such of the other players 
as have one. All penalties are made by adding fresh crosses 
to the delinquent's score. 



LOO, 

OR DIVISION LOO. 

This was at one time the most popular of all round games at 
cards ; but its cousin Napoleon seems to have usurped its place in 
England, while Poker has eclipsed it in America. There are sev- 
eral varieties of the game, but the most common form is Three- 
card Limited Loo, which will be first described. 

CARDS. Loo is played with a full pack of fifty-two cards, 
which rank, AKOJ 1098765432; the ace being the highest. 

COTJNTERS. Loo being a pool game, counters are neces- 
sary. They should be of two colours, white and red, one red 
being worth three whites. The object of this is to provide for an 
equal division of the pool at all times. One person should act as 



320 (Loo.) LOO. 

banker, to sell and redeem all counters. Each player should be- 
gin with 1 8 red and 6 white, which is equal to 20 reds. 

PLAYERS. Any number of persons from three to seven- 
teen may play, but eight is the usual limit, and five or six makes 
the best game. The players take their seats at random. 

CUTTING. A card is dealt round to each player, face up, 
and the first Jack takes the first deal. 

THE FOOL. Each successive dealer places three red 
counters in the pool. The pool is added to from time to time by 
penalties for infractions of the rules, and by forfeitures from 
players who have failed in their undertakings. Such payments 
are always made in red counters, the number being always three 
or six. When the pool is divided, it sometimes happens that a 
player is not allowed to withdraw his share. In such cases the 
red counters representing it should be changed for their value in 
white ones, so that the forfeited share may be divided in three 
parts. 

The difference between Limited Loo, and Unlimited Loo, 
is in the amounts paid into the pool. In Limited Loo the penalty 
is always three or six red counters. In Unlimited Loo, it is the 
same for irregularities, and for infraction of the rules ; but any 
player failing in his undertaking must put up for the next pool an 
amount equal to that in the current pool. When iwo or more 
fail on successive deals the pool increases with surprising rapidity. 
A player at twenty-five cent Loo has been known to lose $320 in 
three consecutive deals. 

DEALING. The pack having been properly shuffled and 
cut, the dealer gives three cards to each player, one at a time in 
rotation, beginning on his left. The first deal, and every deal in 
which the pool contains only the three red counters put up by the 
dealer, is known as a simple, and no trump card is turned up 
until one or two tricks have been played to. If there are more 
than three red counters in the pool, it is known as a double, and 
an extra hand must be dealt for the tvidow, and after all have been 
helped, the next card in the pack is turned up for a trump. The 
dealer gives cards to the widow just before helping himself in each 
round. 

Irregularities in the Deal. If the pack is found to be im- 
perfect, or any card except the trump is found faced in the pack, 
the same dealer must deal again without penalty. If the dealer 
neglects to have the pack cut ; re-shuffles it after it has been 
properly cut ; deals a card incorrectly and fails to correct the 
error before dealing another ; exposes a card in dealing ; gives 
any player too many or too few cards ; or deals a wrong number 
of hands, it is a misdeal, and he loses his deal, and forfeits three 
red counters to the current pool. The new dealer adds his three 
counters as usual, and the ppol becomes a double. 



METHOD OF PLAYING. (Loo,) 321 

METHOD OF PLAYING. A description of the method 
of playing will be better understood if it is divided into two parts, 
as it varies in simple and in double pools. 

Tn Simple Pools, no trump is turned, and no widow dealt. 
Should the dealer inadvertently turn a trump, he forfeits three red 
counters to the current pool, but it remains a simple. If he deals 
a card for a widow, and fails to correct himself before dealing 
another card, it is a misdeal. 

The eldest hand leads any card he pleases, and the others must 
not only follow suit, but must head the trick if they can. This 
does not necessarily mean that they shall play the best card they 
hold of the suit led, but that they shall play a better one than any 
already played. The cards are left in front of the players. If all 
follow suit the winner of the trick leads any card he pleases for 
the next trick. If all follow suit to that again, the winner leads 
for the next, and if all follow suit again, that ends it, and the 
winners of the several tricks divide the pool. All those who have 
not won a trick are looed, and must contribute three red counters 
each for the next pool, which, added to the three to be deposited 
by the next dealer, will make the ensuing pool a double. But if 
in any trick any player is unable to follow suit, as soon as the 
trick is complete the dealer turns up the top card on the remain- 
der of the pack, and the suit to which it belongs is the trump. If 
any trump has been played, the highest trump wins the trick. In 
any case, the winner of the trick must lead a trump for the next trick 
if he has one. When all three tricks have been played, the winner 
of each is entitled to one-third of the contents of the pool. Those 
who have not won a trick are looed, and must contribute three 
red counters each for ithe next pool. This is called a JBold Stand. 

In Double Pools, an extra hand is dealt for the widow, and a 
trump is turned. No player is allowed to look at his cards until 
it comes to his turn to declare. The dealer, beginning on his left, 
asks each in turn to announce his intentions. The player may 
stand with the cards dealt him ; or may take the ividow in 
exchange ; or may pass. If he passes or takes the widow, he 
gives his original hand to the dealer, who places it on the bottom 
of the pack. If he takes the widow or stands, he must win at 
least one trick, or he is looed, and will forfeit three red counters to 
the next pool. 

If all pass but the player who has taken the widow, he wins the 
pool without playing, and the next deal must be a simple. If only 
one player stands, and he has not taken the widow, the dealer, 
if he will not play for himself, must take the widow and play to 
defend the pool. If he fails to take a trick, he is not looed ; but 
the payment for any tricks he wins must be left in the pool, and 
the red counters for them should be changed for white ones, so 
that the amount may be easily divided at the end of the next pool. 



822 (Loo.) IBBEGULABITIES. 

Flushes. If any player in a double pool holds three trumps, 
whether dealt him or found in the widow, he must announce it 
as soon as all have declared whether or not they will play. The 
usual custom is to wait until the dealer declares, and then to ask 
him : " How many play ? " The dealer replies : " Two in ; " 
" Three in : " or : " Widow and one ; " as the case may be. The 
player with the flush then shows it, and claims the pool without 
playing, each of those who are " in " being looed three red 
counters. If two players hold a flush in trumps, the elder hand 
wins, whether his trumps are better or not ; but the younger hand, 
holding another flush, is not looed. 

Leading. In all double pools, the eldest hand of those play- 
ing must lead a trump if he has one. If he has the ace of trumps 
he must lead that ; or if he has the King and the ace is turned up. 
The old rule was that a player must lead the higher of two trumps, 
but this is obsolete. The winner of a trick must lead a trump if 
he has one. Each player in turn must head the trick if he can ; if 
he has none of the suit led he must trump or over-trump if he can ; 
but he need not under-trump a trick already trumped. 

Irregularities and Penalties. There is only one penalty 
in Loo, to win nothing from the current pool, and to pay either 
three or six reds to the next pool. If the offender has won any 
tricks, the payment for them must be left in the pool in white 
counters, to be divided among the winners of the next pool. 

The offences are divided, some being paid for to the current 
pool, such as those for errors in the deal, while others are not paid 
until the current pool has been divided. If any player looks at 
his hand before his turn to declare, or the dealer does so before 
asking the others whether or not they will play, or if any player 
announces his intention out of his proper turn ; the offender in each 
case forfeits three red counters to the current pool, and cannot win 
anything that deal, but he may play his hand in order to keep 
counters in the pool. If he plays and is looed, he must pay. 

Hevokes. If a player, when able to do so, fails to follow suit, 
or to head the trick, or to lead trumps, or to lead the ace of 
trumps, (or King when ace is turned,) or to trump a suit of which 
he is void, the hands are abandoned on discovery of the error, 
and the pool is divided as equally as possible among those who 
declared to play, with the exception of the offender. Any odd 
white counters must be left for the next pool. The player in fault 
is then held guilty of a revoke, and must pay a forfeit of six red 
counters to the next pool. The reason for the division of the pool 
is that there is no satisfactory way to determine how the play 
would have resulted had the revoke not occurred. It is impossible 
to take back the cards and replay them, because no one would 
have a right to judge how mpch a person's play was altered by his 
knowledge of the cards in the other hands. 

If a player, having already won a trick, renders himself liable to 



IRISH LOO. (Loo.) 323 

any penalty, as for exposing a card, leading or following suit out 
of turn, or abandoning his hand, he is looed for three red counters, 
payable to the next pool, and the payment for the tricks he has 
won must be left in the pool in white counters. 



IRISH LOO. 

In this variation, no widow is dealt, and there is no distinction 
between simple and double pools. A trump is always turned up, 
and the dealer asks each in turn, beginning on his left, whether or 
not he will play, taking up the cards of those who decline to 
stand. He then announces his own decision, and proceeds to ask 
those who have declared to play whether or not they wish to 
exchange any of the cards originally dealt them. The usual ques- 
tion is simply : " How many } " and the player names the number 
of cards he wishes to exchange, if any ; at the same time discard- 
ing others in their places. The number first asked for cannot be 
amended or recalled. The trump is laid aside, and the cards 
called for are dealt from the remainder of the pack, without further 
shuffling. In all other respects, the game is Three-card Loo. 



FIVE-CARD LOO. 

This is Irish Loo with some additional variations. Each red 
counter should be worth five white ones, and the players will 
require about fifty red counters each at starting. The dealer puts 
up five red counters. Any player holding a flush of live cards in 
any suit may immediately claim the pool, and every person at the 
table, whether playing or not, is supposed to be looed, and pays 
five red counters to the next pool. If two players hold flushes, 
the elder hand wins, even if the younger hand holds a flush in 
trumps. 

Another variation is to make the club Jack, which is known as 
I*am, always the best trump. Combined with four cards of any 
suit, this card will make a flush. If any player leads the trump 
ace, the holder of Pam must pass the trick if he can do so without 
revoking. The old usage was for the holder of the trump ace to 
notify any player holding Pam to pass, if he wished him to do so ; 
but that is quite superfluous, as no player wants to lose his ace of 
trumps, and it goes without saying that he wants Pam to pass it. 



Interesting articles on Loo will be found in " Bell's Life," the 
"Field," the "Sportsman," and the "Westminster Papers; " 
Vol. II. of the latter especially. 



324 (AH Fours.) 



ALL FOURS FAMILY. 



All Fours is to be found amongst the oldest games of cards, 
and is the parent of a large family of variations, all of which are 
of American birth. The youngest member of the family, Cinch, 
seems to have a bright future before it, and bids fair to become one 
of our most popular games. The chief defect in Cinch has been 
the method of scoring, which left too much to luck. In the follow- 
ing pages the author has attempted to remedy this. 

The name, " All Fours," seems to have been varied at 
times to " All Four," and was derived from four of the five points 
which counted towards game ; the fifth point, for " gift " having 
been apparently quite overlooked. The game was originally ten 
points up, and the cards were dealt one at a time. According to 
the descriptions in some of the older Hoyles, the honours and Tens 
of the plain suits did not count towards game ; but this is evidently 
an error, for we find in the same editions the advice to trump or 
win the adversary's best cards in plain suits. This would obviously 
be a'mere waste of trumps if these plain-suit cards did not count for 
anything. 

All Fours seems to have been popular with all classes of society 
at one time or another. Cotton's " Compleat Gamester " gives it 
among the principal games in his day, 1674. Daines Barrington, 
writing a hundred years later, speaks of All Fours in connection 
with Whist, " Whist," he says, " seems never to have been played 
on principles until about fifty years ago ; before that time [1735] 't 
was confined chiefly to the servants' hall, with All Fours and Put." 
Another writer tells us that Ombre was the favourite game of the 
ladies, and Piquet of the gentlemen par excellence ; clergymen 
and country squires preferring Whist, "while the lower orders 
shuffled away at All Fours, Put, Cribbage, and Lanterloo." In 
1754 a pamphlet was published containing: " Serious Reflections 
on the dangerous tendency of the common practice of Card-playing ; 
especially the game of All Four." For many years All Fours was 
looked upon as the American gambler's game par excellence, and 
it is still the great standby of our coloured brother ; who would 
sooner swallow a Jack than have it caught. 



(Seven-Up.) 325 

ALL FOURS, 

SEVEN-UP, OR OLD SLEDGE. 

CARDS. Seven-up is played with the full pack of fifty-two 
cards, which rank AKQJ 1098765432; the ace being the 
highest, both in cutting and in play. 

CO UNTERS. Each playe;r or side should be provided with 
seven counters. As the points accrue, these counters are got rid 
of by placing them in a pool in the centre of the table. By this 
method a glance will show how many each side or player has " to 
go," that is, how many will put him out. 

PLAYERS. Two, three or four persons may play. When 
three play, the game resembles Cut-throat Euchre, each for him- 
self. When four play, two are partners against the other two, and 
the partners sit opposite each other. The player on the dealer's 
left, or his adversary if only two play, is always spoken of as the 
eldest or elder hand. The one on the dealer's right is the pone. 

CUTTING. If there are four players, they cut for partners, 
deal, and choice of seats. The two lowest are partners against 
the two highest ; the highest cut has the choice of seats, and deals 
the first hand. When two or three play, they cut for seats and 
deal. In cutting, the ace is high. Ties cut again ; but the new 
cut decides nothing but the tie. 

STAK.es, If there is any stake, it is for so much a game. 
Rubbers are never played. 

DEALING. Each player has the right to shuffle the pack, 
the dealer last, and the cards are then presented to the pone to be 
cut. At least four cards must be left in each packet. Beginning 
on his left, the dealer gives six cards to each player, three on the 
first round, and three more on the second round, turning up the 
next card for the trump, and leaving it on the remainder of the 
pack. If this card is a Jack, the dealer counts one point for it 
immediately ; but if any player is found to have an incorrect 
number of cards, and announces it before he plays to the first trick, 
the Jack cannot be counted, as it could not have been the proper 
trump. 

In Pitch, or Blind All Fours, no trump is turned. The 
first card led or " pitched " by the eldest hand is the trump suit 
for that deal. 

MISDEALING. If any card is found faced in the pack, or 
the pack is proved to be imperfect, the same dealer deals again. 
If he deals without having the cards cut, or gives too many or too 



326 (Seven-Up.) BEGGING. 

few cards to any player, it is a misdeal, and the deal passes to 
the next player on the misdealer's left. If the dealer exposes a 
card, the adversaries may elect to have the deal stand, or to have a 
new deal by the same dealer. In Pitch, a misdeal does not lose 
the deal, because the deal is no advantage. 

JBEGGIMG. The deal completed, and the trump turned, the 
eldest hand looks at his cards, the other players leaving theirs un- 
touched. If the eldest hand is not satisfied, he says : I beg ; and 
the dealer, after examining his own hand, has the option of giving 
him a point or rtmning the cards. If he decides to give the 
point, he says : Take it, and the eldest hand immediately scores 
one for the gift. If the dealer will not give, he lays the trump 
card aside, and deals three more cards to each player, including 
himself ; turning up another trump. Should this be a Jack of 
another suit, the dealer scores a point for it at once. Should it be 
of the same suit as that first turned up, the Jack cannot be scored, 
as the dealer has declined to have that suit for the trump. When 
the same suit is turned up a second time, the card is laid aside ; 
three more cards are given to each player, another trump is turned, 
and so on until a different suit comes up for the trump. If the 
pack is exhausted before another suit turns up, the cards must be 
hunched, and the same dealer deals again. 

The dealer's partner and the pone are not permitted to look at 
their cards until the eldest hand and the dealer have decided 
whether to stand or run the cards. Among strict players, if a 
person looks at his hand before the proper time,' the adversaries 
score a point. The object of this rule is to prevent the possibility 
of any expression of satisfaction or disapproval of the turn-up 
trump. 

No second beg is allowed, but when only two play, if either 
player is dissatisfied with the new trump he may propose to 
hunch the cards. If the proposition is agreed to, the cards are 
re-shuffled and dealt again by the same dealer. If three play, the 
dealer must give a point to both adversaries if he refuses to run 
the cards, although only one begs. The dealer cannot give a 
player enough to put him out. 

DISCAMDIKG. When the cards have been run, the usual 

practice is to discard all superfluous cards, each player reducing 
his hand to six, with which he plays. In some clubs it is the rule 
to keep all the cards if only nine are in each hand, but to discard 
down to six if two or more rounds were dealt after turning the 
first trump. 

OBJECTS OF THE GAME. The object in Seven-up is 
to secure certain points which count towards game. As its name 
implies, the game is won when a player has put up seven of his 
counters, each of which represents a point. There are six differ- 
ent ways of making these points, and it is possible for one player 



POINTS THAT COUNT. (Seven-Up.) 327 

to make five of them in one deal ; but he cannot by any possibil- 
ity make seven. The following count one point each : 
ist. Turning up the Jack of trumps. 
2nd. Being given a point by the dealer. 
3rd. Holding the Highest trump. . 
4th. Holding the Lowest trump. _ _ 

5th. Winning a trick with the Jack of trumps in it. 
6th] Making the majority of the pips that count for what is 
called Gatne. 

Turning the Jack is entirely a matter of chance, and should 
not occur more than once in thirteen deals. If a Jack is turned 
every few deals, you may be sure that unfair methods are being 
used. Nothing is more common among advantage players than 
turning up Jacks every few deals. 

Begging is resorted to by a player who holds no trumps, or 
such indifferent ones that it is very unlikely they will be either 
High or Low. If he has anything better, such as very high or 
low cards in other suits, such a hand is called, " a good hand to 
run to," and the player begs, hoping the new trump will better fit 
his hand. If he has nothing better in other suits than in the turn- 
up, it will still be slightly in his favour to beg, unless he has trumps 
enough to give him some hopes of making the point for Game. _ It 
is a fatal error to beg on good cards, and gamblers have a saying 
that he who begs a point to-day, will beg a stake to-morrow. 

High and Low count to the player to whom those cards are 
dealt, and there is no chance to alter the fortunes of the deal ex- 
cept by begging and running the cards. These two points may 
both be made by the same card, if it is the only trump in play; 
because High is counted for the best trump out during the deal, 
and Low for the lowest, no matter what the cards are. 

Catching the Jack, or saving it, is one of the principal ob- 
jects of the game, and as a rule a player holding the Jack should 
lose no opportunity to save such a valuable counting card. On 
the other hand, a player holding higher trumps will often have to 
use good judgment as to whether to lead them to catch the Jack, 
if it happens to be out ; or to keep quiet until the last few tricks, 
when if the Jack is not out, such trumps may be useful to win 
cards that count for Game. 

The Game is generally known as the gambler's point, be- 
cause it is the only point that must be played for in every hand, 
and its management requires more skill than all the others put to- 
gether. The cards that count for Game are the four honours and 
the Ten of each suit. Every ace counts 4 ; every King 3 ; every 
Queen 2 ; every Jack i ; and every Ten 10. After the last card has 
been played, each player turns over the tricks he has won, and 
counts up the pip value of the court cards and Tens that he has 



328 (Seven-Up.) METHOD OF PLAY. 

won. Whoever has the highest number counts the point for Game. 
For instance : Two are playing. The elder hand has taken in an 
ace, two Kings and a Jack, which are collectively worth ii. The 
dealer has taken in a Queen and a Ten, which are worth X2 ; so the 
dealer marks the point for Game. If both players have the same 
number, or if there is no Game out, which rarely happens, the non- 
dealer scores Game. If three play, and Game is a tie between the 
two non-dealers, neither scores. The non-dealer is given the 
benefit of counting a tie for Game as an offset to the dealer's ad- 
vantage in turning Jacks. When no trump is turned, as in Pitch, 
no one can count Game if it is a tie. 

METHOD OF PLAYING. The eldest hand begins by 
leading any card he pleases. If a trump is led, each player must 
follow suit if able. When a plain suit is led he need not follow 
suit if he prefers to trump ; but if he does not trump, he must fol- 
low suit if he can. If he has none of the suit led he may either 
trump or discard. This rule is commonly expressed by saying that 
a player may follow suit or trump. The highest card played 
of the suit led wins the trick, and trumps win all other suits. The 
winner of the trick takes it in, and leads for the next one, and so 
on until all the cards have been played. The tricks themselves 
have no value except for the court cards and Tens they contain. 

As High, Jack, and Game are always counted by the player hold- 
ing those points at the end of the play, there can be no question 
about them : but serious disputes sometimes arise as to who played 
Low. The best method of avoiding this is for each player, as the 
game proceeds, to announce and claim the lowest trump which 
has so far appeared, and instead of giving it to the current trick, 
to leave it turned face up in front of him if it is of no counting 
value. For instance : Four are playing, and a round of trumps 
comes out, the six being the lowest. The player holding it an- 
nounces : " Six for Low," and keeps the card face up in front of 
him until some smaller trump appears. It often happens that a 
player holds a 7 or 8, and having no idea that it will be Low, takes 
no notice of it. At the end of the hand it is found that both the 
7 afld 8 are out, the 7 being Low, and the holders of those two 
cards get into an argument as to which card each of them held. 

SCORING. The last card played, the various points for High, 
Low, Jack, (if in play), and the Game are claimed, and the player or 
side holding them puts a counter in the pool for each. The side 
first getting rid of its seven counters wins the game. If both sides 
make points enough to win the game on the same deal. High goes 
out first, then Low, then Jack, and then Game. As already noticed, 
one card may be both High and Low ; the Jack may be High, Low, 
Jack; and it' is even possible, if there is no other trump or count- 
ing card in play, for the Jack to be High, Low, Jack, and the 
Game. % 



IBBEGULABITIES. (Seven-Up.) 329 

In the variety known as All Fives, the score is kept on a crjb- 
bage board, and part of it is pegged as the hand progresses. A 
player winning a trick containing any of the following cards in the 
trump suit pegs them immediately :— For the trump ace, 4 points ; 
for the King 3 ; for the Queen 2 ; for the Jack i ; for the Ten 10, 
and for the Five 5. After the hand is over, all these cards are 
counted over again in reckoning the point for Game, the Five of 
trumps counting 5. Sixty-one points is game. 

IBBEGULABITIES IN PLAY. The most serious 
error in Seven-up is the revoke. If a player does not follow suit 
when able, it is a revoke unless he trumps the trick. A player 
holding two small trumps and the Ten of a plain suit, may trump 
both the ace and King of that suit instead of giving up his Ten. 
But if on the third round the Queen is led, and he cannot trump it, 
he must play his Ten if he has no other card of the suit. 

The only points affected by the revoke are Jack and Game. If 
the Jack is not in play, there is only one point that can be 
affected by the revoke, the score for Game ; and the revoke penalty 
is one point, which the adversary may add to his own score, or de- 
duct from the score of the revoking player. The adversary may 
also score the point for Game if he makes it ; but it cannot be 
scored by the revoking player ; who may mark only High or Low 
if he holds either or both of those points. 

If the Jack is in play, two points may be affected by a re- 
voke. The player in fault cannot score either Jack or Game, and 
the penalty for the revoke is two points ; in addition to which the 
adversary of the revoking player may score either or both Jack 
and Game if he makes them. 

The revoking player cannot win the game that hand, no matter 
what he scores, but must stop at six. A revoke is established as 
soon as the trick in which it occurs has been turned and quitted, 
or a card has been led or played to the next trick. 

Exposed Cards. When four play, all exposed cards must be 
left on the table, and are liable to be called by the adversaries if 
they cannot be previously got rid of in the course of play. All 
cards led or played out of turn are exposed, and liable to be called. 
If two or more cards are played to a trick, the adversaries may se- 
lect which shall remain ; the other is exposed. 

METHODS OF CHEATING. Few games lend them- 
selves more readily to the operations of the greek than Seven-up, 
Turning Jacks from the bottom of the pack ; setting up the half- 
stock for the beg; dealing oneself more than six cards, and 
dropping on the tricks already won those counting for Game ; 
getting the A J 10 and 2 of a suit together during the play of a 
hand, and then shifting the cut to get them on the next deal, turn- 
ing up the Jack ; marked cards ; strippers ; wedges ; reflectors : 



330 (Auction Pitch.) SEVEN-UP. 

these and many other tricks are in common use. Those who are 
not expert enough to deal seconds or shift cuts will sometimes re- 
sort to such trifling advantages as abstracting one of the Tens from 
the pack, so that they may know a suit from which a small card 
can always be led without any danger of the adversary's making 
the Ten. One very common swindle in Seven-up is known as 
the high hand, which consists in giving the intended victim the 
A K J lo 9 2 of trumps, and then inducing him to bet that he will 
make four points. No matter how skilful the player may be, he 
will find it impossible to save both Jack and Game. 



CALIFORNIA JACK. 

This is a variety of Seven-up for two players, in which the 
number of cards in the hand is constantly restored to six by draw- 
ing from the remainder of the pack. 

The trump suit is cut for before the cards are shuffled and dealt. 
The usual method is to cut for seats and deal, and the highest cut 
determines the trump suit at the same time, After each player 
has been given six cards, three at a time, the remainder of the pack 
is turned face up on the table, and the winner of each trick takes 
the top card, his adversary taking the next one. When the stock is 
exhausted, the last six cards are played as in the ordinary game 
of Seven-up. 

Seven points is game, the points being the same as in Seven-up ;' 
but everything, including Low, counts to the player winning it. 

Shasta Sam is California Jack with the remainder of the pack 
turned face down, and is a much better game on that account. 



AUCTION PITCH, 

SELL OUT, OR COMMERCIAL PITCH. 

This very popular round game derives its name from the fact 
that the first card led or " pitched " is the trump suit, and that the 
privilege of pitching it belongs to the eldest hand, who may sell it 
out to the highest bidder. 

The number of cards and their rank is the same as at Seven- 
up ; A K Q J lo 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2, the ace being the highest in cut- 
ting and in play. 



BIDDING. (Auction Pitdi.) 331 

Players» Any number from four to seven may play, each 
for himself ; five is considered the best game. The players cut 
for choice of seats, the highest cut taking the first choice and the 
deal. 

Counters. Each player should be provided v^^ith seven white 
counters to mark the game. If stakes are played for, red counters 
are used to make up the pool, one player acting as the banker to 
sell and redeem all red counters. 

Dealing. Six cards are dealt to each player, three at a time, 
but no trump is turned. All the rules for irregularities in the deal 
are the same as in Seven-up, but a misdeal does not lose the deal 
under any circumstances. 

Objects of the Game. As in Seven-up, the object of each 
player is to get rid of his seven counters, one of which he is en- 
titled to put in the pool for each of the following points : For hold- 
ing the highest trump in play ; for holding (having dealt to him) 
the loivest trump in play ; for winning a trick with the Jack of 
trumps in it ; for making the greatest number of the pips that count 
for the game point. The details of these points have already 
been explained in connection with Seven-up. If the count for 
Game is a tie, no one scores it. 

bidding. The eldest hand sells. If he pitches without wait- 
ing for a bid he must make four points, or he will be set back that 
number. Each player in turn, beginning on the left of the eldest 
hand, bids for the privilege of pitching the trump, naming the 
number of points he thinks he can make. If he will not bid, he 
must 'say distinctly: " I pass." After a bid has been made, 
any following player must bid higher or pass. There are no 
second bids. The highest number any player can bid is four, 
which will require him to make High, Low, Jack, and the Game 
against the combined efforts of all the other players. The eldest 
hand must either accept the number bid, or pitch the trump him- 
self, and make as many points as the highest bidder offered him. 
If the eldest hand accepts, he pushes into the pool as many 
counters as he is bid, and the successful bidder pitches the trump. 
If no bid is made, the eldest hand must pitch the trump himself. 

A bidder is not allowed to give the seller enough points to put 
him out, and should he do so by mistake, he forfeits his right to 
bid at all for that deal. If the seller has only two to go, and a 
player is able to bid three or four, he loses nothing by bidding 
one only, for no one can overbid him, and he is entitled to count 
all he makes. The only risk he runs is that the seller can afford 
to refuse one, and will go out on his own pitch. To remedy this 
it is the custom in some clubs to allow a player to bid the full 
value of his hand. If the seller accepts, he scores to within one 
of game ; but if he refuses, he must make as many as bid, even if 



332 (Auction Pitctu) SCORING. 

he does not actually want them. It is one of the fine points of 
the game for the seller to refuse when the number of points 
offered would put the bidder out if he was successful. 

There is no penalty for bidding out of turn. If a player chooses 
to expose to a preceding player what he is prepared to bid, that is 
usually to his own disadvantage. 

Bidding to the Board. Modern players usually adopt the 
practice of bidding to the board, eldest hand having the first bid. 
In this form of the game the points bid count to no one, and any- 
one can bid up to four, no matter what the scores are. No one 
can claim the privilege of pitching the trump for as many as bid, as 
each in turn must bid higher or pass. 

Playing. The successful bidder has the first lead, and what- 
ever card he plays, whether by mistake or not, is the trump suit 
for that deal. After that, the winner of the trick may lead any 
suit he pleases. A player must follow suit in trumps if he is able 
to do so; but in a plain suit he may trump if he chooses, although 
holding a card of the suit led. If he does not trump, he must 
follow suit if he can. If he has none of the suit led, he may 
trump or discard as he pleases. The highest card played of the 
suit led wins the trick, and trumps win all other suits. 

Scoring. At the end of the hand the various players claim 
the points made, and score them by placing white counters in the 
pool. If the bidder makes any points in excess of the number 
bid, he scores them. The iirst player to get rid of his seven w^hite 
counters wins the pool, and takes down all the red counters it 
contains. The white counters are then re-distributed, and the 
players cut for the first deal of the new game. 

If two players can count out on the same deal, and one of them 
is the bidder, he wins the pool if he has made good his bid. If 
neither of the ties is the bidder, the points count out in their 
regular order. High first, then Low, then Jack, and finally Game. 
For instance : Seven are playing. A sells to B, who bids two. B 
and C have each two to go. B pitches a trump of which C has 
both High and Low ; but if B makes Jack and Game he wins the 
pool, because he bid only two points, and made them. This is 
generally expressed by the rule : bidder goes out first. 

Setting Back. If the player who pitches the trump fails to 
make the number of points bid, he is set back, and scores nothing 
for any points he may have made. A player who is set back, 
either for overbidding his hand, or for refusing to sell and failing 
to make the number of points offered him, must withdraw from 
the pool as many white counters as were bid, and add them to his 
own. For instance : It is A's sell. A and B each have two to 
go. B bids three, which A refuses, pitching the trump himself. 
A makes only two points, B scoring one, and a third player D, 



AUCTION PITCH, (Pedro.) 333 

another. B and D score one each, but A scores nothing for the 
two points he made, and must take three white counters from the 
pool, which will make him five to go. Had the bid which A re- 
fused been two only, he would have won the game, as he made 
two points. In many clubs it is the custom for a player who is 
set back to add a red counter to the pool. 

Irregularities in Play. If any adversary of the p!ayef 
who pitches the trump leads or plays out of turn, he may be called 
upon by the bidder to play his highest or lowest of the suit led ; or 
to trump or not to trump the trick. If any player but the pitcher 
has followed the erroneous lead, the cards must be taken back ; 
but if the pitcher has followed, the error cannot be rectified. 

In case of a revoJce, the hand is played out as if the revoke had 
not occurred, and each player except the person in error counts 
whatever points he makes. If the pitcher of the trump fails to 
make the number of points bid, he cannot be set back, but must 
be allowed to score any points he makes. The revoking player is 
then set back the number of points bid, and forfeits a red counter 
to the pool. If no bid was made, he is set back two points. 



SMUDGE. 



In this variation of auction pitch, any player who is not in the 
hole wins the game at once if he can bid four and make it. 



PEDRO. 

Pedro, Pedro Sancho, Dom Pedro, and Snoozer, are all varieties 
of Auction Pitch, in which certain counting cards are added, and 
secondary bids are allowed. 

Everything counts to the player winning it, instead of to the one 
to whom it is dealt. The game point is scored by the player who 
wins the trick containing the Ten of trumps. If that card is not 
in play there is no Game. 

In Pedro Sancho, the Five and Nine of trumps count their 
pip value in scoring, so that i8 points can be bid and made on 
one deal ; one each for High, Low, Jack, and Game, and fourteen 
more for the Nine and Five of trumps. These two trumps have no 
special rank. The Ten will win the Nine, and the Six will take the 
Five. In some places all the cards in the pack are dealt out, which 
makes a much better game in any form of Pedro. 

The eldest hand sells, as at Auction Pitch. If a player's first 
bid is raised he may raise again in his proper turn. 



334 (Cinch.) DOM PEDRO. 

Fifty points is game, and the players are usually provided with 
two varieties of counters for scoring ; one worth five points, and 
the other worth one. The rank of the points in scoring is ; High, 
Low, Jack, Ten (Game), Five, and Nine. The revoke penalty is to 
be set back the number of points bid, or ten points if there is no 
bid, and the player in fault cannot scofe anything that hand. In 
all other respects the rules are the same as in Auction Pitch. 

In Dom Pedro, or Snoozer, the Joker is added to the pack, 
and the Three, Five, and Nine of trumps count their pip value in 
scoring. The Joker, or Snoozer, counts fifteen, so that thirty-six 
points can be bid and made on one deal. The Joker is the lowest 
trump, so that the deuce of trumps will win it, but it will win any 
trick in plain suits. Fifty or a hundred points is the game. In 
counting out, the order of precedence is : High, Low, Jack, Ten 
(Game), Three, Five, Nine, Snoozer. 



CINCH, 

DOUBLE PEDRO, OR HIGH FIVE. 

This is now regarded as the most important variety of All Fours, 
and bids fair to supplant the parent game altogether. Properly 
speaking, Cinch is one of the pedro variations of Auction Pitch, 
the difference being that no one sells, and that there is added the 
always popular American feature of a draw to improve the hand. 

The derivation and meaning of the name. Cinch, seems to be very 
much misunderstood. Many persons assume it is simply a name 
for the Left Pedro, but such is not the case. Cinch is a Mexican 
word for a strong saddle-girth, and when used as a verb it refers 
to the manner of adjusting the girth on a bucking broncho so that 
no amount of kicking will get him free. The word is used in this 
sense to describe one of the principal tactics of the card game, 
which is to " cinch " certain tricks, so that the adversary cannot 
possibly get either of the Pedroes free. 

CARDS. Cinch is played with a full pack of fifty-two cards 
which rank AKQJ1098765432. When the suit is trumps 
the 5 retains its natural position, and is known as the Might Pe- 
dro ; but the 5 of the same colour as the trump suit, which is 
known as the Left Pedro, ranks between the 5 and 4 of the trump 
suit. The ace is highest in cutting and in play. Whist-players, 
who have taken up Cinch as a side issue, are in the habit of mak- 
ing the ace lowest in cutting ; but such a practice is out of har- 
mony with all other members of the Seven-up family of games. 

COUNTERS, The score is usually kept on a sheet of paper; 



DEALING. (Cindu) 335 

but it is more convenient to provide each side with 8 red and 1 1 
white counters, representing 51 points; the whites being worth i, 
and the reds 5 each. A good pull-up cribbage board is still better. 




Pull-Up Game Counter. 
PLAYEJRS, Any number from two to six can play; but the 
regular game is for four persons, two of whom are partners against 
the other two. The player on the dealer's left is the eldest 
hand ; on the dealer's right is the pone. 

CUTTING-. The players draw from an outspread pack for 
partners, seats, and deal. The two lowest play against the two 
highest ; the highest cut has the choice of seats and cards, and 
deals the first hand. Partners sit opposite each other. 

DEALING. Each player has the right to shufHe the pack, 
the dealer last. The cards are then presented to the pone to be 
cut, and at least four cards must be left in each packet. Begin- 
ning on his left, the dealer gives nine cards to each player, three at 
a time in three separate rounds. No trump is turned, and the 
remainder of the pack is left on the table face downward. 

MISDEALING. If any card is found faced in the pack, the 
cards must be re-shuffled and dealt again. If the dealer exposes a 
card in dealing, or turns up a trump by mistake, the adversaries 
may elect to have a new deal by the same dealer, or to let the deal 
stand. If the dealer gives too many or too few cards to any player, 
or fails to give the same number of cards in each round, it is a 
misdeal, and the deal passes to the next player on the left. Any 
player dealing out of turn, or with the wrong cards, may be stopped 
before the last three cards are dealt ; but after that the deal 
stands good. If a misdeal is not discovered until after a bid has 
been made, the deal stands good if three players have their right 
number of cards. The deal passes in regular rotation to the left. 

OBJECTS OF THE GAME. The game is fifty-one 
points, and the side first pegging that number, or getting rid of its 
fifty-one counters is the winner. Fourteen points are made on 
every deal, as follows : — 

I For High, the ace of trumps. 

I For Loiv, the deuce of trumps. 

I For the Jack of trumps. 

I For the Ten of trumps, or Game, 



336 (Cmch.) BIDDING. 

5 For the Five of trumps, or Right Pedro, 
5 For the Five of the same colour, or Left Pedro, 
14 points altogether ; all in the trump suit. 
All these points, including Low, count to the player winning 

them, and not to the players to whom they are dealt. This saves 

endless disputes. 

SIDDIKG, Beginning with the eldest hand, each player in 
turn, after examining his nine cards, can make one hid for the 
privilege of naming the trump suit. The peculiarity of this bid- 
ding is that nobody sells, the bids being made to the hoard, as 
it is called. The bidder announces the number of points he thinks 
he can make (with his partner's assistance) but does not name the 
trump suit. If a player will not bid, he says : ^*i"2><^**''' After 
a bid has been made in its proper turn, any following player must 
bid higher or pass. No one is allowed to bid more than fourteen. 
There are no second bids, and a bid once made cannot be amended 
or withdrawn. The player who has made the highest bid is called 
upon to name the trump suit. 

Irregular Bids, If any player bids before the eldest hand 
has bid or passed, both the player in error and his partner lose 
their right to make any bid that deal ; but the side not in error 
must bid against each other for the privilege of naming the trump 
suit. If the eldest hand has decided, and the pone bids without 
waiting for the dealer's partner, the pone loses his bid, and the 
dealer may bid before his partner, without penalty. If the dealer 
bids before his partner has decided, both he and his partner lose 
their right to bid that deal ; but the pone is still at liberty to over- 
bid the eldest hand for the privilege of naming the trump. If the 
dealer's partner has bid, and the dealer bids without waiting for 
the pone, the dealer loses his right to bid for that deal. 

If a plaj'er whose partner has not yet bid names the trump suit, 
his partner loses the right to bid. If no bid is made, the dealer 
may name any suit he pleases, without bidding. If any player 
exposes a card beforte he trump suit is named, the adversaries may 
elect to have a new deal by the same dealer. 

DISCABDIWG AND DRAWING. The trump suit 
named, each player discards and leaves face upwa7'd on the 

table as many cards as he pleases. He must discard three, to re- 
duce his hand to six cards. If he discards more than three he 
must draw from the remainder of the pack to restore the number 
of his cards to six ; so that after the discard and draw each player 
at the table will have exactly six cards, although nine were originally 
dealt him. 

The dealer, beginning on his left, gives to each player in turn as 
many cards from the top of the pack as may be necessary to re- 
store the number in his hand to six. When it comes to the 



FLAYING. (Onclu) 337 

dealer's turn, instead of taking cards from the top of the pack, he 
may search the remainder of the pack, and take from it any cards 
that he pleases. This is called robbing the deck. Should he 
find in his own hand and the remainder of the pack more than six 
trumps, he must discard those he does not want, showing them 
face up on the table with the other discards. 

Should any player discard a trump, his partner has the right to 
call his attention to it, and if the player has not been helped to 
cards, or has not lifted the cards drawn, the trump erroneously 
discarded may be taken back ; otherwise it must remain among 
the discards until the hand has been played, when, if it is of any 
counting value, it must be added to the score of the side making 
the trump. 

Although there is no law to that effect, it is considered impera- 
tive for each player except the dealer to discard everything but 
trumps. This is partly because no other cards are of the slightest 
use, and partly because one of the points of the game is that the 
number of trumps held by each player before the draw should be 
indicated by his discard. 

METHOD OF PLAYING. The player who has named 
the trump suit begins by leading any card he pleases. If a trump 
is led, every one must follow suit if able to do so, and it must be 
remembered that the Left Pedro is one of the trump suit. When 
a plain suit is led, any player may trump if he chooses, although 
holding one of the suit led ; but if he does not trump, he must fol- 
low suit if he can. If he has none of the suit led he may trump 
or discard at pleasure. The highest card played of the suit led 
wins the trick, and trumps win all other suits. The Five of trumps, 
or any higher, will win the Left Pedro ; but the Left Pedro will 
win the Four of trumps, or any lower. The winner of the trick 
gathers it in, turning it face down, and leads for the next trick, and 
so on, until all six tricks have been played. The tricks themselves 
have no value, and need not be kept separate. The last trick 
turned and quitted may be seen, but no other. 

Irregularities in Playing. If, during the play of a hand, 
any person is found to have too many cards, his hand is foul, and 
neither he nor his partner can score any points for that deal, but 
they may play the hand out to prevent the adversaries from scor- 
ing everything. If he has too few cards there is no penalty. 

If a player leads out of turn, and the three others follow him, 
the trick stands good. If all have not followed the false lead, their 
cards must be taken back, but only the leader's card is liable to be 
called. If it was the turn of the partner of the player in error to 
lead, the adversary on his right may call upon him to lead or not 
to lead a trump ; but he cannot specify the plain suit. If it was 
the turn of either adversary of the player in error to lead, the card 
led in error is simply exposed. 



338 (Cinclu) SCORING. 

If the third hand plays before the second, the fourth may play 
before the second also. If the fourth hand plays before his part- 
ner, third hand not having played, the trick may be claimed by the 
adversaries, regardless of who wins it ; but the player who actually 
wins it leads for the next trick. 

If a player has a card of the suit led, and neither follows suit 
nor plays a trump, it is a t^evoke ; and, if detected and claimed 
by the adversaries, neither the player in error nor his partner can 
score any points that hand ; but the hand may be played out to 
prevent the adversaries from scoring everything If an adversary 
of the bidder revokes, the bidder's side scores all points it makes, 
regardless of the number bid. For instance : A has bid nine ; 
and Y revokes. A-B make eight only, which they score, Y-Z scor- 
ing nothing. When a player renounces, his partner should ask 
him if he is void of the suit. 

If any player abandons his hand, the cards in it may be exposed 
and called by the adversaries. The practice of throwing down the 
hand as soon as one renounces to trumps, cannot be too strongly 
condemned. 

All composed cards, such as cards dropped on the table ; two 
or more played at once ; cards led out of turn ; or cards named by 
the player holding them, must be left face up on the table, and are 
liable to be called by the adversaries, unless they can be previously 
got rid of in the course of play. If the exposed card is a trump, 
the adversaries may prevent its being played, but the holder of it 
is not liable for a revoke in such cases. 

SCORING. When the last card has been played, each side 
turns over all the tricks won, and counts the points they contain ; 
High, Low, Jack, Game, Right and Left Pedro. Everything, in- 
cluding Low, counts to the side winning it. The number of 
points won or lost is determined by deducting the lower score 
from the higher, the difference being the number of points won on 
that deal. If it is a tie, neither side scores. If either side has in- 
curred a penalty which prevents them from scoring any points 
they may have won, the adversaries have nothing to deduct, and 
score all they make. 

If the side that named the trump fails to make as many points 
as it bid, it scores nothing, and the number of points bid are 
scored by the adversaries, in addition to any points that the adver- 
saries may have made in play. For instance : A-B are partners 
against Y-Z. B has bid to make 8, and named hearts for trumps. 
A-B make lo, which is 2 more than they bid, Y-Z getting the 
other 4 ; which leaves A-B 6. These are scored by placing one 
red and one white counter in the pool. But suppose A-B got only 
5 points, Y-Z getting 9. A-B would score nothing, as they did 
not make good their bid ; while Y-Z would score the 9 points 
actually won. and the S points bid in addition, or 17 altogether. 



VARIATIONS. (Cmch.) 339 

The old way of scoring was to set back the side that failed to 
make the number bid ; but that system of counting entirely de- 
stroyed the interest in the game when one side got much behind ; 
because it could not recover in time to prevent the other side from 
sweating out, as it is called. Suppose A-B have been set back 
i8 points on two failures, Y-Z having made i6 points on those two 
deals, and 23 on their own bids. The score will stand : A-B 64 to 
go; Y-Z, 12 to go. Even if we suppose that A-B make 11 on 
each of the next four deals, they will still have 20 to go. while 
Y-Z will be out. Again: A-B want 15, Y-Z want 2, Even if 
A-B can bid 12 and make it, Y-Z will sweat out. 

With the system of scoring here recommended, this sweating 
out is impossible, and it is not uncommon for a side that wants 
one to go, to be beaten by an adversary that wants forty-nine. 

The side first pegging out on a cribbage-board, or getting rid of 
its fifty-one counters, wins the game. When the game is counted 
on a pull-up cribbage marker, it is usual to start with ten up, and 
peg out to the game-hole, or 61. 

VARIATIONS. There are quite a number of minor differ- 
ences in the manner of playing Cinch. Sometimes, instead of 
discarding and drawing, after the successful bidder has been as- 
certained, but before he names the trump, four more cards are 
given to each player, including the dealer. Having seen thirteen 
cards, the bidder names the trump suit, and the hands are then 
reduced to six cards each. This method gives no clue to the num- 
ber of trumps originally held, and deprives the dealer of one of the 
greatest advantages of his position, robbing the deck. 

Another method is to discard and draw after the trump is 
named, but to make the dealer take his cards from the top of the 
pack to complete his hand, without seeing what he is to get. This 
often leaves counting cards in the remainder of the pack, which 
must remain face down, and be kept separate from the discards. 
Such points count for neither side ; but any points found among 
the discards may be counted by the side making the trump, as in 
the ordinary game. Owing to the uncertainty as to the number of 
points actually in play, the result is controlled more largely by luck 
than skill. 

In some places the first lead from the successful bidder must 
be a trump. This makes the game too much like Auction Pitch, 
and spoils some of the finer points in leading. 

Low is sometimes counted for the person to whom it is dealt. 
Such a rule causes endless confusion and disputes. 

The old method of scoring has already been mentioned. 
Another variation is that if the bidder's side do not make at least 
8 points they cannot score anything, no matter what they bid. If 
both sides score 7, neither having bid more than 7, neither scores, 
If one side bids 6, and makes 8, it scores 8 ; but the adversaries score 
the 6 they make. If the side bidding 6 had made 6 only, it would 



340 (Cinch.) PBOGBESSIVE CINCH. 

score nothing, while their adversaries would mark the 8 they made. 
The only good result of the 6 bid in this case is to prevent the ad- 
versaries from scoring for a failure ; for if 7 had been bid, and 
only 6 made, the adversaries would have scored the 7 bid in addi- 
tion to the 8 they made, o^ i 5 in all. This system, while better 
than the old way, because it never sets players back, still allows 
one side to sweat out ; because if the bidder does not make 14, 
the adversaries must count something every deal. 

Five or six players, each for himself, may play what is 
called Auction Cinch, or Razzle-dazzle. Only six cards are 
dealt to each player, three on the first round and three on the 
second. Then the privilege of naming the trump suit is bid for 
as usual. After the trump is named, superfluous cards are thrown 
out, and others drawn in their place, restoring the hands to six 
cards each. The successful bidder then calls upon the holder of 
any given card to be his partner. The person holding the card 
named cannot refuse, and says : " I play with you." The partner- 
ship thus formed plays against the combined forces of the other 
players, but without changing seats. The maker of the trump 
leads first, any card he pleases. For instance : A B C D E are 
playing. C bids 8 and names clubs. After the draw he finds he 
holds A J 10 5 2 of trumps. He calls for the club King as his 
partner, and leads his Pedro at once for the King to take it in. 
He is then certain to catch the other Pedro, or to save three of the 
four points for High, Low, Jack, and the Game. Those who have 
played Seven-handed Euchre will at once recognize the similarity 
of the two games. Both are excellent round games for the family 
circle. 

Progressive Cinch is played by dealing one round at each 
table ; that is, four deals, each player having the deal once only. 
The ordinary game of Cinch is played, and the pair having the 
fewest points to go at the end of the four deals progress to the 
next higher table. Ties cut to decide, high going up. On arriv- 
ing at the next table, the partners divide, and another game of 
four deals is played, the winning pair again progressing. The 
general arrangements fot the original positions of the players, and 
the prizes to be given, are the same as in Progressive Euchre, and 
have been fully described in connection with that game. 

JBlind Cinch. Instead of giving each player thirteen cards at 
once, the hands are dealt in two parts. First of all, nine cards are 
dealt to each player, three at a time. Then four cards are dealt in 
front of each player, but not to be touched until the bidding is 
finished. The highest bidder takes up his four extra cards and 
then names the trump, after which he discards down to six cards 
for play. The others then take up their four cards and discard 
down to six, and the game proceeds like regular cinch. 

Sixty-three. In this variation, nine cards are dealt to each 
player, three at a time. After the bidding, the players discard and 



^OOD PLAT. (Cincfi.) 341 

fill up again to six cards. Players are allowed several bids, each 
raising in turn if he is raised. The highest bid possible is sixty- 
three, and these may be made as follows : High, low, Jack, and ten 
of trumps count i each ; pedros, 5 each ; King of trumps, 25 ; trey 
of trumps, 15 ; nine of trumps, 9. Game is 150 points. 

Widow Cinch. Six players cut for partners, two on a side. 

Each player has two adversaries between himself and his partner. 
The dealer gives each player eight cards, four at a time, and four 
are dealt to the table after the first round to the players. These 
four cards are the widow. The successful bidder can take the 
widow before he names the trump, and then all the players discard 
down to six cards. 

SUGGESTIONS FOB GOOD PLA T. There is a great 
diversity of opinion on bidding. Some persons always bid six on 
an ace, if they hold neither of the Pedroes. This is based on the 
sound principle that the odds are five to four in favour of your 
partner havmg one of the Pedroes, which he will immediately give 
up if you lead the ace. The odds are five to two that your part- 
ner will hold one or more of any three named counting cards 
which you do not hold. If you have no Pedro, count on him for 
one, and if you have King and Queen, you can risk his having a 
guard to it, and bid as if you were sure of getting his Pedro home. 
If you have none of the points for High, Low, Jack, or Game, or 
only one of them, count on him for one at least, and bid accord- 
ingly. 

It is very difficult to give exact rules for bidding, the state of the 
score having much to do with it ; but as a general rule it is much 
better to bid on catching cards than on the points themselves. 
For instance : A K Q of- trumps should certainly be good for eight 
points ; some players habitually bid twelve on them, reckoning to 
catch both Pedroes and one of the minor points. This is risky un- 
less there are one or two small trumps with the A K Q. On the 
other hand, two Pedroes, with Jack and Low, are not worth bid- 
ding more than five on ; because it is very unlikely that you will 
save more than one of the Pedroes, if that. The very fact that 
you bid five diminishes your chances, for you betray the fact that 
your only hope is to save a well-guarded Pedro. Long experience 
with players who bid their hands correctly will give a player a very 
good idea of what the bidder has in his hand. To the partner this 
is a great point, for it enables him to judge when to give up points 
himself, and when to play for his partner to throw them to him. 

The number of cards asked for by each player should be very 
carefully noted ; for it will frequently happen that the entire trump 
suit can be located by this means. It is useless to keep anything 
but trumps, for tricks, as such, have no value, and every card you 
draw increases your chances of getting another trump. 

The most important point in the game is to cinch every trick in 
which an adversary plays after you ; that is, to play some trump 



342 (Cmcli.) ILLTJSTBATIVE HANDS. 

higher than a Pedro, if the Pedroes have not been played, and you 
do not hold them yourself. Examples of cinching will be found in 
the Illustrative 'Hands. If your partner leads a certain winning 
trump, such as the ace, or the King if the ace is gone, give him 
the best counting card you have ; but if you have two, one of 
them being Low, give up the lower card first ; you may catch 
something with the Jack or Ten. If your partner leads any trump 
higher than the Five, play your smallest trump unless second hand 
covers, in which case you must cinch the trick, to prevent the 
fourth hand from giving up a Pedro on his partner's trick. 

If you are forced to win your partner's first lead of trumps, re- 
turn the best trump you have, unless it is the Jack or Ten, in which 
case you must be guided by the number of points you are playing 
for, and your chances of making them if you lose the card you 
lead. 

If your partner begins by leading a plain suit, you must cinch 
the trick if you can ; if second hand follows suit, any trump better 
than the Five will do. If second hand puts on a trump, you must 
cinch higher. 

If the player on your right renounces to trumps, get into the 
lead if possible, and play your best cards in plain suits. This may 
give your partner a tenace position over the player on your left. 

If partner begins with a high card in trumps, not the ace, credit 
him with the sequence below it, and put in your Pedro at the first 
opportunity. For instance : Partner leads King, won by the ace 
second hand. Whatever this player leads, put in your Pedro, if 
you have one, your partner must have Queen of trumps. 

Playing to the score is very important. Do not attempt to get 
more than the number bid until that is assured. On the other 
hand, if it is certain that the adversary cannot make good his bid, 
da not let him get as close to it as possible, but play boldly to win 
all you can, for every point he makes is simply lost. 

Here are a few example hands, which will give a very good idea 
of some of the fine points in the game. 



No. 


1. A bids 8 on 


hearts. 




No. 2. A bids 8 or 


hearts. 


The draw : A 2 ; Y 2 ; 




The draw : A 2 ; Y 3 ; 


B4; Z5. 


y 

I 




B 4 ; Z 4. 


A Y B Z 


A 


Y B Z 


4kQ 


* 3 


2^ 


* 5 


^ 3 


^ 7 


^\o 


^ 8 


K) 2 


"5 6 


ZJS 


^ 4. 


2 


<:9 Q 


^ 2 


'^ 4 


<? 9 


^10 


^ J 


« J 


^ 9 


3 


^ 6 


^ J 


AO 


*4. 


Q? K 


5 


2 « 


4. « 


4 


* 2 


7 » 


KO 


6 « 


<J? A 


<? 7 


6 <» 


* 9 


5 


^ K 


^ A 


♦ 3 


* 6 


<QS 


^ 5 


10 ♦ 


KO 


6 


<y 5 


5 


2 


*io 



ILLUSTRATIVE HANDS. (Cindi.) 343 

JVo. 1, Y's draw shows that he holds at least four trumps, so 
A must trust his partner to cinch the first trick and return the 
trump. [See our suggestions for good play.J At trick 3, Z cincheSj 
to make A play a high trump. It is evident to A that neither I 
nor Z holds either Jack or Seven of trumps ; so both those cards 
must be with Y. As B has no more trumps the adversaries must 
have both Pedroes, and Y must have one, as he holds four trumps. 
If they are divided, A can catch both by cinching this trick with 
the King and leading the Ace ; but if Y has both Pedroes, such a 
course would lose Jack, Game, and one Pedro. If A cinches this 
trick with the Ten, allowing Y to win with the Jack, A must catch 
both Pedroes, no matter how they lie, provided Y leads the trump 
Seven, for A will refuse to win it, 

Y sees his danger, and by leading a Pedro to A, forces him 
jither to pass it, or to get into the lead and free the other Pedro. 

A-B score nothing : Y-Z score 7 for Jack, Game, Pedro ; and 8 
\n addition, for points bid but not made by A-B ; 15 altogether. 

No. 2. At trick 2, Y sees that he cannot save Low, and the 
(ead would be a great disadvantage, because either A has all the 
(■emaining trumps, or Y's partner has an unguarded Pedro, At 
';rick 3, A knows that if Y has Ace, and Z Pedro, A can still make 
i.^is bid by catching Jack, and saving his own Pedro. If the Pedro 
^s not with Z the small trump is Sjtill the best lead, for it puts the 
iead on A's left. B gets rid of cards which might get him into the 
lead to his partner's disadvantage. Unfortunately, Z is unable to 
take the lead away from Y at trick 4. As Y is still in the lead, 
there is no necessity for A to save his Pedro, for Y cannot pos- 
sibly catch it, and A must catch Y's, no matter how Y plays. 

A-B score 10 points ; Low, Game, and both Pedroes, 12, from 
which they deduct the 2 points made by Y-Z. 



No. 3, A bids 12 or 


I hearts. 1 




No. 4. A bids 8 on 


hearts. 


The draw : A 3 ; Y 5 ; 




2 

H 

I 


The draw : 


A2; Y4; 


B 3 ; Z 2. 




B4; Z4. 


A Y B Z 


A Y 


B Z 


^ A 


(5 3 


5 


'y 6 


-^ 


<;? 6 


^ J 


<y 3 


<0 K 
^ 2 


^ 4. 
(? 7 


^ s 

^ 9 
« 3 


^ J 
♦ J 


2 
3 

4 


Q? 8 


<;? 7 
<y 2 
4 2 


^ 4 
40 


(y 9 

^ K 
♦ 9 


8 4k 


*^ 


*io 


2 


5 


5 


<y 5 


* J 


♦ 7 


^Q 


Q« 


KO 


^ 5 


6 


2Ji2 


4. ^ 


J 


20 



344 (Cinch.) ILLUSTRATIVE HANDS. 



1 



JVb. 3, At the second trick, A knows that his partner still 
holds another trump, because he drew only three cards. This 
trump must be the 9. Z holds two more trumps, and they must 
be the Jack and Right Pedro, because Z would not throw away 
Game if he had anything smaller. The 7 must be with Y, and if A 
now leads trump Queen, he will leave the Pedro good over his 
Deuce, leaving him only 8 points, whereas he has bid 12. If A 
leads the Deuce, his partner's nine will cinch the trick, and Z can 
make only the Jack. 

A-B score 10. The 12 actually taken make good the bid; but 
the 2 points won by the adversaries must be deducted, leaving 10 
to be scored by A-B. 

No. 4. At the third trick, a hasty or careless player would 
have been only too glad of the opportunity to get in his Pedro. 
But Y reasons that there are only two trumps unaccounted for, the 
Ten and Left Pedro. If B has one, it must fall to this trick. He 
cannot have both, for A drew only two cards. If A has both, Y 
must catch his Pedro, no matter how A plays ; and as long as Y 
does not get into the lead himself, he cannot lose his own Pedro. 
At trick 5, A naturally places the Pedro with Z, as Y did not save 
it on the King, and it is perfectly natural for A to trump with his 
Pedro, intending to lead the Ten to catch Z's. 

A-B score nothing, not having made good their bid. Y-Z score 
Right and Left Pedro, and Low, 11 points; adding the 8 points bid 
but not made by A-B, 19 altogether. 



CINCH LAWS, 

Formation of Table. A cinch table is complete with six 
players. If more than four assemble, they cut for preference, the 
four highest playing the first game. Partners and deal are then 
cut for, the two lowest pairing against the two highest. Partners 
sit opposite each other. The highest deals, and has the choice 
of seats and cards. The Ace is high, both in cutting and in play. 
A player exposing more than one card must cut again. 

Ties. If the first cut does not decide, the players cutting equal 
cards cut again ; but the new cut decides nothing but the tie. 

Cutting Out. At the end of the game, the players cut to de- 
cide which shall give way to those awaiting their turn to play, the 
lowest cuts going out. After the second game, those who have 
played the greatest number of consecutive games give way, ties 
being decided by cutting. 

Dealing. Every player has the right to shuffle the cards, the 
dealer last. The dealer must present the pack to the pone to be 
cut. At least four cards must be left in each packet. If a card 



CINCH LAWS. (Cmch.) 345 

is exposed in cutting, the pack must be re-shuffled, and cut again. 
If the dealer re-shuffles the pack after it has been properly cut, 
he loses his deal. 

Beginning on his left, the dealer must give to each player in 
rotation three cards at a time for three rounds. No trump is 
turned. The deal passes to the left. 

There must be a new deal by the same dealer if any card is 
found faced in the pack ; or if the pack is proved incorrect or im- 
perfect ; but any previous cutting or scores made with the im- 
perfect pack stand good. 

The adversaries may demand a new deal if any card is exposed 
during the deal, provided they have not touched a card. If an 
adversary exposes a card, the dealer may elect to deal again. If 
a new deal is not demanded, cards exposed in dealing cannot be 
called. 

The adversaries may stop a player dealing out of turn, or with 
the wrong pack, provided they do so before the last three cards 
are dealt, after which the deal stands good. 

Misdealing. A misdeal loses the deal. It is a misdeal : If 
the cards have not been properly cut ; if the dealer does not give 
the same number of cards to each player on the same round ; if he 
gives too many or too few cards to any player ; if he counts the 
cards on the table, or those remaining in the pack ; or if he deals 
a card incorrectly, and fails to correct the error before dealing 
another. If the dealer is interrupted in any way by an adversary, 
he does not lose his deal. 

Bidding. After receiving his nine cards, each player in turn, 
beginning on the dealer's left, announces the number of points he 
will undertake to win if he is allowed to name the trump suit. No 
player is allowed to bid more than fourteen. If he will not bid, he 
must say: "I pass." A bid having been regularly made, any 
following player must bid higher or pass. There are no second 
bids. A bid once m-ade can neither be amended nor withdrawn. 

Irregular Bids. If any player bids before the eldest hand 
has bid or passed, both the player in error and his partner lose 
their right to bid ; but the side not in error must bid to decide 
which of them shall name the trump. If the eldest hand has de- 
cided, and the pone bids withou waiting for the dealer's partner, 
the ^ one loses his bid, and the dealer may bid before his partner. 
If the dealer bids without waiting for his partner, both lose their 
bids ; but the pone may overbid the eldest hand. 

If the der er's partner has bid, and the dealer bids without wait- 
ing for the pone, the dealer loses his bid. 

If a player whose partner has not yet bid names the trump suit, 
his partner loses his bid. 

If a player bids with more than nine cards in his hand, his bid is 



346 (Cincli.) CINCH LAWS. 

lost, and the advei"saries,must draw the superfluous cards from his 
hand, face down, placing them about the middle of the undealt 
portion of the pack. 

If no bid is made, the dealer may name any trump he pleases, 
without bidding. 

If any player exposes any of his cards before the trump suit is 
named, the adversaries may elect to have a new deal by the same 
dealer. 

Discarding. The trump named, each player must put out at 
least three of his cards, and may discard as many more as he 
pleases. All such discards must be placed on the table face up. 
Should a player discard a trump, his partner may call his attention 
to it, and it may be taken back, provided the player has not been 
helped to cards, or has not lifted the cards drawn. 

Drawing. The players having discarded, the dealer, begin- 
ning on his left, must give to each in turn from the top of the 
pack, face down, as many cards as may be necessary to restore 
the number in each hand to six. 

Robbing the Deck, When it comes to the dealer's turn to 
draw cards, instead of taking them from the top of the pack, face 
down, he may search the remainder of the pack, and take from it 
any cards he pleases to restore the number in his hand to six. 
Should he find in his own hand and in the remainder of the pack, 
more than six trumps, he must discard those he does not want, 
face upward on the table. 

Irregular Drawing. Should a player ask for too many or 
too few cards, and not discover his error until the next player has 
been helped, if he has too few he may make his hand good from 
the discards, but must not take a trump therefrom. If he has too 
many, the adversaries must be allowed to draw the superfluous 
ones at random, face down, placing them^on the top of the pack. 

Playing. The maker of the trump must lead for the first 
trick, any card he pleases. If a trump is led, all must follow suit 
if able. If a plain suit is led, a player may trump, even when 
holding a card of the suit led ; but if he does not trump he must 
follow suit if he can, or he is liable to the penalty for a revoke. 

The last trick turned and quitted may be seen, but no other. 

Irregularities in the Hands. If any player is found to 
have an incorrect number of cards, it is a misdeal if no bid has 
been made. If a bid has been made, the deal stands good if three 
players have their right number of cards. If the first trick has 
been played to by a person holding too many cards, neither he nor 
his partner can score anything that hand ; but they may piay the 
hand out to save what points they can. If a player has too few 
cards, there is no penalty, but he should draw from the discard to 
make up the deficiency, plain-suit cards only being available. 



CINCH LAWS. (Cincli.) 347 

Exposed Cards, The following are exposed cards, which 
must be left face up on the table, and are liable to be called by either 
adversary: i. Every card faced upon the table otherwise than in 
the regular course of play. 2. Two or more cards played to a 
trick ; the adversaries may elect which shall be played. 3. Any 
card named by the player holding it. 

The adversary on the right of an exposed card must call it be- 
fore he plays himself. If it will be the turn of the player holding 
the exposed card to lead for the next trick, the card, if wanted, 
must be called before the current trick is turned and quitted. 
Should a player having the lead, and an exposed card in front of 
him, play before the previous trick is turned and quitted, the card 
so led may also be claimed as exposed. 

If a trump is exposed after the trump suit has been named, the 
adversaries may prevent the playing of such a card ; but the holder 
of it is not liable to any penalty for a revoke under such circum- 
stances. 

Leading Out of Turn. If a player leads when it was his 
partner's turn, the partner may be called upon by his right-hand 
adversary to lead or not to lead a trump ; but a specified plain 
suit cannot be called. If it was the turn of neither of the side in 
error to lead, the card played in error is simply exposed. If all 
have played to the false lead, the error cannot be rectified. If all 
have not followed, the cards played to the false lead may be taken 
back, and are not liable to be called. 

Playing Out of Turn. If the third hand plays before the 
second, the fourth may play before the second also ; either of his 
own volition, or by the direction of the second hand, who may say: 
" Play, partner." If the fourth hand plays before the second, the 
third hand not having played, the trick may be claimed by the ad- 
versaries, no matter who actually wins it ; but the actual winner of 
it must lead for the next trick. 

If any player abandons his hand, the cards in it may be claimed 
as exposed, and called by the adversaries. 

TJie MevoJce. A revoke is a renounce in error, not corrected 
in time, or non-compliance with a performable penalty. It is a 
revoke if a player has one of the suit led, and neither follows suit 
nor trumps. 

A person prohibited from playing an exposed trump is not 
liable to any penalty if it causes him to revoke. 

A revoke is established when the trick in which it occurs has 
been turned and quitted ; or when either the revoking player or 
his partner, whether in his right turn or otherwise, has led or 
played to the following trick. 

If a revoke is claimed and proved, the revoking side cannot 
score any poinis that deal ; but they may play the hand out to 
prevent the adversaries from making" points. 



348 (Cinch.) CINCE LAWS. 

If an adversary of the bidder revokes, the bidder's side scores 
whatever points it makes that deal, regardless of the number bid. 

A player may ask his partner whether or not he has a card of 
the suit in which he renounces and does not trump, and the player 
may correct his error if the question is asked before the trick is 
turned and quitted. But if he answers in the negative, there is no 
remedy. 

Drawing Cards. Any player may ask the others to indicate 
the cards played by them to the current trick ; but he must con- 
fine himself to the expression : " Draw cards." 

IrregtUar Memarks, A player calling attention in any 
manner to the trick or to the score, may be called upon to play 
his highest or lowest of the suit led ; or to trump or not to trump 
the trick during the play of which the remark is made. 

Scoring. A game consists of fifty-one points ; fourteen of 
which must be made on every deal, as follows : — 

I for Sigh, or the Ace of trumps. 

I for Low, or the Deuce of trumps. 

I for the Jack of trumps. 

I for Game, or the Ten of trumps. 

5 for Hight Pedro, or the Five of trumps. 

5 for Left Pedro, or Five of the same colour as the trump 
suit. All points count to the side winning them. 

Any trumps found among the discards at the end of the hand 
count for the side that made the trump. 

At the end of the hand, the number of points won by each side 
is added up, and the lower deducted from the higher, the differ- 
ence being scored by the winners of the majority. If the result is 
a tie, neither scores. For instance : If A-B make ii, Y-Z must 
make the remaining 3, which deducted from 1 1 leaves 8 points for 
A-B to score. 

If the side naming the trump suit fails to make as many points 
as they bid, they score nothing for that deal, and the number bid 
is scored by the adversaries, in addition to any other points that 
the adversaries may have made in play. The number bid and the 
number actually won, must be compared before deducting the 
points made by the adversaries. 

The side first making fifty-one points wins the game. 



Text Sooks. There are two very good text-books on the 
game. 

TAe Lotus and Principles of Cinch, by G. W. Hall, 1891. 

The Laws and Etiquette of Cinch, issued by the Chicago 
Cinch Club, 1890. 



(Hearts.) 349 



HEARTS. 



Hearts is supposed by some persons to be an entirely new 
game ; but its leading principle, losing instead of winning tricks, 
is to be found in many other card games, some of which are quite 
old. Slobberhannes, Enfle, Schwellen, Polignac, and The Four 
Jacks, all belong to the same family, but most of them have given 
way to the more popular game of Hearts. 

There are several varieties of Hearts, but the principal arrange- 
ments are the same in all, and the chief differences are in the man* 
ner of settling at the end of the hand. 

CARDS. Hearts is played with a full pack of fifty-two cards, 
which rank AKQJ1098765432: the ace is the highest in 
play, but in cutting it ranks below the deuce. There is no trump 
suit. 

When three persons play, the deuce of spades is thrown out of 
the pack; when five play, both the black deuces are laid aside, 
and when six play, all four deuces are discarded. It is usual to 
play with two packs, one being shuffled whiile the other is dealt. 

CO UNTERS. Every deal is a game in itself, and must be 
settled for in counters immediately. It is usual for each player to 
begin with fifty counters, which are purchased from some person 
who is agreed upon to act as banker. When only two play, the 
game may be scored on a pull-up cribbage board, and settled for 
at the end. 

PLAYERS. Any number from two to six persons may play, 
but four is the usual number, each playing for himself against all 
the others. The players on the dealer's right and left are known 
as the pone and the eldest hand, respectively. 

STAKES. The value of the counters must be agreed upon 
before play begins, and the method of settling should also be un- 
derstood, Sweepstake Hearts and Howell's Settling being entirely 
different games, and requiring totally different methods of play. 

CUTTING. If seven players assemble, it is usual to make 
up a table in which the dealer takes no cards. If there are more 
than seven candidates for play, two tables must be formed. 

Players draw from an outspread pack for the choice of seats and 
cards, the lowest cut having the first choice, and the others fol- 



350 (Hearts.) DEALING. 

lowing in their order. The player cutting the lowest card takes 
the first deal, which afterward passes in regular rotation to the 
left. 

In cutting, the ace is low. Any player exposing more than one 
card must cut again. 

TIES. If the first cut does not decide, those tying must cut 
again, but the new cut decides nothing but the tie. 

DEALING. Any player has the right to shuiifle the pack, 
the dealer last. The cards are then presented to the pone to be 
cut, who must leave at least four in each packet. The cards are 
dealt from left to right, one at a time to each player in rotation 
until the pack is exhausted. No trump is turned. In Two- 
handed Hearts, the dealer stops when each player has received 
thirteen cards. The deal passes to the left. 

Misdealing. It is a misdeal if the dealer omits to have the 
pack cut, and the error is discovered before the last card is dealt ; 
if he deals a card incorrectly, and does not remedy the error be- 
fore dealing another ; or if he counts the cards on the table, or 
those remaining in the pack ; or if it is discovered before all have 
played to the first trick that any player has too many or too few 
cards. A misdeal loses the deal unless one of the other players 
has touched the cards, or has in any way interrupted the dealer. 

If any card is exposed by the dealer, the player to whom it is 
dealt may demand a new deal, provided he has not touched any 
of his cards. Any one dealing out of turn, or with the wrong 
cards, may be stopped before the last card is dealt. After that the 
deal stands good, and the packs, if changed, must so remain. 

IBMEG ULAB, HANDS. If, after the first trick has been 
played to, any two players are found to have more or less than 
their correct number of cards, the pack being perfect, the one hav- 
ing less must draw, face downward, from the hand of the one hav- 
ing more ; and each must pay five counters into the pool. 

OBJECTS OF THE GAME. As a general proposition, 
the object of each player is to avoid getting any hearts in the 
tricks he takes in. In some varieties of the game his object must 
be to take no hearts ; in others it will be to take less than his ad- 
versaries ; while in others it will be to take less than four. After 
a person has taken in one or more hearts, his object will be to 
load the others ; that is, to see that they get some hearts also ; or 
it may be to see that a given player takes at least one heart ; or 
that no one but himself takes any. The manner in which a person 
must vary his play in accordance with these different objects will 
be discussed when we come to the suggestions for good play. In 
the meantime, it is necessary to bear in mind only the general 
principle that the object of the game is to avoid winning any tricks 
that contain hearts. 



IRREGULARITIES. (Hearts.) 351 

METHOD OF PLATIWG. The cards dealt, the player 
to the left of the dealer begins by leading any card he pleases, and 
the others must follow suit if they can. The highest card played, 
if of the suit led, wins the trick. There is no trump suit. If a 
player has none of the suit led, he may discard anything he 
pleases. The winner of the trick takes it in and leads for the next 
trick, and so on until all the cards have been played. The tricks 
themselves have no value as such, and need not be kept separate. 

Irregularities in Play. If any player omits to play to a trick, 
and plays to a following one, he is not allowed to correct his error, 
but is compelled to take the thirteenth or last trick, with whatever 
hearts it may contain. If a player'is found, during or at the end of 
a hand, to be a card short, all others at the table having their right 
number, and all having played to the first trick, the player with the 
short hand is compelled to take the last trick, with whatever 
hearts it may contain, 

Exposed Cards, Should a person lead or play two cards to 
one trick, he is allowed to indicate the one intended ; but he must 
leave the other face upward on the table. All exposed cards are 
liable to be called by any player at the table, and should one 
player call such a card, his decision is binding on the others. A 
player with an exposed card in front of him must play it when 
called upon, provided he can do so without revoking ; but he can- 
not be prevented from getting rid of the exposed card in the 
course of play, if the opportunity offers. 

Leading Out of Turn. Should a player lead out of turn, he 
may be called upon to lead or not to lead a heart when it is next 
his turn to lead. This penalty can be enforced only by the player 
on his right. If all have played to the false lead the error cannot 
be rectified ; but if all have not played, their cards must be taken 
back, and are not liable to be called. 

If any person plays out of turn in any trick, the player on his 
left, not having played, may demand that the card be taken back, 
and after the proper player has played the player in error may be 
called upon to play his highest or lowest of the suit led, or not to 
discard a heart. If the person on the left of the player in error 
was the leader in the trick, either he or the player whose proper 
turn it was to play may demand the penalty. 

JRevoking. Any player failing to follow suit, when able to do 
so, may amend his error if he discovers his mistake before the 
trick in which it occurs has been turned and quitted. The card 
played in error then becomes an exposed card. Those who have 
played after him have the privilege of withdrawing their cards and 
substituting others, without penalty. Should the revoking player 
not discover his error in time, the hand must be played out, and if 
the revoke is detected and claimed the player in error must pay all 
the losses on that hand. Should the revoking player win the pool 



352 (Hearts.) SETTLING. 

himself, he must pay the thirteen counters to the pool, and leave 
them for a Jack, Should he divide the pool with another player, 
he must pay his co-winner six counters, and put up the other seven 
for a Jack. 

If two or more players revoke in the same hand, each must pay 
the entire losses in that hand as if he were alone in error ; so that 
if two should revoke and a third win the pool, the latter would re- 
ceive twenty-six counters instead of thirteen. In Auction Hearts, 
the revoking player must also refund the amount put up by the 
bidder. A revoke must be claimed and proved before the pool is 
divided. Non-compliance with a performable penalty is the same 
as a revoke. 

SETTLING, After the last card has been played, each 
player turns over his tricks, counts the number of hearts he has 
taken in, and announces it. Players should be careful not to 
gather or mix the cards until all thirteen hearts have been ac- 
counted for. Each player then pays into the pool for the number 
of hearts he has taken in, according to the system of settlement 
agreed upon before play began. The pool is then taken down by 
the player or players winning it, and the deal passes to the left. 
The game is at an end any time the players wish to stop, after a 
hand has been settled for ; but it is usual to agree upon some defi- 
nite hour. 

There are two ways of settling at the end of the hand, each of 
which has its good points. 

SWEEPSTAKE SEABTS. After the hand has been 
played, each player announces the number of hearts he has taken 
in, and pays into the pool one counter for each. All thirteen 
hearts having been paid for, any player having taken no hearts 
wins the entire pool ; two having taken none, divide it. If all the 
players have taken hearts, or if one player has taken all thirteen, 
the pool remains, and forms a Jack,. This can be won only by a 
single player in some subsequent deal taking no hearts, all the 
others having taken at least one. These jack pools are of course 
increased thirteen counters every deal until some player wins the 
whole amount. Some clubs make it a Jack after two players have 
divided a pool, using the odd counter as a starter. It will be 
found that natural Jacks occur quitejrequently enough without re- 
sorting to this expedient. 

MO WELL'S SETTLING. The great objection to the 
method of settling at Sweepstake Hearts is that it makes the game 
almost entirely one of chance. No matter how good a player one 
may be, good luck alone will bring success. In a four-handed 
game it is possible for one player to take in only 58 hearts in 60 
deals, and still to be 46 counters behind ; while another player may 
take in 500 hearts in 60 deals and be 46 counters ahead. It may 
be claimed that the player who has 46 counters ahead at the end 



HOWELVS SETTLING. (Hearts.) 353 

was the better player, because he won ; but most persons will agree 
that a player who takes in only 58 hearts in 60 deals is a much better 
player than one who has taken in 500 hearts in the same time. 

It was to remedy this defect, and to give skill its proper percent- 
age of value, that Mr. E. C. Howell of Boston proposed the man- 
ner of contributing to and dividing the pools which is now known 
as Howell's Settling. 

Each player begins with an equal number of counters, usually 
100. At the end of the hand, after the hearts have been counted 
and announced, each player pays into the pool, for every heart he 
holds, as many counters as there are players besides himself. 
For instance: A, B, C and D play. A takes three hearts; B 
and C five each, and D none. There being three players besides 
himself, A puts up three times three, or 9 counters. B and C put 
up 15 each, and D none ; so thai there are 39 in the pool. Each 
player then takes out of the pool i counter for every heart he did 
not hold when the hearts were announced. D, having taken no 
hearts, gets 13 counters. A, having taken three hearts only, is 
entitled to 10 counters for the 10 hearts he did not hold, while B 
and C get 8 each. This exhausts the pool. There are no Jacks 
in this way of settling. 

Matters may be facilitated by having counters of different col- 
ours, the white being the unit, and the red representing the num- 
ber which it will be necessary to pay for one heart. Practice will 
make the players so familiar with the amount of the various prof- 
its or losses that they simply pay or take what is due to them. 

The first time this is played it looks like a pretty severe game 
for a player who takes in a large number of hearts on one deal ; 
but it will be found that he rapidly recovers. During a sitting of 
any length the player who takes in the smallest number of hearts 
must be the winner. In the case mentioned in connection with 
Sweepstake Hearts, in which one player lost 46 counters while 
another won 46, in 60 deals, the result at Howell's Settling would 
have been that the player who took in only 58 hearts would be 548 
counters ahead instead of losing 46 ; while the one who took in 
500 hearts would lose 1220 counters, instead of winning 46. 

METHODS OF CHEATING. Under the rule for deal- 
ing the cards one at a time, the greek must be very skilful to se- 
cure any advantage at Hearts. But when it is the practice to deal 
the cards three at a time, and four on the last round, it is an easy 
matter to get four small hearts together on the bottom of the pack. 
Any person who is observed to hold three or four small hearts 
every time he deals, should be carefully watched, and it will usually 
be found that he gathers the small hearts from the hands of the 
other players while the pool is being divided. Marked cards are 
of little use to the greek at hearts, because so much depends oa 
what a player holds, and so little on his play. 



S54 (Hearts.) 

VARIETIES OF HEARTS. 

Before proceeding to suggestions for good play, it will be better 
to describe some of the variations of the game in common use, 
because what would be good play in one variation would not be in 
another. 

TWO-HANDED HEARTS. The two players having cut 
for the deal, thirteen cards are given to each, one at a time, and the 
remainder of the pack is left on the table, face down. The deal- 
er's adversary, usually called the pone, begins by leading any card 
he pleases, and the dealer must follow suit if he can, as in the or- 
dinary game. The winner of the trick takes it in, but before lead- 
ing for the next trick he draws one card from the top of the pack 
lying on the table, restoring the number of his cards to thirteen. 
His adversary then draws the next card, and the cards are played 
and drawn in this manner until the pack is exhausted. The thir- 
teen cards remaining in the hands of the two adversaries are then 
played, and after the last trick has been won, each turns over his 
cards and counts the number of hearts he has taken in. The ob- 
ject of the game is to take fewer hearts than your opponent, and 
the method of settling is either for the greater number to pay the 
lesser the difference ; or, for the first six hearts taken by the loser 
to count nothing, but all above six to be paid for. The most pop- 
ular way is to peg up the difference on a cribbage board, and to 
settle at the end of the sitting. 

_ THItEE-HANDED HEARTS, The deuce of spades is 
discarded, and seventeen cards are dealt to each player, one at a 
time, after which the game proceeds in the usual way. There are 
several methods of settling. Howell's method is undoubtedly the 
best, but Sweepstakes is very common. An excellent way is for 
the player who takes the largest number of hearts to pay the two 
others as many counters as he has hearts in excess of theirs. If 
two have an equal number, both pay the low man. There are no 
Jacks. 

A UCTIOy HEARTS. This is usually played by four per- 
sons, although five or six may form a table. After the cards have 
been dealt in the usual way, the player to the left of the dealer ex- 
amines his cards, and determines which suit he would prefer to 
play to get clear of. It may be that if the game were to get rid 
of clubs instead of hearts, his hand would be a very good one , 
whereas if the suit were to remain hearts it would be a very bad 
hand. As the pool will contain thirteen counters to a certainty, 
he can afford to pay something for the better chance he will have 
to win it if he is allowed to make clubs the suit to be avoided, in- 
stead of hearts. He bids whatever amount he is willing to pay fof 



AUCTION HEARTS. (Hearts.) 355 

the privilege of changing the suit, without naming the suit he pre- 
fers. The next player then has a bid, and so on in turn, the 
dealer bidding last. There are no second bids. 

The player making the highest bid pays into the pool the amount 
he has bid. He then names the suit to be avoided, and leads for 
the first trick, regardless of his position with respect to the deal. 
The dealer's position is a great advantage, on account of its hav- 
ing the last bid. 

After the hand is played, those who have taken in any cards of 
the suit announced to be avoided, pay one counter to the pool for 
each of them. If any one player gets clear, each of the others 
having at least one of the tabooed suit, he takes the entire pool. 
If two get clear, they divide the pool, leaving any odd counter to 
form the basis of a Jack,' as at Sweepstakes. If one player takes 
all thirteen, it is a Jack ; but instead of the next choice being sold 
to the highest bidder, the one who named the suit on the hand 
that made the pool a Jack has the choice of suits again for the 
next deal, and he must select some suit without paying anything 
further for it, until some player wins what he paid for the choice 
in the first place. That is, the pool must be won before the choice 
can be sold again. 

The general principle of the game is for the players to combine 
against the successful bidder, and to spare no effort to prevent him 
from winning the pool. 

SPOT HEARTS. In this variation, when the hearts are 
announced at the end of the hand, the spots on them are the units 
of value, the Jack being worth ii, the Queen 12, the King 13, and 
the Ace 14. This adds nothing to the interest or skill of the 
game ; but rather tends to create confusion and delay, owing to 
the numerous disputes as to the correctness of the count. 

The total to be accounted for in each deal is 104. In settling, 
the player with the smallest number collects from each of the others 
the amount they have in excess of his. If two or more players 
have an equal number, or none at all, they divide the amount col- 
lected from each of the others. For instance : Four play, A has 8 
points, B 24, C 18, and D 54. As 8 points is the lowest, B pays 
A 16, C pays him 10, and D pays him 46. If A and B had 8 each, 
C 32, and D 56, C would pay 24, and D 48 ; and A-B would di- 
vide the amount between them. 

The chief variation in play arises from the fact that one who 
must win a heart trick cannot always afford to play his highest 
heart as in the ordinary game. 

JOKER HEARTS. In this variation, the heart deuce is 
discarded, and the Joker takes its place. The Joker occupies a 
position between the Jack and the Ten in value, with the added 
peculiarity that it cannot be discarded on a plain suit ; for if it is, 



356 (Hearts.) JOKER HEABTS. 

it wins the trick unless tliere is a higher heart in the same trick. 
If a player has the Joker dealt to him, his only chance to get rid of 
it is to play it on a trick in which hearts are led, or to discard it on 
a plain suit on which some other player has already discarded a 
higher heart than the Ten. Under such circumstances, the 
holder of the Joker is allowed to discard it, even if he has one of 
the suit led, and the Joker being in the trick compels the player 
who discarded the higher heart to take it in. 

In settling, the Joker is worth five counters. If the player to 
whom it was dealt takes it in, he pays these five counters to the 
pool. If another player gets the Joker, he must pay the five 
counters to the player who got rid of it. The remainder of the 
pool is then divided in the usual way. This is a most exasperating 
game. 

DISCARD HEAjRTS. This is sometimes called Black 
JTacJc, or Blach Lady. If it is the Jack, it is worth ten hearts ; 
if it is the Queen, it is worth thirteen hearts. 

After the cards are dealt, each player in turn lays out three cards 
which he does not want, and the player on his left is obliged to 
take them, after having discarded himself. No player may look at 
what he is going to get until he has discarded himself. 

The Black Jack or Lady holds its rank as a spade when spades 
are led ; but the moment any other suit is led, of which the player is 
void, he can discard the Black Jack or Lady, just as he would get 
rid of a heart. If hearts are led and the player has no hearts, he 
can play the Black Jack or Lady to the trick, as it ranks below the 
deuce of hearts. 

JPMOGMESSirE HEARTS. The general arrangements 
for the players and their positions are exactly the same as those 
already described in connection with Progressive Euchre. The 
players at each table cut for the deal, and play begins with the 
tap of the bell at the head table. Only one deal is played at each 
table. 

There are no counters. At the end of the hand the ladies com- 
pare their cards, and the one having the fewer hearts goes to the 
next higher table. The gentlemen then compare their cards in 
the same way, so that one lady and one gentleman go up from 
each table at the end of every hand. They take the seats vacated 
by those leaving the table they go to. All ties are determined by 
cutting, those cutting the lower cards going up. In cutting, the 
ace is low. 

Each player is provided with a score card, to which the gold, 
red and green stars are attached as in Euchre. The gold stars 
are given to those at the head table who have the fewest hearts. 
Those moving from other tables receive red stars ; and those tak- 
ing in the most hearts at the booby table receive green stars. 



EEAMT8ETTE. (Hearts.) 357 

Prizes are given to the ladies and gentlemen having the greatest 
number of each variety of star ; but the same player cannot win 
two prizes. If there is a tie in one class, the number of other stars 
must decide ; equal numbers of gold being decided by the major- 
ity of red on the same card ; red ties, by the greater number of 
gold ; and green ties by the fewest number of gold stars. 

HEABTSETTE. Heartsette differs from hearts only in the 
addition of a widow. When four play, the spade deuce is deleted ; 
twelve cards are given to each player, and the three remaining 
form the widow, which is left face downward in the centre of the 
table. When any other number play, the full pack is used. If 
there are three players, three cards are left for the widow : two 
cards are left when iive play, and four when six play. The player 
winning the first trick takes in the widow, with any hearts it may 
contain. He is entitled to look at these cards, but must not show 
or name them to any other player. The game then proceeds in 
the usual way. Payments are made to the pool for all hearts 
taken in, and the pool is then won, divided, or remains to form a 
Jack, just as at Sweepstake Hearts. The chief difference in the 
game is that the other players do not know whether the winner of 
the first trick is loaded or not, and he is the only player who knows 
how many or what hearts are still to be played. 

DOMINO HEARTS. In this variation, six cards only are 
dealt to each player, the remainder of the pack being left face 
down on the table. When a player is unable to follow suit, he 
must draw cards from the stock, one at a time, until he can. The 
last player with any cards left in his hand must take what is left of 
the stock, if any. The hearts taken in are then counted as usual. 
Thirty-one points is game, and the winner is the player who has 
the least hearts scored when some other player reaches thirty-one. 



SUGGESTIONS FOR GOOD PLAY. 

A good player, after sorting his hand, carefully estimates its 
possibilities. The hand may be such that it is evidently impos- 
sible to avoid taking some hearts. The player must then decide 
whether he will play to give each of the others hearts, or will take 
them all himself. If he succeeds in either object he has a chance 
to win back his money in the ensuing Jack. In deciding on his 
chances to get clear without taking a single heart, the player must 
first consider the advisability of beginning with a heart, or with a 
plain suit. If hearts, he should know the probability of the heart 
he leads not winning the trick ; if a plain suit, he should know the 
probability of the suit going round one or more times without 
hearts being discarded on it, especially if he intends to lead high 



358 (Hearts.) GOOD PLAl. 

cards. These chances must then be balanced one against the 
other and the more favourable selected. 

LEADING HEAUTS ORIGIKALLT. When your 
hearts are so small as to be absolutely safe, such as the 7 5 3 2, it 
might be supposed that the best play would be to lead them at 
once, in order to get a large number of hearts out of your way. 
But with such cards it is usually much better play, unless you have 
a very dangerous hand in plain suits, to reserve these small hearts 
until you have a more definite idea, from the fall of the cards, to 
whom you are giving them. Such cards are particularly useful for 
getting rid of the lead at dangerous stages in the end-game. 

When the plain-suit cards are high or dangerous, but the hearts 
are reasonably safe, it is usually better to lead the hearts, and to 
continue leading them every time you get in. By following these 
tactics it is quite possible for you to take almost every trick in the 
plain suits, and yet to win the poo^ by rapidly exhausting the 
hearts. 

If you lead the Q? 4, the only chance for it to win is that one 
player has no hearts, and that the 2 and 3 are divided. The odds 
against this combination of circumstances will vary with the num- 
ber of hearts you hold with the 4, but may be generally stated on 
the average as about 50 to i. It is usually considered a safer lead 
than a high card of a plain suit, even if you have only three of the 
suit. 

If your only heart is the 5, and you propose to lead it, the 
chances that the 2, 3, and 4 are not each in separate hands are 
about 19 in 25, or 19 to 6 against it, which is about 3 to i. If you 
lead the 5, the odds against your winning the trick decrease as the 
number of hearts you hold with the $ increases. If you have four 
hearts, the 5 being the lowest, the odds against its winning the 
trick, if you lead it, are about 29 to 11. If you have eight hearts, 
the 5 being the lowest, it is about an even chance. If your only 
heart is the 6, it is about an even chance that it will win the trick ; 
but the odds against you increase rapidly with the number of addi- 
tional hearts that you hold. If you propose to lead the 7, the 
chances that it will win the trick are 2 to i under the most favour- 
able circumstances, which are when it is your only heart. These 
odds against you increase rapidly with the number of additional 
hearts that you hold. 

LEADING PLAIN SUITS ORIGINALLY, It will 
often happen that you will have to decide between the lead of a 
comparatively dangerous heart and a risky plain suit. Your knowl- 
edge of probabilities should enable you to select the safer course. 
The odds against getting a heart on the first round of a plain suit 
depend upon how many cards of the suit you hold. If you lead 
an Ace, or any card which is sure to win the trick, the odds against 
your getting a heart on it are as the following : — 



GOOD PLAY, 



(Hearts.) 359 



If you have 4 cards of the suit, 22 to i, 

5 " IS to I. 

"6 " 7 to I. 

"7 " 4 to I. 

" 8 " 2 to I. 

These odds may be slightly increased by taking into account 
the fact that players who cannot follow suit do not always discard 
hearts, having perhaps more dangerous cards to get rid of. 

The odds against a suit going round a second time may be in- 
fluenced by the cards played to the first round ; but it sometimes 
happens that you have to calculate in advance for two rounds of a 
suit, regardless of the cards that may be played by others. This 
is especially the case when you fear that the suit will be led to 
you, and you have such cards as must win two rounds. If you 
have 4 cards of the suit the odds against your getting a heart in 
two rounds are 2 to i. The odds zn favour of your getting a 
heart in two rounds are : — 

If you have 5 cards of the suit, 4 to 3. 
" 6 " 2 to I. 

" 7 " 6 to I. 

As an example of the value of a thorough knowledge of these 
odds to a careful player, suppose he had to win two rounds of a 
plain suit, of which he held six cards ; or to lead the 9? 7, having 
three higher. The suit would be the better play, because it takes 
in only one heart, while the lead of the heart might take in four. 

The following table shows the exact number of times in 1,000 
deals that a heart would probably be discarded on a plain suit led, 
according to the number of cards in the suit held by the leader, 
and the number of times the suit was led : 



Cards held by the leader. 


I, 2, 3, 4 


5 


6 


7 


S 


Times hearts will be dis- 
carded : — 
On first round 


44 
358 
842 


63 

430 
1000 


122 
659 

1000 


200 

857 
1000 


315 
1000 
1000 


On second round 

On third round 



This shows that 158 times in 1,000, when the leader has i, 2, 3, 
or 4 cards of the suit, it will go round three times, because 158 is 
the balance necessary to bring our last figure, 842, up to 1,000. 
Reducing this to a small fraction, the odds are about ^\ to i that 
a suit will not go round three, times without affording to some 
player the chance of discarding hearts on it. This calculation 
shows the hopeless nature of all hands that contain at least three 
cards of each suit, unless the smallest card in every suit is below a 
6 ; for if any one of the suits is led three times, it is even betting 
that you will have to win the third round, and 5-^ to i that you get 
a heart on it if you do. 



360 (Hearts.) PROBABILITIES 

FLAIN-SITIT LEADS. The favourite lead with most 
heart players is a singleton; or, failing that, a two-card suit. 
This is a mistake, unless the singleton is a high card ; for if the 
adversaries are sharp players they will at once suspect the nature 
of the lead, and carefully avoid the suit. But if you wait until 
some other player opens the suit, it will very probably be led twice 
in succession. The best original plain-suit lead is one in which 
you are moderately long, but have small cards enough to be safe, 
and from which you can lead intermediate cards which probably 
will not win the first trick. 

A very little experience at Hearts will convince any one that it 
is best, in plain suits, to play out the high cards first. This agrees 
with the theory of probabilities ; for while the odds are 22 to i 
against your getting a heart on the first round of a plain suit of 
which you have 4 cards, the odds are only 2 to i against it on the 
second round, and on the third they are 5i to i in favour of it. 
Accordingly, on the first round most players put up their highest 
card of the suit led, no matter what their position with regard to 
the leader ; but in so doing, they often run needless risks. The 
object in Sweepstake Hearts is to take none, and the most success- 
ful players will be found to be those who play consistently with 
the greatest odds in their favour for taking none. 

Suppose that you hold such a suit as A 10 9 7 4 2. This is a safe 
suit ; because it is very improbable that you can be compelled to 
take a trick in it. The best lead from such a suit is the 10 or 9. 
If the suit is led by any other player, the same card should be 
played, unless you are fourth hand, and have no objection to the 
lead. This avoids the risk, however slight, of getting a heart on 
the first round, which would be entailed by playing the ace. In 
Sweepstake Hearts it is a great mistake to play the high cards of a 
suit in which you are safe ; for no matter how small the risk, it is 
an unnecessary one. In the case we are considering, when you 
have six cards of the suit, the odds are 7 to i against your getting 
a heart if you play the ace first round. That is to say, you will 
probably lose one pool out of every eight if you play it. Take the 
greatest odds in your favour, when you have only four cards of a 
suit ; they are 22 to i against your getting a heart the first round, 
so that you would lose by it only once in 23 times. But this is a 
heavy percentage against you if you are playing with those who 
do not run such risks, for you give up every chance you might 
otherwise have in 5 pools out of every no. 

When you have a dangerous hand in hearts, but one absolutely 
safe long suit, it is often good play to begin with your safe suit, 
retaining any high cards you may have in other suits in order to 
get the lead as often as possible for the purpose of continuing 
your safe sijit, which will usually result in one or more of the 
other players getting loaded. 

When you have at least three of each plain suit it is obvious 



PLAIN-SUIT LEADS. (Hearts-) 361 

that you cannot hope for any discards, and that you must take into 
account the probability of having to win the third round of one or 
more suits, with the accompanying possibility of getting hearts at 
the same time. If you have the lead, this probability must be 
taken into account before any of the other players show their 
hands, and as it may be set down as about 5^ to i that you will 
get a heart, any better chance that the hand affords should be 
taken advantage of. 

It M-ill often occur that a player's attention must be so concen- 
trated on getting clear himself that he has no opportunity to 
scheme for " loading " the others. But if it unfortunately happens 
that he is compelled to take in one or more hearts, he should at 
once turn his attention to taking them all, or to loading the 
other players, with a view to making a Jack of the pool. Should 
he succeed in either object, he has another chance for his money. 

It is usually bad policy to return the suit opened by the original 
leader. He has picked that out as his safest suit, and although he 
may be the only one safe in it, by continuing it you are reducing 
your chances to two players, when you might share them with all 
three. 

FOLLOWING SUIT. When a player is not the original 
leader, his policy becomes defensive ; for, as the first player is 
plotting to give hearts to every one but himself, each of the others 
must be a prospective victim, and should do his best to avoid the 
traps prepared by the one who plans the opening of the hand. 

When you are second or third player, the first time a suit is led, 
it^ is usually best to play your highest card, unless you are safe in 
t^e suit, or have so many that there is danger of getting a heart, 
^en on the first round. As fourth player, you should always play 
ydur highest card, unless there is already a heart in the trick, or 
some decided disadvantage in the lead. The risks you run in 
playing high cards while following suit must be judged by the same 
probabilities that we examined in considering the original lead. 
The fact that one or more players have already followed suit, and 
perhaps the cards they have played, may enable you to arrive at a 
still closer estimate of your chances. It is generally conceded 
that the odds against a player who holds up on the first round are 
about I to II. That is to say, in 12 pools, he will sacrifice his 
chances of one simply by holding up. 

After one or two tricks have been played, the conditions may be 
such that it becomes necessary to hold up, in order to win the 
second round. This is especially the case after you have been 
loaded, and are anxious to keep a certain player out of the lead. 
For an example see Illustrative Hand No. 4, in which Y holds up 
the King to keep A from getting in and leading another round of 
hearts. In the same hand Z tries hard to make the pool a Jack 
by holding up the « Q. Had not A been entirely safe in dia- 
monds the stratagem would have succeeded. 



362 (Hearts.) FOLLOWING SUIT. 

In following suit it is important to keep count of the cards 
played, in order to avoid the unwitting lead of a suit of which the 
other players have none. The suits that need close w^atching are 
those in which you have nothing smaller than a six or eight. 
You should be careful to note which player appears to have the 
smaller cards, after the suit has been led once or twice, and be on 
the watch to take the lead away from him in other suits if you 
can, or he may load you by leading the small cards of j^our dan- 
gerous suit, in which he is safe. When this danger is apparent, it 
is best to retain, until the second round, such high cards as Kings 
and Queens of the suits led. Even if you have four of the suit, 
you run only a 2 to i risk in winning the second round instead of 
the first, as against a certainty that you will be out of the pool at 
once if the dangerous player gets the lead. For an example of 
this, see B's play in Illustrative Hand No. 2. 

Where you have a certain safe card, and others of another suit 
not absolutely safe, it is better to keep the safe card, in order to 
be sure of getting rid of the lead if you are put in on your dan- 
gerous suit. 

In following suit, the most annoying hand that one can hold is 
one containing at least three cards of each suit, none of them 
below a 6. There is no hope of a discard, unless two players 
make a fight in some one suit, which they lead four or five times 
in order to load each other, regardless of the escape of the other 
players. This very seldom occurs, and never among good players. 
With such a hand escape is almost impossible, and it is usually 
best to make the losses as small as possible. Many good players, 
with such a hand, will deliberately take in hearts on the plain suits, 
hoping to escape with only one or two in each trick, instead of 
having to carry the whole load by getting into the lead at the end. 
It should never be forgotten that when you must inevitably take 
some hearts it is cheaper to take them in on plain suits than to win 
heart tricks. 

CONTROL OF THE LEAD. One of the strongest points 
in good heart play is the proper control of the lead at certain times. 
A player whose hand contains no commanding cards, and who is 
unable to do anything but follow suit on the first two or three 
rounds, will often find himself compelled to win one of the later 
rounds with a small card, taking in one or two hearts with it ; and 
this misfortune usually overtakes him because a certain player gets 
into the lead at a critical period of the hand. If he sees the im- 
pending danger, and has K, Q or J of a suit led, he will not give up 
his high card, even if the ace is played to the trick ; but will retain 
it in order to prevent the possibility of the dangerous player getting 
into the lead on the second round of the suit. In doing this, he of 
course decreases the odds against his getting hearts, by deliberately 
winning the second round. But 2 to i in his favour is a much 
better chance than the certainty, almost, that he will be loaded if a 



CONTROL OF LEAD. (Hearts.) 363 

particular player is allowed the opportunity to lead a certain suit 
again. See B's play in Illustrative Hand No 2, and Y's in No 4. 

A player may have no desire to prevent any particular adversary 
from getting the lead ; but may be anxious simply to carry out a 
certain line of play. In order to do this it may be essential that he 
should have some direction of the course of the hand. This is 
impossible if his play is confined to following suit helplessly, what- 
ever is led. He must be able to assume the lead himself in order 
so to change the course of the play as to better suit his game. 

Let us suppose that he has a dangerous hand in plain suits, but 
is safe in hearts, and decides that his best chance is to lead hearts 
at every opportunity ; or that he has a certain safe suit which it is 
manifestly to his advantage to have led as often as possible. The 
other players, being the ones who are to suffer from this line of 
play, will of course prevent it if possible ; and in order to carry out 
the plan in spite of their opposition, it will be necessary for the in- 
dividual player to gain the lead a certain number of times, and so 
force his game upon them. 

Again, a player may know that he can load a certain adversary 
if he can get in and lead a certain suit or card ; or he may know 
that by giving one player the lead, that player can load another. 
In such cases commanding cards must be held or retained, in order 
to give the player a certain control of the lead. 

When a player is attempting to take all thirteen hearts, the con- 
trol of the lead, especially in the end game, is very important ; 
because the design of each of the other players will be to get the 
lead into some other hand, in the hope that they may load the 
player having it, and so at least divide the pool. 

THE DISCARD. One of the most important elements in 
heart play is the discard. The beginner is too apt to discard 
hearts at every opportunity ; but a little experience will teach him 
that even a 3 in a plain suit may be a better card to part with. 

The most important thing in discarding is to reduce the odds 
against your winning the pool. Let us suppose that you have the 
A K Q of a plain suit. It is 5i to I that you get a heart if this suit is 
led a third time. If you can get a discard, the odds are at once 
reduced to 2 to i in your favour, that being the probability that you 
will escape, even if you have to win two rounds. This is a very 
large percentage, and should never be lost sight of. If you have a 
choice between two discards, one being from the K O J 2 of hearts, 
and the other from the K Q J of a plain suit, select^the plain suit. 
You can improve your chances little or none in the hearts, while 
you not only bring the odds to your side in the plain suit, but 
secure a chance of discarding on tiie third round of it. 

Following the same principle, it is evidently good play to discard 
from a suit which has been led once or twice, if you have a 
dangerous card or cards in it. Even if you have a safe tenace in 
a suit, such as 4 and 2, the s and 3 being still out somewhere, it 



3G4 (Hearts.) THE DISCARD. 

is better to discard from it if there is the slightest danger of your 
getting the lead. Tenaces are only safe when led up to. 

In HowelPs settling, the object is not so much to load the 
others as to escape yourself. It is never advisable to attempt to 
take all thirteen hearts, because there are no Jacks ; but there are 
many cases in which it is better deliberately to take three or four, 
in order to avoid the chance of taking six or eight. For an ex- 
ample of these tactics adopted by two playes, see Illustrative 
Hand, No. 3. On the same principle, there are often cases in 
which it is advisable to take a trick with one heart in it, in order 
to get rid of a dangerous card, which might bring you in several 
hearts later on. The general principles of leading and discarding 
are the same as in Sweepstake Hearts ; but it is not necessary to 
take such desperate chances to escape entirely. 

THREE-HANDED HEARTS is more difficult to play 
than any other form of the game, partly because there are so many 
rounds of each suit, and partly because the moment one player re- 
fuses, the exact cards of that suit in the two other players' hands 
are known to each of them. 

There is usually a great deal of cross-fighting in the three- 
handed game, during which one player escapes by getting numer- 
ous discards. When all three have refused, each a different suit, 
the end game becomes a question of generalship, and the preser- 
vation of one or more commanding cards, with which to control and 
place the lead, is usually the key to the situation. A player who 
has no high cards for the end game, unless he is quite safe, is 
almost certain to be loaded in the last few tricks. 

TWO-HANDED HEARTS. Before opening the hand, 
the player should carefully consider what suits are safe and what 
are dangerous. It is usually best to preserve the safe suits and to 
lead the dangerous ones, which you should clear your hand of, if 
possible. It is a great advantage to have a missing suit, and 
equally disadvantageous to have a number of a suit of which your 
adversary is probably clear. If a card of a missing suit is drawn, 
it is usually best to lead it at once, so as to keep the suit clear ; 
but in so doing, be careful first to place the card among the 
others in the hand, or your adversary will detect that it is a miss- 
ing suit. 

The lead is a disadvantage if you have safe hearts ; but toward 
the end of the stock, from which cards are drawn, it is an advan- 
tage to have commanding cards, with which you can assume the 
lead if necessary. 

There is some finesse in determining whether or not to change 
the suit often in the leads. If you have a better memory than 
your adversary, it may be well to change often ; but if not, it may 
assist you to keep at one suit until afraid to lead it again. 

In Two-Handed Hearts, keeping count of the cards is the most 
important matter, because the real play comes after the stock is 



AUCTION Ei: ARTS. (Hearts.) 365 

exhausted, and the moment that occurs you should know every 
card in your adversary's hand. The exact number of each suit 
should be a certainty, if not the exact rank of the cards. Until 
you can depend on yourself for this, you are not a good player. 
The last thirteen tricks are usually a problem in double-dummy ; 
but the advantage will always be found to be with the player who 
has carefully prepared himself for the final struggle by preserving 
certain safe suits, and getting rid of those in which it became evi- 
dent that his adversary had the small and safe cards. 

Some very pretty positions arise in the end game, it being often 
possible to foresee that four or five tricks must be played in a cer- 
tain manner in order to ensure the lead being properly placed at 
the end, so that the odd hearts may be avoided. 

AUCTIOK HEAHTS. The cards having been cut and 
dealt, the player to the left of the dealer, whom we shall call A, ex- 
amines his hand, and determines which suit he would prefer to 
play to get clear of. Let us suppose his hand to consist of the 
^AK8;*J65432;OK4; and the ♦ 7 3. If the suit remains 
hearts, he is almost certain to take in a number ; but if it is changed 
to clubs, he is almost as certain of getting clear. The hand is not 
absolutely safe, as hearts might be led two or three times before the 
clubs in the other hands were exhausted by the original leader, 
whose game would be to lead small clubs. As the pool will con- 
tain thirteen counters to a certainty, he can afford to bid in propor- 
tion to his chances of winning it for the privilege of making clubs 
the suit to be avoided, instead of hearts. 

It might be assumed, if the odds were 10 to i that the player 
would get clear if the suit were clubs, that therefore he could afford 
to bid ten times the amount of the pool, or 130, for his chance. 
Theoretically this is correct, but if he should lose one such pool, 
he would have to win ten others to get back his bid alone, to say 
nothing of the amounts he would lose by paying his share in pools 
won by others. Let us suppose him to win his share, one-fourth 
of all the pools. While he is winning the ten pools necessary to 
repair his single loss, he has to stand his share of the losses in the 
thirty others, which would average about 128 counters. This 
must show us that even if a player has a 10 to i chance in his 
favour, he must calculate not only on losing that chance once in 
eleven times, but must make provision for the amounts he will lose 
in other pools. Experience shows that a bid of 25 would be about 
the amount a good player would make on such a hand as we are 
considering, if the pool were not a Jack, and he had first say. 

The next player, Y, now examines his hand. Let us suppose 
that he finds <^643;*AKio;o8753;4»65 4. If the first 
bidder is offering on clubs, it is evident that he will lead them, as 
the successful bidder has the original lead in Auction Hearts ; and 
it is equally evident that if he does so, a player with A K 10 will 
have to pay for most of the pool. If any of the other suits is the 



366 (Hearts.) ILLUSTRATIVE HANDS. 

one bid on, B has as good a chance for the pool as any one, at 
least to divide it. With two men still to bid, a good player would 
probably make himself safe by shutting out A's bid, probably offer- 
ing 26. 

Let us suppose B then to examine his hand, finding ^ J 10 ; 
♦ Q987; OA109; 4k 1098 2. Being unsafe in everything, he 
passes, and practically submits to his fate, his only hope being that 
the pool will result in a Jack. Z then examines his hand, finding 
'J? Q 9 7 5 2 ; * none ;0QJ62;*AKQJ. He sees at once 
that on spades he would lose everything, and on diamonds he 
would have a very poor chance. On clubs the result would de- 
pend on how often spades were led. In hearts, he has a very good 
hand, especially as he has a missing suit to discard in. As he is 
the last bidder he can make sure of the choice for 27, which he 
bids, and pays into the pool. The result of the play is given in Illus- 
trative Hand No. 4. (As the cards happen to lie, had A been the 
successful bidder and made it club.= Z would have won the pool.) 



ILLUSTRATIVE HANDS. 



No. 


1. Sweepstake 


Hearts. 


\4 

u 

2 
I 


No, 2. Sweepstake 


Hearts. 


A leads for first trick. 


A leads for first trick. 


A Y B Z 


A 


Y B Z 


10 ♦ 


Q* 


8 ♦ 


K» 


* A 


4k K 


♦ 10 


4kQ 


♦ J 


♦ A 


♦ 4. 


♦ K 


2 


♦ 5 


* 2 


♦ 9 


* J 


6 


L± 


J 


QO 


3 


100 


J 


9 


AO 


5 


i^ 


100 


9 


4 


QO 


8 


KO 


40 


4 


3 


2 


.i^ 


5 


2 4k 


J 4k 


A « 


9 4k 


« 9 


« 7 


* 3 


*Q 


6 


Q4» 


10 4k 


K 4k 


8 4k 


« 6 


A 5 


♦ 2 


♦ 10 


7 


^ A 


J^ 


3 


^Q 


3 « 


6 4k 


4 A 


J ♦ 


8 


<yio 


^ 4 


^ 3 


<;? 5 


2 « 


5 « 


'^ K 


9 « 


9 


« 4 


^ K 


♦ 6 


*7 •■ 


<? A 


(5Q 


'^\o 


<? 5 


10 


^ 9 


7 4k 


(;? J 


5 4k 


.■■■■i 


















^ 7 


^ J 


(^ 9 


7 4k 


II 


9? 7 


C" 2 


4k 8 


^ 8 


^ 6 


^ 8 


'O 4 


« 8 


12 


•2? 6 


6 4k 


6 


4 4 


A# 


^ 2 


^ 3 


7 


13 


♦ 3 


5 


2 


34k 



A4 Y6 B 2 Z I 
Making it a Jack. 



A4 Y 5 Bo Z4 
B wins the Pool. 



No. 1. 2nd Trick, Z sees that with such a hand escape is 
impossible. As his chief danger is in being loaded with hearts 
at the end. he clears his hand as rapidly as possible. 0th Trick,. 
The 4k A being held up, it looks as if A were safe in that suit with 



ILLUSTRATIVE HAKDS. (Hearts.) 367 

A 5 2. If Z now leads the ^ $, and A gets into the lead, return- 
ing the spade, Z must take every other trick. 10th Trick. If 
Z now leads A 7, he loads A ; but if his ^ 5 should win the next 
trick he will take all the rest of the hearts, Y and B dividing 
the pool. If he leads the ^ 5 first he cannot get more than 
four hearts, and the other players will inevitably make a Jack of 
it. 11th Trick. Y sees that if he underplays the 7 led, B will 
win the pool, as he has nothing but hearts, A having only one 
more. He keeps A out of the lead by winning two rounds, so as 
to be sure of loading B, making it a Jack. The ending is very 
well played. 

JVo. 2. A has an even chance to escape, and it is better for 
him to be third or fourth player in hearts than to lead them. 
3rd Trick. B sees from the fall of the clubs that Y has no 
more, and that A is safe in them and will lead them again ; so he 
holds up K to keep A out of the lead. 7th Trick, As A's 
hand can now be counted to contain either the 7 4 3 of clubs 
and four dangerous hearts, or the 4 3 of clubs and five hearts, 
B's game is clearly to lead diamonds, in order to load Y and Z. 
His only dangerous card, the ^ J, will go on the next round of 
spades, which must be led again in the next two or three tricks. 



No. 


3. Howell's Settling. 




iVo. 4. Auction Hearts. 


Z dealt, and A leads for 


y 

s 

H 

I 

2 
3 


A, the successful bidder. 


first trick. 




names Hearts. 


A Y 


B Z 


A Y B Z 


100 
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J 
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9 
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A A 


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ty 8 


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A3 Y2 
Z wins 9 ; Y 5 



B7 Z I 
A I ; B loses 15. 



Ao Y 7 
A wins the 



B I 
pool. 



Z5 



368 (Hearts.) ILLUSTRATIVE HANDS. 

No. 3. A begins with the intermediate cards of his safe suit. 
8th Trick. Y is afraid to lead away from his club tenace, be- 
cause it might be at once led back to him. 9th Trick, Z seizes 
this opportunity to get rid of the very dangerous 5- If A does 
not play the ^ A now, it is quite possible that he will take every 
trick, except one in diamonds. 10th Trick. If A leads the 2, 
and hearts are led again, he must take all the remaining hearts. 
By taking three at once he can escape the rest. B sees that if he 
passes this trick A will at once lead the 2, and he will take all 
the remaining hearts ; so he takes these three and throws the lead 
to Y, who has no chance to injure him. 11th Trick. Z keeps 
two clubs, hoping that if Y gets in and leads clubs, B may discard 
a diamond instead of a heart, in which case Z would get clear. 

No, 4. A, with his dangerous suit of spades, dears up the 
hearts at once. 6th Trick. The second round of spades 
betrays A's dangerous suit to the other players. 7th Trick, A 
must risk the King and 3 being divided, for if they are in one 
hand nothing will save him. Z keeps 9 and * Q in order to be 
sure of getting a lead, as he is the only player who can load A by 
putting him in on spades at the end making him take in his own 
hearts. 8th Trick. B cannot risk playing the high clubs while 
there is any chance for him to win the pool. He can count A to 
be safe in diamonds, with two hearts and two spades. 10th 
Trick. A clears his hand of the very dangerous spade before 
leading his tenace in diamonds. 12th Trick, A will not give 
up the heart until he is sure that B has not the 4> ?• 



Text Books. There are at present only two text-books on the 

game ; Foster on Hearts, and Hearts and Heartsette. 



SLOBBERHANNES. 

Cards. Slobberhannes is played with a Euchre pack, thirty- 
two cards, all below the Seven being deleted. The cards rank : 
A K Q J 10 9 8 7, the ace being the highest both in cutting and in 
play. There is no trump suit. 

Counters. Each player is provided with ten counters, and 
points are marked by placing these counters in the pool. The 
player who first loses his ten counters also loses the game. If 
stakes are played for, counters of a different colour must be pro- 
vided, and the player losins the game must pay as many counters 



SLOBBEBHANNES. (Polignac.) 369 

to each of the others as they have points still in front of them. 
One player is usually the banker, and sells and redeems all money 
counters. The others are re-distributed at the end of each game. 

Players. Any number from four to seven may play ; but the 
two black Sevens must be deleted if there are more than four 
players. When seven play, the dealer takes no cards. All the 
preliminaries of seats, cards and deal are settled as at Hearts. 

Dealing. The entire pack is distributed, the dealer giving 
each player in rotation two or three cards in each round. No 
trump is turned. All irregularities in the deal are governed by the 
same laws as at Hearts ; but a misdeal does not lose the deal 
under any circumstances. The same dealer must deal again. 

Objects of the Game, The object in Slobberhannes is to 
avoid taking either the first or the last trick, or any trick containing 
the Queen of clubs. The player who wins any of these loses one 
point, and if he wins all three of them, he loses an extra point, or 
four altogether. The penalty for a revoke is also the loss of a 
point. 

Method of Playing. The eldest hand begins by leading 
any card he pleases, and the others must follow suit if they can. 
The highest card played, if of the suit led, wins the trick, and the 
winner takes it in and leads for the next trick. The player winning 
the first trick must pay for it immediately, to avoid disputes. 
The tricks which are neither the first nor the last have no value, 
unless they contain the club Queen, which must be paid for as 
soon as it is taken in. 

There is a good deal of play in manoeuvring to get rid of cards 
which might win the last trick, or which would take in the club 
Queen. The Ace and King of clubs are of course dangerous 
cards, and unless the player holding them has small cards enough 
to make him safe in that suit, he should be on the alert for oppor- 
tunities to discard. 



POLIGNAC 

QUATRE-VALETSt OR FOUR JACKS. 

Cards and Players, When Polignac is played by four 
persons, a Piquet pack is used, and eight cards are dealt to each 
player, 3-2-3 at a time. When five play, the two black Sevens are 
deleted, and six cards are given to each player. When six play, 
each receives five cards. When seven play, the dealer takes no 



370 (Polignac.) ENFL^. 

cards. In France, the cards usually rank as in ^cart6 ; K Q J A 
10987; but in England and America it is more usual to preserve 
the order in Piquet, A K O J to 9 8 7. There is no trump suit. 
All the preliminaries are settled as at Hearts or Slobberhannes, 

Counters. Each player is provided with ten or twenty coun- 
ters, as may be agreed upon, and the player first losing his counters 
loses the game, and pays to each of the others any stake that may 
have been previously agreed upon, usually a counter for each point 
they have still to go when he is decave. 

Objects of the Game. The object of the game is to avoid 
winning any trick containing a Jack, and especially the Jack of 
spades, which is called Polignac, The moment any player wins 
a trick containing a Jack, he pays one counter into the pool. If he 
takes in Polignac, he pays two counters. The eldest hand begins 
by leading any card he pleases, and the others must follow suit if 
they can. The highest card played, if of the suit led, wins the 
trick, and the winner leads for the next trick. If a player has none 
of the suit led he may discard anything he pleases. 

The game is sometimes varied by adding a general, or capot. 
Any player who thinks he can win all the tricks announces capot 
before the first card is led. If he is successful he loses nothing ; 
but each of the others must pay five counters into the pool, one 
for each Jack, and one extra for Polignac. If the capot player 
fails to win every trick, each player pays for whatever jacks he has 
taken in. 



ENFLE, 

OR SCHWELLEN. 

When Enfle is played by four persons, the Piquet pack of thirty- 
two cards is used. If there are more than four players, sufficient 
cards are added to give eight to each person. The rank of the 
cards and all other preliminaries are the same as at Hearts. There 
is no trump suit. 

The cards are dealt 3-2-3 at a time. The eldest hand leads 
any card he pleases, and the others must follow suit if they can. 
If all follow suit, the highest card played wins the trick, which is 
turned face down, and the cards in it are dead. The winner leads 
for the next trick, and so on. But if any player is unable to follow 
suit, he is not allowed to discard, but must immediately gather up 
the cards already played, and take them into his own hand with 
the cards originally dealt to him. The players following the one 
who renounces to the suit led do not play to the trick at all ; but 
wait for him to lead for the next trick. Should any player fail to 



LAWS OF HEARTS, (Hearts.) 371 

follow suit on the next trick, or on any subsequent trick, he gathers 
the cards already played, takes them into his hand and leads for 
the next trick. The play is continued in this manner until some 
player gets rid of all his cards, and so wins the game. 

Enfle is usually played for a pool, to which each player contrib- 
utes an equal amount before play begins. The game requires 
considerable skill and memory to play it well, it being very impor- 
tant to remember the cards taken in hand by certain players, and 
those which are in the tricks turned down. 



THE LAWS OF HEARTS. 

1. Formation of table. Those first in the room have the pre- 
ference. If more than the necessary number assemble, the choice 
shall be determined by cutting, those cutting the lowest cards hav- 
ing the right to play. Six persons is the largest number that can 
play at one table. The player cutting the lowest card has the 
deal. 

2. In cutting, the Ace is low. Players cutting cards of equal 
value, cut again. All must cut from the same pack, and any per- 
son exposing more than one card must cut again. Drawing cards 
from an outspread pack is equivalent to cutting. 

3. A complete Heart pack consists of fifty-two cards, which 
rank in the following order : — A KQJ 10 9876543 2, the Ace 
being highest in play. In Three-Handed Hearts, the spade deuce 
is thrown out. In Five-Handed, both the black deuces are laid 
aside. In Six-Handed, all four deuces are discarded. In Joker 
Hearts the heart deuce is replaced by the Joker. 

4. When two packs are used, the player next but one on the 
dealer's left must collect and shuffle the cards for the next deal, 
placing them on his right. The dealer has the privilege of shuf- 
fling last. 

5. The dealer must present the pack to his right-hand adver- 
sary to be cut. Not less than four cards shall constitute a cut. 

6. In case of any confusion or exposure of the cards in cutting, 
or in reuniting them after cutting, the pack must be shuffled and 
cut again. 

7. If the dealer re-shuffles the cards after they have been prop- 
erly cut, or looks at the bottom card, he loses his deal. 

8. After the cards have been cut, the dealer must distribute 
them one at a time to each player in rotation, beginning at his left, 
and continuing until the pack is exhausted ; or in Two-Handed 
Hearts, until each player has thirteen. 

9. The deal passes to the left. 

10. There must be a new deal by the same dealer if the pack 



372 (Hearts.) LAWS OF HEARTS. 

is proved to be incorrect, either during the deal or during the play 
of a hand ; or if any card is faced in the pack, or is found to be so 
marked or mutilated that it can be named. In the last case a new 
pack must be used. 

11. If a card is exposed during the deal, the player to whom it is 
dealt may demand a new deal, provided he has not touched any 
of his cards. If the deal stands, the exposed card cannot be 
called. 

12. Any one dealing out of turn may be stopped before the last 
card is dealt. After that the deal must stand, and the packs, if 
changed, must so remain. 

13. It is a misdeal : If the dealer omits to have the pack cut, and 
the error is discovered before the last card is dealt ; or if he deals 
a card incorrectly, and fails to remedy it before dealing another ; 
or if he counts the cards on the table, or those remaining in the 
pack ; or if it is discovered before all have played to the first trick 
that any player has not his proper number of cards, the pack being 
perfect. 

14. A misdeal loses the deal unless one of the other players has 
touched his cards, or in any way interrupted the dealer. 

15. If, after the first trick is played to, any two players are 
found to have more or less than their correct number of cards, the 
pack being perfect, the one having less shall draw from the hand 
of the one having more, and each shall pay a forfeit of five counters 
into the pool. 

16. If a player omits to play to any trick, and plays to the fol- 
lowing one, he shall not be allowed to correct the error ; but shall 
be compelled to take in the last trick, with whatever hearts it may 
contain. 

17. Should a player be found during or at the end of a hand to 
be a card short, all the others having the right number, and all 
having played to the first trick, he shall be compelled to take in 
the last trick. 

18. If a player leads or plays two cards to a trick, he must indi- 
cate the one intended, and leave the other face up on the table. 
Any card exposed, except in the proper course of play, or any card 
named by the player holding it, must be left face up on the table. 

19. A player must lead or play any exposed card when called 
upon to do so by any other player, provided he can do so without 
revoking. He cannot be prevented from playing an exposed card, 
and if he can so get rid of it, no penalty remains. 

20. If a player leads out of turn, a suit may be called from him 
when it is next his proper turn to lead. This penalty can be en- 
forced only by the player on his right. If he has none of the suit 
called, or if all have played to the false lead, no penalty can be 
enforced. If all have not played to the false lead, the cards can 
be taken back, and are not exposed cards. 



LAWS OF HEARTS. (Hearts.) 373 

21. If the third hand plays before the second, the fourth hand 
may demand that the card be taken back, and may call upon the 
third hand to play the highest card he has of the suit ; or may call 
upon him not to discard hearts. If the fourth plays before the 
third, the second player may demand the penalty. 

22. The first player to any trick having led, the others must fol- 
low suit if they can. Should a player revoke, and discover the 
error before the trick in which it occurs has been turned and 
quitted, he may amend his play, and the card played in error be- 
comes an exposed card. Any who have played after him may 
withdraw their cards and substitute others, the cards first played 
not being exposed. 

23. If the revoke is discovered during the play of the hand, the 
hand must be played out, and at the end the revoking player must 
pay all losses in that hand. Should the revoking player win the 
pool himself, he must pay to the pool thirteen counters and leave 
them for a Jack. Should he divide it, he must pay the other win- 
ner six counters, and leave up seven for a Jack. 

24. Should two or more players revoke in the same hand, each 
must pay the entire losses in the hand, as if he were alone in 
error ; so that if two should revoke, and a' third win the pool, he 
would receive twenty-six counters, instead of thirteen. In Auction 
Hearts the revoking player must pay the amount of the bid in 
addition. 

25. The claimant of a revoke may search all the tricks at the 
end of a hand. The revoke is established if the accused player 
mixes the cards before the claimants have time to examine them. 

26. A revoke must be claimed before the tricks have been 
mixed, preparatory to shuffling for the next deal. 

27. If a player is lawfully called upon to lead a certain suit, or to 
play the highest of it, and unnecessarily fails to comply, he is liable 
to the penalties for a revoke. 

28. Any trick once turned and quitted must not again be seen 
until the hand is played. Any player violating this rule is subject 
to the same penalties as for a lead out of turn. 

29. In settling at the end of the hand, the play- having taken 
no hearts, [each of the others having taken at 1 Hst one,] wins 
the pool. Two players having taken none, the oth r two having 
each at least one, divide it, the odd counter remai ing until the 
next pool. Three players having taken none, the thirteen counters 
remain in the pool, formi-g a Jack, which can be won only by one 
player taking no hearts, each of the others having taken at least 
one. During the time the Jack is played for, and until it is won, 
each player must add to the pool by paying for the hearts he 
takes in each hand. 

30. In Auction Hearts, the player to the left of the dealer has 
the first bid, the dealer the last, and there is no second bid. 



374 (Bedque.) 



THE BEZIQUE FAMILY. 



This family includes three of our most popular games ; Bezique 
itself, Binocle, and Sixty-Six. These are all comparatively modern 
games, but are descended from very old stock, the best known of 
the ancestoi"s being Marriage, Matrimony, and Cinq-Cents. The 
etymology of the word Bezique is very much disputed. Some 
claim that it is from the Spanish basa, afterwards basico, a little 
kiss ; referring to the union of the spade Queen and the diamond 
Jack, and the various marriages in the game. This was afterwards 
Basique, transformed by the French to Besique, and by the Eng- 
lish to Bezique. One English writer thinks the word is from 
besaigne, the double-headed axe. 

Judging from the rank of the cards, which is peculiar to German 
games, Bezique may have originated in an attempt to play Binocle 
with a piquet pack, for Binocle seems to have been originally 
played with a full pack of fifty-two cards. One German writer 
says the game is of Swiss origin, and that they probably got it from 
Spain. In one writer's opinion, the name Binocle, is derived from 
bis, until, and knochle, the knuckle, which 'would imply that the 
original meaning was, until some one knuckled ; /. <?., stopped the 
game by knocking on the table with his knuckles. This interpreta- 
tion seems far-fetched, but if correct, it would sustain the opinion 
that Binocle was derived from the old game of Cinq-Cents, in which 
the player knocked with his knuckles to announce that he had made 
enough points to win the game. In the opinion of the author, the 
word " binocle " is a German mispronunciation of the French 
word " binage," which was the term used in Cinq Cents for the 
combination of spade Queen and diamond Jack, as will be seen if 
the description of Cinq Cents is referred to. Stopping the play is 
a prominent feature in Sixty-Six, another variation of Bezique, and 
the connecting link between Binocle and Skat. In Sixty-Six, the 
combination known as Bdzique, or binocle, is omitted ; so is the 
sequence in trumps. Sixty-four-card Binocle is simply Bezique, 
with a slight difference in the counting value of the various com- 
binations. Sometimes twelve cards are given to each player. 

Great confusion seems to have existed when the game of Bdzique 
was introduced to England, in the winter of 1868-9, owing to the 
fact that so many persons rushed into print with their own private 
opinions of the rules, which were first given by Dr. Pole, in i86r, 



THE B^ZIQUE FAMILY. (Beziqoe.) 376 

No or.e knew whether " the last trick " was the absolute last, or 
the last before the stock was exhausted. Whether the highest or 
lowest cut dealt was also a matter of dispute. " Cavendish " got 
both these wrong in the first edition of his " Pocket Guide," but 
corrected himself without explanation or apology in the second 
edition. It was then the custom of many players to attach no 
value to the trump suit until the stock was exhausted ; so that 
until the last eight tricks there was no such thing as trumping a 
trick in order to win it. Disputes also arose as to counting double 
combinations, many contending that a double marriage should be 
as valuable as a double bezique. Time and experience have 
finally settled all these points, and the rules of the game are now 
practically uniform in all countries. 



BfeziQUE, 

OR SIXTY-FOUR-CARD BINOCLE, 

There are two forms of Bezique in common use ; the ordinary 
game, which will be first described, and the variation known as 
Rubicon Bezique, which is to Bezique proper what Railroad 
Euchre is to Euchre. 

CARDS. Bezique is played with two packs of thirty-two 
cards each, all below the Seven being deleted, and the two packs 
being then shuffled together and used as one. It is better to have 
both packs of the same colour and pattern, but it is not absolutely 
necessary. The cards rank, A10KQJ987; the Ace being the 
highest, both in cutting and in play. 

COUNTEItS. Special markers are made for scoring at 
Bezique ; but the score, may easily be kept by means of counters. 




Pull-Up Bezique Marker. 

Each player should be provided with four white, four blue, and 
one red, together with some special marker, such as a copper cent 
or a button. The button stands for 500 points, each blue counter 
for 100, the red for 50, and the white ones for 10 each. At the 
beginning of the game the counters are placed on the left of the 
player, and are passed from left to right as the points accrue, ex- 
changing smaller denominations for higher when necessary. 



376 (Bczique,) DEALING. 

Many persons find it more convenient to peg the game on a 
pull-up cribbage board, starting at 21, counting each peg as 10 
points, and going twice round to the game hole. 

STAKES. Bezique is played for so much a game, 1,000 
points up ; or for so much a point, the score of the loser being 
deducted from that of the winner. When a partie of five games 
is agreed upon, it is usual to have an extra stake upon the odd 
game, and when three games have been won by the same player, 
the partie is at an end. It is usual to count it a double game if 
the loser has not reached 500 points. 

PLAYEMS. Bezique is played by two persons, one of 
whom is known as the dealer, and the other as the pone. 
They cut for choice of seats and deal, the player cutting the 
highest card having the first choice, and electing whether or not 
to deal himself. In cutting, the cards rank as in play, and the ace 
is the highest. If a player exposes more than one card, he must 
cut again. 

DEALING, The caros are thoroughly shuffled, and pre- 
sented to the pone to be cut. At least five cards must be left in 
each packet. The cards are then dealt three at a time for the first 
round, two for the next, and three for the last, each player receiv- 
ing eight cards. The seventeenth is then turned up for the trump. 
If this card is a Seven, the dealer scores 10 points for it at once. 
The trump card is laid on the table by itself, the remainder of the 
pack, which is called the stocic or talon, is slightly spread, to 
facilitate the process of drawing cards from it, and to be sure that 
none of the cards remaining in the undealt portion are exposed. 
In sixty-four-card Binocle twelve cards are sometimes dealt to 
each player. 

Misdealing. A misdeal does not lose the deal, but in some 
cases a new deal is at the option of the adversary. If the dealer 
exposes a card belonging to the adversary or to the stock, the pone 
may demand a new deal ; but if either player exposes any of his 
own cards, the deal stands good. If too many cards are given to 
either player, there must be a new deal. If too few, the pone may 
claim a fresh deal, or allow the dealer to supply the missing cards 
from the top of the stock, without changing the trump card. If 
any card but the trump is found faced in the pack, there must be a 
new deal. If a card faced in the stock is not discovered until the 
first trick has been played to, the exposed card must be turned 
face down, without disturbing its position. If a pack is found to 
be imperfect, the deal in which the error is discovered is void, but 
all previous cuts or scores made with that pack stand good. 

METHOD OF PLATING. The pone begins by leading 
any card he chooses, to which his adversary may play any card he 
pleases. A player is not obliged to follow suit, nor to trump ; but 



METHOD OF PLAYING. (Be'ziqoe.) 377 

may renounce or trump at pleasure until the stock is exhausted, 
after which the method of play undergoes a change. If a player 
follows suit, the higher card wins the trick, and if identical cards 
are played to the same trick, such as two Jacks of clubs, the leader 
wins. Trumps win plain suits. The winner of the trick takes in 
the cards, turning them face down ; but before he leads for the 
next trick he has the privilege of announcing and scoring any one 
of certain combinations that he may hold in his hand. After, or 
in the absence of any such announcement, and before leading for 
the next trick, he draws a card from the top of the stock and places 
it in his hand, without showing or naming it. His adversary draws 
the next card, so that each player restores the number of cards in 
his hand to eight. This method of drawing from the stock is 
open to many objections, and in France the pone always draws 
first, no matter who wins the trick. 

All combinations announced and scored must be laid face up- 
ward on the table ; but the cards still form part of the player's 
hand, and may be led or played at any time, although they must 
not again be taken in hand until the stock is exhausted. 

OBJECTS OF THE GAME. The reasons for winning 
or not winning certain tricks will be better understood in connec- 
tion with the description of the various combinations that count 
toward game, and the manner of scoring them. 

Srisques. The aces and Tens of each suit are called brisques, 
and count ten points each towards game. Except for the purpose 
of getting or keeping the lead, there is no object in winning any 
trick which does not contain a brisque. Every brisque taken in 
should be scored at once by the player winning the trick; lo points 
for an ace or Ten ; 20 points if there are two such cards in the 
same trick. 

A player holding or drawing the Seven of trumps has the privi- 
lege of exchanging it for the turn-up trump, and scoring 10 points 
at the same time ; but he must make the exchange immediately 
after winning a trick, and before drawing his card from the stock. 
Should the turn-up card be a Seven, or one exchange have already 
been made, the exchange can still be made and scored. He can- 
not score the Seven and make a declaration at the same time. 

DECLAItATIONS, The combinations which may be an- 
nounced and scored during the play of the hand are divided into 
three classes : Marriages and Sequences ; Beziques ; and Fours of 
a kind. Only one combination can be scored at a time, and it 
must be announced immediately after the player holding it has 
won a trick, and before he draws his card from the talon. If he 
draws without announcing, it is equivalent to saying he has no 
declaration to make. Having drawn his card, even if he has not 
looked at it, he cannot score any declaration until he wins another 
trick. 



378 (Bezique.) DECLARATIONS. 

The combinations and their values are as follows : — 

CLASS A 

King and Queen of any plain suit, Marriage . 20 

King and Queen of trumps. Royal Marriage . 40 
Sequence of five highest trumps. Sequence . 250 

CLASS B. 

Spade Queen and diamond Jack, JB^zique . 40 

Two spade Queens and diamond Jacks, Double 

Sdzique ..... 500 

CLASS C. 

Any four Aces . . , . .100 

Any four Kings. .... 80 

Any four Queens . . . . .60 

Any four Jacks . . . . 40 

The four court cards in class C may be all of different suits, or 
any two of them may be of the same suit. 

A great many misunderstandings arise with respect to the man- 
ner and order of making declarations, most of which may be 
avoided by remembering the following rules : 

The player making the declaration must have won the previous 
trick, and must make his announcement before drawing his card 
from the stock. When the stock is exhausted, so that there is no 
card to be drawn, no announcement can be made. 

Only one declaration can be scored at a time, so that a trick 
must be won for every announcement made, or the combination 
cannot be scored. This does not prevent a player from making 
two or more announcements at the same time, but he can score 
only one of them. 

A player cannot make a lower declaration with cards which form 
part of a higher one already made in the same class. For in- 
stance : Marriages and sequences belong to the same class. If 
the sequence has been declared, a player cannot take from it the 
King and Queen and score a marriage ; neither can he add a new 
Queen to the King already in the sequence, and announce a mar- 
riage ; because the higher combination was scored first. But if 
the marriage is first announced, the A 10 J may be added and the 
sequence scored, after winning another trick. 

Cards once used in combination cannot again be used in com- 
binations of equal value of the same class. For instance : Four 
Kings have been declared, and one of them afterward used in the 
course of play. The player cannot add a new King to the three 
remaining, and announce four Kings again. A marriage in spades 
has been declared, and the King got rid of in play. A new King 



DECLARATIONS. 



(Bezique.) 379 



of spades will not make another marriage with the old Queen. A 
b6zique has been scored, and the Jack got rid of in play ; a new 
Jack of diamonds will not make another bezique with the old 
Queen. 

Some judgment is necessary in making announcements, the 
question of time being often important. Suppose hearts are 
trumps, and the winner of the trick holds double bezique, sixty 
Queens, and a royal marriage : — • 




He cannot lay all these cards down at once, and claim 600 
points. Neither can he lay down four Queens and two Jacks, 
and score 560 ; nor four Queens and a King and score 100. He 
may announce them if he chooses to expose his hand in that man- 
ner, but he can score only one combination, and must win a sepa- 
rate trick to score each of the others. It would be better for him 
to select some one of the combinations, and declare it, waiting un- 
til he won another trick to declare the next one. A beginner 
would be apt to declare the highest count first, 500 for the double 
bezique ; but under the rule which prevents a player from making 
a declaration which forms part of a higher one of the same class 
already made, he would lose the 40 points for the single bezique. 
It would be better to declare the single bezique first, scoring 40 
points for it, and after winning another trick to show the other 
bezique, scoring 500 points more for the double combination. A 
player is not allowed to score 40 for the second bezique, and then 
500 for the two combined ; because if new announcements are 
made in the same class, at least one new card must be added 
from the player's hand when the announcement is made, even if it 
is not scored until later. 

Double Declarations. It frequently happens that a player 
is forced to make two declarations at the same time, although he 
can score only one of them. For instance : A player has an- 
nounced and shown four Kings, one of them being the King of 
spades. On winning another trick he shows and scores bezique. 
One of the bezique cards forms a marriage with the spade King, 
and as the combinations belong to different classes, both may be 
scored, although the same card is used in each ; but the player 
cannot score the second combination until he wins another trick. 
Under such circumstances it is usual to declare both combinations, 
scoring the more valuable, and repeating the one left over until 
an opportunity arises to score it. In this case the player would 



380 (Be^ique.) DECLARATIONS. 

say : " Forty for bdzique, and twenty to score." If he lost the 
next trick he would continue to repeat at every trick : " Twenty to 
score," until he won a trick. 

A player having a score in abeyance in this manner is not 
obliged to score it if he has anything else to announce. A player 
with twenty to score might pick up the sequence in trumps before 
he won another trick, and he would be very foolish to lose the chance 
to score 250 for the sake of the 20 already announced. If he had 
time, he would probably dec